Mineral Profiling of Various Pine Nut Species Cultivated in Egypt

Article Type:
Research/Original Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)
Pines are a family of coniferous seed plants with over 100 species, variations, and hybrids. The seeds found in pine cones are known as pine nuts, and a typical cone can carry between 50 and 100 seeds, depending on the year and the species of the pine tree. Each seed has a hard outer shell that encases the kernel. Pine seeds that are large enough to harvest are produced by about 20 species of pine trees. The pine nut is one of the most valuable nuts in the world, and the stone pine is among the oldest fruit trees, as evidenced by archaeological finds dating back to pre-Christian times. Pine nuts, as part of the Mediterranean diet, help lower the risk of several types of cancers, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Pine nuts are in high demand due to their high culinary and nutritional value. In this study, Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was used to analyze the minerals of Pinus species growing in various parts of Egypt, including Torrey pine, Italian stone pine, Johann's pine, Coulter pine, Mexican pinyon, Swiss stone pine, and Armand pine. These pines were found to have different minerals, except for Coulter pine, which had no Al or Na. Pine nuts cultivated in Egypt are a rich source of Zn, P, Mn, Mg, and Cu, matching or exceeding the recommended daily intake (RDI) for such minerals while providing between 38% and 84% of the RDI for Fe. In comparison to other types of tree nuts that are usually eaten, pine nuts that are cultivated in Egypt provide a superb supply of nutrients.
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