The Theory of Speech Acts in the Verses of the Holy Quran (Marriage as a Model)

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Article Type:
Research/Original Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)
Abstract:

Pragmatics developed with Oxford University philosophers of language and, in particular, with the efforts of John Austen and Searle. It focused on the practical use of language and opened new horizons for contemporary linguistics, especially as it worked to restore the external considerations and circumstances of language through the theory of speech acts with its various classifications. This theory occupied a large proportion of recent studies. Contemporary scholars and researchers paid attention to it and tried to apply it to various texts, especially the Holy Qur’an.Although pragmatics is a modern linguistic approach, it has roots in the Arab heritage, especially in the issue of news and creation, which is equivalent to Austin's theory of speech acts. Scholars detailed the discussion about it in their books, with attention to some pragmatic terms such as the principle of intent, context, the speaker, and the addressee. Al-Jurjani’s theory of systems is about linking words to the meanings and intent of the speakers, taking into account the state of the addressees or matching the speech to the case in rhetoric. This indicates that the ancients, especially the fundamentalists, knew the pragmatic lessons in their own terms, such as the explicit and implicit meanings, the utterance and the concept, and the positivist or metaphorical indication, which is equivalent to direct and indirect verbal acts. In addition, their attention was not focused on structural structures and internal relations only, rather they derived judgments and legitimacy by taking care of all aspects of language, as in pragmatics.The speech act theory is a subfield of pragmatics that studies how words are used not only to present information but also to carry out actions. The speech act theory was introduced by Oxford philosopher J. L. Austin in How to Do Things with Words and further developed by American philosopher J. R. Searle. It considers the degree to which utterances are said to perform locutionary acts, illocutionary acts, and/or perlocutionary acts.This descriptive-analytical study addresses the pragmatic dimensions in the verses related to marriage in the Holy Quran. The importance of the topic is that understanding the Quranic discourse requires a methodology that studies the language in terms of the speaker, the addressee, and the position. The research studied the phenomenon of verbal verbs found in the verses related to the provisions of marriage, such as polygamy, giving the dowry, not declaring the engagement of the woman in the waiting period, not marrying the husbands of the fathers, and not marrying the idolaters, both men and women. The research relied on a pragmatic analysis of pragmatic tools, grammar, morphology, rhetoric, jurisprudence, and reasons for revelation. The results of the present study showed that:1) Verbal verbs came in the verses related to the provisions of marriage in the form of direct and indirect verbal verbs, but the first came in many verses studied in the research. The reason for it is that marriage is a divine rule and legislation of utmost importance in Islam, so direct verbal verbs should be used more in Quranic discourse.2) Among the direct verbal verbs that are more employed, are the directive verbs represented in two verbs: ordering and forbidding. They have a stronger force and influence on the souls of the addressees of the explicit indication, especially since they are issued by God Almighty. Marriage and what is related to it is considered of great importance, and therefore it is not surprising that the verbal act has a strong performing power to prompt the receiver to comply with the command of the speaker.3) The verses related to rulings can be included under the classification of rulings according to Austin, which are represented in the various rulings issued by the judge or ruler, as is the case in the noble verses given by the Lord of the Worlds. As for Searle, they fall under-declarations or declarations, and these verses may fall under directive verbs. They carry within themselves an order, a prohibition, a call, and so on, which are verbal acts chosen by God Almighty with the aim of bringing about a change in the status quo. They are also used to influence the same addressee so that he accomplishes a necessary action in the future. In this case, the power of achievement or the degree of intensity is different according to the importance of the verbal act.4) The effective act shows its impact on the submission of the true believers to the commands of God Almighty, and their compliance with it concerning establishing justice between spouses, giving women their dowries, and not declaring the engagement of the woman in the waiting period, and so on. It is clear that this act should be achieved in Islam, especially among the sincere believers who adhere to what God has commanded, trying to apply mandated and legal matters to their daily lives.

Language:
Arabic
Published:
Research in Arabic Language and Literature, Volume:15 Issue: 2, 2023
Pages:
1 to 20
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