Diabetic Ketoacidosis After COVID-19 Vaccine in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

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Article Type:
Research/Original Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)
Abstract:
Background

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine is one of the few vaccines that obtained emergency authorization to combat the fatal pandemic. Despite the fact that some available literature addressed its short-term side effects, there are still limitations on its effects on type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).

Objectives

Theaimof the present studywasto assess the association between COVID-19 vaccinationanddiabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) among individuals with T1DM. Additionally, the study aimed to determine the effects of the vaccine on glucose control, variability, and risk of hypoglycemia.

Methods

This retrospective study was conducted at King Fahad Specialist Hospital (KFSH) in Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia. Diabetic ketoacidosis cases admitted to the hospital within February 2020 and August 2022 were included in the study based on specific inclusion criteria. Finally, a total of 49 patients were included in statistical analyses.

Results

Out of the 62 patients admitted to the hospital, 49 met the diagnostic criteria forDKAand agreed to participate in the study. The majority of the remaining patients (n = 13) refused to participate, and only a few of them lacked complete documentation. Of the 49 patientswhowere included in the study, 46 cases had a history of T1DM; nevertheless, 3 patients were newly diagnosed with T1DM. Additionally,amongthese participants, 16 (32.7%), 19 (38.8%), and 14 (28.6%) patients had mild, moderate, and severe DKA, respectively. There were 27male(55.1%)and22 female (44.9%) patients. About 91% of the patients were vaccinated against COVID-19, 30.6% of whom were vaccinated within 29 days of being diagnosed with DKA. The pH and bicarbonate levels were observed to be significantly high amongthosewhowere diagnosed withDKAwithin 29 days of vaccination, with p-values of 0.031and0.037, respectively. Similarly,pH and random blood sugar (RBS) were observed to be significantly higher among the vaccinated patients than in the non-vaccinated subjects (P = 0.044 and P = 0.032, respectively).

Conclusions

The study findings revealed that some of the DKA indicators were evident among the vaccinated patients. However, larger-scale and multi-center studies are recommended in order to have more conclusive evidence and generalize the findings.

Language:
English
Published:
International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Volume:21 Issue: 4, Oct 2023
Page:
3
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