A Comparative Study of Collage Style in the Poems of Fatima Naoot and Yadollah Royaei (Case Study: Noghra Isba’ and Fowgh Kaf Imra/Sea Poems and Overflows)

Article Type:
Case Study (دارای رتبه معتبر)

The cubism or collage has been primarily used in visual arts, and then drastically influenced on literature, especially novels and poems. In collage poetry, incoherent, ambiguous, and apparently unrelated phrases are put aside to make, creating multiple centers instead of creating only one center. The centers can be unrelated. This kind of poetry moves in all directions. This literary school was welcome by some poets, especially by Arab and Iranian modernist poets such as Yadollah Royaei and Fatima Naoot. The poets utilized collage technique. Royaei specifically focuses on the form of poems, so he ignores the content to some extent, leading to some ambiguity. His stanzas are like a collage painting, all pieces taken from somewhere and got together. In her poems, Fatima Naoot also ignores the criteria used by other and applies other artistic techniques such as cinema and collage in her poems to better communicate meanings to the audience. Doing the comparison between the poems of these two figures regarding “collage” will help us discover the beauty and deep meanings hidden in their poems and understand the ambiguities of used concepts.


Many literates and critics have paid enough attention to the theme and features of Naoot and Royaei’s poems and some researchers have investigated different aspects of poems, but no comparative or independent research has examined their poems from collage perspective. So, this study tries to understand of the status, quality and quantity of the use of this technique in the poems of the two poets by examining and applying the art of collage and analyzing some examples from the works of the poets. It tried to show the frequency of components of collage. This way, it sees the quality and quantity of using the technique in the poems. Finally, it finds out the most frequent components of collage used by the poets to create their poetical images and thoughts.

Results and Discussion

Examining the components of collage in Naoot and Royaei’s poems, the study achieved the following results Among the primary characteristics of both poets is using the discontinuity of the contents of text and the disordered images. Accordingly, the focus is specifically on the form of poems, the result of which is putting aside the “content” of the poem and making it vague. The meaning becomes in this way hidden behind images. The use of this component of collage in Royaei’s poems is more frequent compared to its use in Naoot’s poems.Royaei and Naoot use beautifully the disordered images in their poetry. The structure of their poems is made of incongruous structures without logical connection. For creating poems, the poets destroy the logical connections between various things.Yadollah Royaei’s poems have the extraordinary visual-dramatic ability. Using some words and special forms of phrases, impose on the audience secondary emotional meanings in addition to their usual meaning. Naoot does not apply this component to her poems. Paradox and structural oppositions are other features of the poems of both poets. This technique makes their poems artistically ambiguous, and the audience ponder to understand the meaning. Using this component, both poets act like a collage painter.


The comparative analysis of the use “collage” style in the poems of Naoot and Royaei, specifically in “Noghra Isba’” and “Fowgh Kaf Imra” and “Sea Poems” and “Labrikhteha”, clearly showed that the content of both poets’ works orients around the discontinuity in parts the texts, lack of order in using images, and the structural paradoxes. The issues manifest collage component in poetry. Here, using some specific words and phrases, in addition to the conventional and usual meaning, the poets impose the emotional secondary meaning on the audience.

Journal of Research in Comparative Literature, Volume:13 Issue: 52, 2024
81 to 104
دانلود و مطالعه متن این مقاله با یکی از روشهای زیر امکان پذیر است:
اشتراک شخصی
با عضویت و پرداخت آنلاین حق اشتراک یک‌ساله به مبلغ 1,390,000ريال می‌توانید 70 عنوان مطلب دانلود کنید!
اشتراک سازمانی
به کتابخانه دانشگاه یا محل کار خود پیشنهاد کنید تا اشتراک سازمانی این پایگاه را برای دسترسی نامحدود همه کاربران به متن مطالب تهیه نمایند!
  • حق عضویت دریافتی صرف حمایت از نشریات عضو و نگهداری، تکمیل و توسعه مگیران می‌شود.
  • پرداخت حق اشتراک و دانلود مقالات اجازه بازنشر آن در سایر رسانه‌های چاپی و دیجیتال را به کاربر نمی‌دهد.
In order to view content subscription is required

Personal subscription
Subscribe magiran.com for 70 € euros via PayPal and download 70 articles during a year.
Organization subscription
Please contact us to subscribe your university or library for unlimited access!