A Comparative Study of the Views of Ibn Arabi and Izz al-Din Kashani on Qorb (Closeness)

Article Type:
Research/Original Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)

Qorb (Closeness or Proximity) in the Sufi dictionary is a mystical state and means obedience that brings the obeyer close to the obeyed. The authors of this study intend to investigate the opinions of Ibn Arabi and Izz al-Din Kashani about mystical closeness, the type of perception, innovation, and commonalities and differences of these two Sufi thinkers using a descriptive-analytical method based on library documents. Based on the results of the research, they consider Qorb-e Nawafel (recommendation) to be superior to Qorb-e Farayez (obligation) and link the reason of superiority to divine love. True Qorb in the view of the two is not reaching God and observing him; rather, in Kashani's opinion, this type of closeness is connected to a special passion, in ascending levels, which is continuous and permanent. In Ibn Arabi's view, mystics are constantly observing proximity, and this observation is nothing but the manifestation of God. Both of them believe that God-given knowledge is special for close people. It is one of the requirements to reach real closeness. Both believe that God-given knowledge is reserved for mystics who are close to God. By linking mystical closeness to the two categories of ‘spiritual gathering’ and ‘internal dispersion’, Kashani believes that in complete closeness, the seeker's soul in the place of gathering, despite the attribute of humility in its servitude, also has the attribute of perfection and ascension to high levels. However, by distinguishing this type of interpretation, Ibn Arabi believes that some great Sufis, because of their belief in closeness in the position of spiritual gathering and distance in the position of separation, have included the knowledge of distance in the matter of closeness. Kashani calls the manifestation in the non-material as distant manifestation, and the manifestation in material as close manifestation. Both thinkers believe that getting close to God depends on research and science in the position of servitude or worship.

Comparative Theology, Volume:14 Issue: 29, 2023
103 to 120
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