Risk Factors for Eye Fatigue among Students during the Covid-19 Pandemic: A Scoping Review

Article Type:
Research/Original Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)

The use of electronic devices (e-devices/ED) in online classrooms by students during the COVID-19 pandemic has been reported as one of the factors contributing to eye fatigue. The aim of this scoping review was to identify the risk factors (ergonomics and environmental conditions) for eye fatigue among students.

Materials and Methods

A scoping review was conducted on databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, etc. with keywords including eye strain, students, online learning, ergonomics, and environmental factors along the COVID-19 pandemic during the years 2020-2022. Initially, 106 articles were identified. Then, 29 articles were assessed by applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Finally, 18 articles were selected.


Students used e-devices for ≥4-6 hours/day, so the mean score of Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) was determined to be 30, and the range of eye strain was reported 13.0-94.5%. The review results indicated that use of e-devices due to improper ergonomics (wrong posture, duration of screens usage, screen distance<50 cm computer and<12-inch mobile phone, no breaks, viewing angle, number and duration of online classes/day, diminished blinking rate) and environmental conditions (fatigue 1.728 times in low lighting, relative humidity<40%, air quality/conditioner, high temperature) had significant effects on the eye fatigue of students during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Raising awareness of DES among parents and students, proper postures, reducing duration on a screen (<6 hours/day online class), a suitable distance to screen, adjusting the workplace/screen lighting, viewing angle≤15°, usage of software screen time limit, frequent blinking, eyes’ examination, using wetting drops, 15-minute breaks after 2 hours work, and eye exercises can be effective in reducing eye fatigue in students.

Journal of Occupational Health and Epidemiology, Volume:12 Issue: 3, Summer 2023
139 to 150
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