Co-Exposure Effects of Lead and Noise on the Level of Malondialdehyde (MDA) among Printing Industry Workers (Case Study)

Article Type:
Case Study (دارای رتبه معتبر)

Printing industry workers face hazards from noise and lead exposure. This study investigates the combined effects of lead and noise on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in these workers, as previous research has focused on isolated effects. This study aimed at assessing the impact of simultaneous lead and noise exposure on the health of people working in the printing industry.

Materials and Methods

Using TENMARS ELECTRONICS sound-meter following ISO9612:2009, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured using Buege and Aust spectrophotometer Model CE1010 CECIL series 1000. Blood lead analysis followed NIOSH8003 method. Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 20.0 with Pearson and ANOVA tests. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was employed to check the normality of the data.


The study found that the die-cut unit had significantly higher daily noise exposure (mean ± standard deviation = 87.71 ± 1.469 dB) compared to other units. Additionally, the printing unit had significantly higher lead concentration (mean ± standard deviation = 0.1431 ± 0.02 ppb) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration (mean ± standard deviation = 0.9963 ± 0.238 mmol/lit) compared to other units.


The study found a strong link between blood lead levels and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in printing industry workers. However, no significant correlation was found between MDA levels and noise exposure or the combined exposure to noise and lead. These findings emphasize the need to address lead exposure in the printing industry to protect workers' health and prevent elevated MDA levels.

Journal of Occupational Health and Epidemiology, Volume:12 Issue: 3, Summer 2023
194 to 200  
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