Effect of fermentation pretreatment and extraction on the acoustic properties of Ash wood (Fraxinus excelsior)

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Article Type:
Research/Original Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)
Abstract:
Background and objectives

Nowadays, the importance of treatments such as water washing and ethanol-acetone washing to improve the acoustic properties of wood has been noticed by the makers of musical instruments. Wood extractives are in the list of those materials that often do not have a construction role, and their purposeful and correct evacuation can lighten the wood without reducing the stiffness. Carrying out pre-treatments such as fermentation with bread yeast (before water washing and ethanol-acetone washing processes) can lead to the extraction of more extractable substances from wood. In this study, the effect of water washing and ethanol-acetone washing treatments as well as fermentation pre-treatment on the acoustic properties of Ash wood (Fraxinus excelsior) has been investigated.

Methodology

Ash wood species (Fraxinus excelsior) was prepared from the wood of a commercial timber and 38 small radial beams with nominal dimensions of 150×12×2 mm (longitudinal×radial×tangential) were extracted from the hardwood. After reaching the equilibrium humidity of 12% in air-conditioned conditions, the selected samples were subjected to the forced vibration test in the free-free beam in order to measure the basic physical and acoustic characteristics. After that, the initial tests were randomly divided into two groups of 19 tests. The first group without pretreatment and the second group with fermentation pretreatment were placed in the process of removing the extractives by water and then by ethanol-acetone mixture. After each step of water washing and removing the extractive substances soluble in ethanol-acetone mixture, the forced vibration test in the free-free beam was performed on the samples and the acoustic properties of the samples were measured.

Results

Water washing without pretreatment with bread yeast caused a slight decrease and with pretreatment, it caused a significant decrease in density values (respectively: 1.75 and 7.39%). While the process of removing extractives (with and without pretreatment) by ethanol-acetone mixture caused a significant decrease in density values (Respectively: 2.27 and 8.71%). The modulus of elasticity values showed a significant decrease due to water washing without pretreatment and with pretreatment. (Respectively: 11.37 and 16.47%). The process of removing the extractives by ethanol-acetone mixture also resulted in a significant decrease in the modulus of elasticity values in untreated and pretreated samples (Respectively: 13.87 and 20.93%). Water washing without pre-treatment with bread yeast and with pre-treatment has caused a significant decrease in the values of damping factor, among which the pre-treated samples had a greater percentage of drop in the values of damping factor (Respectively: 13/87 and 20.93%). The process of removing the extractive materials by ethanol-acetone mixture as washing has caused a significant decrease in the damping factor values, which among the pre-treated samples showed a greater percentage drop in the values resulting from this property (Respectively: 3.03 and 18.01%). In this factor, the process of removing the extractive substances soluble in ethanol-acetone mixture (with and without pretreatment) has resulted in a greater drop in damping values (respectively: 6.67% and 20.85%). Acoustic conversion efficiency due to water washing process without pretreatment with baker's yeast caused a slight increase, while pretreatment caused a significant increase in acoustic conversion efficiency values (Respectively: 0.44 and 25.24%). The process of removing extractive materials by ethanol-acetone mixture also caused a significant increase in the acoustic conversion efficiency values, which among the pre-treated samples showed a higher growth percentage in the values of this characteristic (Respectively: 3.41 and 28.90%). Both water washing methods and ethanol-acetone mixture washing were effective in improving the physical (density) and acoustic properties (modulus-elasticity, damping and acoustic conversion efficiency). Meanwhile, the effect of ethanol-acetone mixture washing was more than the effect of water washing. Fermentation pretreatment with bread yeast improved the performance of water washing and ethanol-acetone mixture washing treatments.

Language:
Persian
Published:
Iranian Journal of Wood and Paper Science Research, Volume:39 Issue: 1, 2024
Pages:
27 to 40
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