The Perfection of Practical Intellect as the constitutive of the man’s ultimate happiness from the perspective of Transcendental Philosophy

Article Type:
Research/Original Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)

Is the goal of practical intellect the ultimate happiness or its foundation? Regarding this question, Islamic philosophers have considered the man’s ultimate and supreme perfection and happiness to consist of the perfection of theoretical intellect (a kind of knowledge) and considered the goal of practical intellect to be the grounding for achieving such happiness. According to this famous view, Mulla Sadra considers the perfection of practical reason to be a kind of negative grounding - that is, the remover of obstacles - in order to achieve the perfection of theoretical intellect or the highest and ultimate happiness, as a result, he does not consider practical intellect to be a companion of man in the ascending stages of man, especially after death. But according to his foundations about the soul, the aforementioned famous foundation cannot be considered free of contradictions with his recent foundations about the soul; Therefore, Mulla Sadra transfers the aforementioned famous foundation to another theory and deviates from it in a way. In this new point of view, he has taken the removal of the attachment of the soul to the physical body not in a purely negative sense but in a sense that its inner being is positive. He considers the immaterial and intellectual stages of the soul’s ascension as the transcendental collective status of all powers, which seems to have been removed from them with the perfection of the soul. In a more complete view, he considers the final goal of the soul as the total position and above it, annihilation, in which case, all the powers of the soul are completely united and all are annihilation in the God’s Essence, and even At this point disappears the duality that existed in the second view between practical and theoretical intellect and the soul is capable and active in the same way and in the same way that it is the knower, or both aspects are annihilation due to the annihilation of the essence of the soul in the God’s Essence.

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