Spatiotemporal changes of Govater and Nayband mangroves and estimating the intensity of fishing activities on these habitats in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman

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Article Type:
Research/Original Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)
Abstract:
Mangrove ecosystems have abundant ecosystem services and play a significant role in the coastal ecosystems sustainability. Thus, the aim of this research is to investigate the temporal and spatial trends of mangroves habitat changes in the Nayband marine national park and the Bahu-kalat protected area, as well as determining the intensity of fishing activities as human threats to these mangroves. To examine the temporal and spatial trends of these mangroves, four plant indices, namely NDVI, SAVI, LAI, and RVI, were estimated and to determine the intensity of fishing activities, a map of mangrove habitat extent was drawn, consisting of 189 and 391 grid cells with dimensions of 4x4 kilometers, covering the coastal waters of the Nayband and Govater mangroves. Additionally, data on the geographical location and the number of vessels in the fishing ports of Bushehr and Sistan and Baluchestan provinces were collected. The findings of this investigation demonstrate an expansion in the area of all the studied mangroves from 1990 to 2019. On average, an increase in the Bidekhoon habitat from 32.96 hectares to 123.93 hectares was observed in Nayband Gulf, while in Gwadar Gulf, the area expanded from 275.76 hectares to 396.72 hectares. The reduction of mangroves in this region between 2000 and 2010 can be attributed to various factors, including local community harvesting of mangrove shoots, pollution from oil and gas industries, tourism, and the influx of non-degradable waste due to the proximity of these habitats to residential areas. Similarly, in Gwadar Gulf, the primary factor contributing to changes in hydrology and the subsequent decline of these forests since 2015 has been aquaculture. The most significant factors influencing the growth and establishment of the studied mangrove habitats are increasing temperatures and rising sea levels. Furthermore, the results showed that based on the current status of the studied mangrove habitats, the geographical distribution of fishing ports and the number of fishing vessels present in them, the Govater mangroves are subjected to higher fishing activity intensity compared to the Nayband mangroves.
Language:
Persian
Published:
Journal of Arid Biome, Volume:13 Issue: 2, 2023
Pages:
71 to 93
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