Royal jelly induces ROS-mediated apoptosis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)-derived Nalm-6 cells: Shedding light on novel therapeutic approaches for ALL

Article Type:
Research/Original Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)
Objective (s)

Until recently, a conventional chemotherapy regimen for Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is considered an efficient therapeutic method in children. However, suboptimal long-term survival rates in adults, disease relapse, and drug-induced toxicities require novel therapeutic agents for ALL treatments. Today, natural products with pharmacological benefits play a significant role in treating different cancers. Among the most valued natural products, honey bees’ royal jelly (RJ) is one of the most appreciated which has revealed anti-tumor activity against different human cancers. This study aimed to evaluate anti-leukemic properties and the molecular mechanisms of RJ cytotoxicity on ALL-derived Nalm-6 cells.

Materials and Methods

The metabolic activity was measured by MTT assay. Apoptosis, cell distribution in the cell cycle, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level were investigated using flow cytometry analysis. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to scrutinize the expression of various regulatory genes. 


RJ significantly decreased the viability of Nalm-6 cells but had no cytotoxic effect on normal cells. In addition, RJ induced ROS-mediated apoptosis by up-regulating pro-apoptotic genes while decreasing anti-apoptotic gene expression. The results outlined that ROS-dependent up-regulation of FOXO4 and Sirt1 inhibits the cells’ transition to the S phase of the cell cycle through p21 up-regulation. The qRT-PCR analysis of autophagy-related gene expression also demonstrated that RJ induced BECN1 mediated autophagy in Naml-6 cells.


Taken together, this study showed that RJ can be utilized as a potent natural substance to induce ALL cells’ programmed cell death. However, further studies are required to examine this compound’s pharmaceutical application.

Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, Volume:27 Issue: 7, Jul 2024
801 to 812  
دانلود و مطالعه متن این مقاله با یکی از روشهای زیر امکان پذیر است:
اشتراک شخصی
با عضویت و پرداخت آنلاین حق اشتراک یک‌ساله به مبلغ 1,390,000ريال می‌توانید 70 عنوان مطلب دانلود کنید!
اشتراک سازمانی
به کتابخانه دانشگاه یا محل کار خود پیشنهاد کنید تا اشتراک سازمانی این پایگاه را برای دسترسی نامحدود همه کاربران به متن مطالب تهیه نمایند!
  • حق عضویت دریافتی صرف حمایت از نشریات عضو و نگهداری، تکمیل و توسعه مگیران می‌شود.
  • پرداخت حق اشتراک و دانلود مقالات اجازه بازنشر آن در سایر رسانه‌های چاپی و دیجیتال را به کاربر نمی‌دهد.
In order to view content subscription is required

Personal subscription
Subscribe for 70 € euros via PayPal and download 70 articles during a year.
Organization subscription
Please contact us to subscribe your university or library for unlimited access!