The Latest Developments of N-Heterocyclic Carbenes (NHCs) Complexes in Cross-Coupling Chemistry

Article Type:
Research/Original Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)
The advancements in cross-coupling chemistry are a considerably powerful tool for the synthesis of pharmaceutical molecules. The formation of catalytic carbon-heteroatom (C-X) and carbon-carbon (C-C) bonds is one of the important reactions in organic synthesis, which plays a key role in the synthesis of biologically active molecules, natural products, heterocycles, and useful compounds. Recently, there has been a significant increase in the development and advancement of environmentally friendly catalysts that serve as a suitable alternative to conventional metal catalysts. On the other hand, N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC)–metal-based catalysts became suitable for performing a wide range of chemical transformations due to their unique spatial and electronic properties. The NHCs have received much attention as ligands due to their important properties. The present review aimed to discuss the recent advances in the application of NHCs in cross-coupling chemistry in the last six years. The present study focused on the catalytic application of NHCs in various cross-coupling reactions, such as Suzuki, Heck, Sonogashira, Hiyama, Kumada, Buchwald–Hartwig, Ullmann, and Chan. Moreover, some cross-coupling reactions by selective C-X cleavage catalyzed by NHCs with high catalytic activity were discussed. In addition, several chiral NHCs capable of catalyzing asymmetric cross-coupling reactions were reported. Finally, numerous green protocols for cross-coupling reactions catalyzed by functional and biocompatible NHCs under mild conditions were investigated. These protocols had advantages such as high-yield products, short time, cost-effectiveness, and high catalytic activity.
Organic Chemistry Research, Volume:8 Issue: 2, Summer 2022
74 to 88  
دانلود و مطالعه متن این مقاله با یکی از روشهای زیر امکان پذیر است:
اشتراک شخصی
با عضویت و پرداخت آنلاین حق اشتراک یک‌ساله به مبلغ 1,390,000ريال می‌توانید 70 عنوان مطلب دانلود کنید!
اشتراک سازمانی
به کتابخانه دانشگاه یا محل کار خود پیشنهاد کنید تا اشتراک سازمانی این پایگاه را برای دسترسی نامحدود همه کاربران به متن مطالب تهیه نمایند!
  • حق عضویت دریافتی صرف حمایت از نشریات عضو و نگهداری، تکمیل و توسعه مگیران می‌شود.
  • پرداخت حق اشتراک و دانلود مقالات اجازه بازنشر آن در سایر رسانه‌های چاپی و دیجیتال را به کاربر نمی‌دهد.
In order to view content subscription is required

Personal subscription
Subscribe for 70 € euros via PayPal and download 70 articles during a year.
Organization subscription
Please contact us to subscribe your university or library for unlimited access!