Abstract: The study of patterns of fingerprints is important in anthropology and medical genetics, chiefly because of their diagnostic usefulness. In the present work, we studied the frequencies of various types of skin ridges of the first phalanx in patients with sever oligospermia or azospermia. In a double-blind case-control study, we determined the frequencies of fingerprints in 880 first phalanxes belonging to 48 men with sever oligospermia and 40 men with azospermia. We determined the types of fingerprints based on Galton classification. Also their FRC, TFRC and AFRC were calculated. Then the results were compared with each other and general population as control group. The most frequent type of fingerprint in both case groups was "Loop". Frequencies of different types among two groups of cases were statistically different (P<0.005). Also they were statistically different with general population (P<0.005). The largest mean of FRC in men with oligospermia was belonging to the left ring fingers (23.1) and the second to the right thumbs (21.91). The largest mean of FRC in men with azospermia was belonging to the right thumbs (23.6) and the second to the right ring fingers (22.6). The mean of TFRCs in men with oligosoermia and azospermia were 106.8 and 114.39, respectively, and the mean of AFRCs in those two groups were 14 and 11, respectively; their differences were not statistically significant. It can be concluded that qualitative feathers of the fingerprints of men with oligospermia and azospermia were different with each other and with general population. And quantitative feathers of the fingerprints in those two case groups were statistically different as well.
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