Comparison of upper molar's movements in use of cervical headgear and pendulum appliance by finite element method

Background And Aim
The movement of molars has been evaluated in many studies to correct Cl II malocclusion by non-compliance appliances but the results are controversial. The aim of this study was to compare the upper first and second molar's movement in cervical headgear (HG) and pendulum appliance (PEND) by finite element method.
Materials and Methods
For modeling process, one of the best dry skulls was CT scanned (1mm slices). Modeling was done according to the mechanical properties of cortical and trabecular bone of maxilla and PDM and teeth and transferred to computer by scanner. Elementing, meshing and loading was done. The magnitude of force for both appliances was 250 gr and line of force for HG was 20 degree above the occlusal plane action and for PEND was along the midlingual surface of upper first molar crown. Tooth movement analysis was performed by the software named Ansys 5.71.
The amount of dislocation of the 1st molar cusps tip (mesiobuccal, mesiopalatal, distobuccal, distopalatal) at presence of second molar in bucco-lingual dimension showed distal-in rotation in HG and mesial-in rotation for pendulum. In mesio-distal dimension, the four cusps of 1st molar moved distally in HG and palatal cusps moved more in PEND. In vertical dimension, 1st molar showed extrusion in HG and intrusion in PEND for distal cusps.
The presence of second molar had impact on the quality of upper first molar in both appliances and it moved in a distal direction, extruded and buccal drifted in both of them. Therefore, with regard to the cooperation of the patients, pendulum appliance is recommended to correct Cl II malocclusion instead of cervical headgear.
Journal of Dental School, Volume:26 Issue: 3, 2009
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