Study of integrated management and comparative phenology of swallow wort (Cynanchum acutum L.) in pistachio orchard
This research was undertaken to determine the comparative phenology of swallow wort (Cynanchum acutum) in pistachio orchards and investigate the possibilities of its integrated management as a randomized complete block design with 18 treatments and three replications during 2007. The treatments consisted using Paraquat, Glyphosate, Triclopyr and removine the weed. The results indicated that swallow wort growth started from emerging at zero GDD and ends at 2848 cumulative GDD. Formation of pistachio shell was almost at the same time with the beginning of flowering and pollination of swallow wort and pistachio harvesting were taken during the middle of swallow worth fruiting. The corresponding stages for pistachio had cumulative GDD 2365. Overall, two times weed removal + Triclopyr was the best treatment for reduction of swallow worth stem number. Three times Paraquat three l/ha was the best treatment for reducing in swallow wort stem biomass (97%).
Journal of Crop Improvment, Volume:13 Issue:2, 2012
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