فهرست مطالب

مطالعات و پژوهش های شهری و منطقه ای - پیاپی 26 (پاییز 1394)
  • پیاپی 26 (پاییز 1394)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/07/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • سمانه تکلو، فرح حبیب، زهرا زرآبادی صفحات 1-22
    هدف از این پژوهش، سنجش فضایی بافت محلات شهری به منظور مکان گزینی فضاهای همگانی امن است. در این راستا بافت محله وردآورد که به دلیل ویژگی های خاص، موجبات ایجاد معضلات و آسیب های اجتماعی را در فضاهای شهری خود فراهم کرده است، به عنوان نمونه موردی بررسی می شود. پژوهش از نوع کاربردی و شیوه مطالعه بر حسب روش و ماهیت، توصیفی-تحلیلی و تجربی-پیمایشی است. بنابراین، در تبیین ادبیات و سوابق موضوع تحقیق و ارایه مدل تحلیلی پژوهش از مطالعات کتابخانه ای و برای جمع آوری اطلاعات با توجه به ماهیت تحقیق از روش های میدانی و مطالعات اسنادی استفاده شده است. مدل تحلیلی پژوهش متشکل از شاخص های موثر بر امنیت در فضاهای همگانی محلات شهری در قالب 5 مولفه کالبدی، عملکردی، حرکت و دسترسی، ادراکی-معنایی و مدیریت شهری و 19 معیار و سنجه های ارزیابی آن، ارائه گردیده است. در ادامه، به منظور اولویت بندی شاخص های ارائه شده از فرآیند تحلیل شبکه ای استفاده شده است. بنابراین، بر اساس نتایج حاصل از رتبه بندی، محدوده مطالعاتی مورد تحلیل و ارزیابی قرار گرفت. بدین منظور با استفاده از سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی و روش چیدمان فضا، مناسب ترین مکان ها و موقعیت ها برای مکان گزینی فضاهای همگانی امن جهت ارتقاء امنیت در بافت شناسایی گردید. در انتها نتایج حاصل از تلفیق مدل ها و مطالعات انجام شده، در چارچوب مفهومی سوآت ارائه گردیده و به ارایه پیشنهادات بر مبنای مدل مفهومی پژوهش پرداخته شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: امنیت، فضای همگانی، محلات، فرآیند تحلیل شبکه ای، سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی، روش چیدمان فضا
  • اسفندیار زبردست، امین رضاپور صفحات 23-42
    با وجود مهم بودن سیاست استفاده از شهر کوچک در توسعه منطقه ای، نظریه پردازان و اندیشمندان این حوزه، هیچگونه تعریف واضح و مشخصی از شهر کوچک و نیز نقش ها و ویژگی هایی که باید در برنامه ریزی منطقه ای داشته باشد، ارائه نمی دهند. بنابراین در عمل، اجرای سیاست شهر کوچک برای بر طرف نمودن ناتوازنی منطقه ای به دلیل وجود ابهامات مذکور، نتوانسته موفقیت جامع و کاملی را بدست آورد. لذا زمانی می توان به کارکرد بهتر و موثرتر این سیاست دست یافت که درک شود به چه شهری «کوچک» گفته می شود و چه شهر کوچکی دارای «قابلیت و توانایی» استفاده در توسعه منطقه ای است؟ در این راستا، این مقاله با بررسی متون نظری و تجربیات عملی استفاده از سیاست شهر کوچک نقش هایی از قبیل بازار فروش محصولات کشاورزی، توزیع خدمات و کالا، ایجاد اشتغال غیرکشاورزی و جذب مهاجران روستایی را برای شهرهای کوچک در نظر گرفته و در ادامه، از درون مفهوم و ماهیت این نقش ها، ویژگی هایی مانند ویژگی های جمعیتی، اداری، اقتصادی، خدماتی، ارتباطی و جغرافیایی را در قالب چارچوب مفهومی برای «انتخاب» یک شهر کوچک استخراج و معرفی می نماید. این پژوهش بوسیله مدل فرآیند تحلیل شبکه(ANP) و با مطالعه مجموعه شهری آمل، بابل، ساری و قائمشهر، آشکار می کند که از 16 شهر موجود در محدوده مطالعاتی، تنها 6 شهر بر اساس نقش ها و ویژگی های مذکور، می توانند جزو شهرهای کوچک باشند؛ آن هم شهرهای کوچکی که دارای بالاترین ظرفیت و توانایی در اجرای اقدامات و سیاست های مربوط به توسعه منطقه ای برای ایجاد توازن و تعادل در سطح محدوده مورد نظر هستند.
    کلیدواژگان: سیاست شهر کوچک، توسعه منطقه ای، نقش شهر کوچک، ویژگی شهر کوچک
  • شهریور روستایی، حسین کریم زاده، فاطمه زادولی صفحات 43-64
    پدیده فقر شهری علی رغم تمام برنامه های جهانی و ملی در مبارزه با آن هنوز به عنوان یک نیروی قاهر و یک معضل اجتماعی، جوامع شهری را تهدید می کند و شهرها را با جلوه های ناکارآمد و درهم ریخته سازمان می دهد. در این بین یکی از ابعاد فقر شهری، رویکرد جنسیتی فقر است. دیدگاه جنسیتی به فقر ادراک مفهوم فقر را افزایش می دهد چرا که سبب می شود تجزیه و تحلیل توصیفی در علل فقر فراتر رود. از اینرو هدف این تحقیق تحلیل فضایی پراکنش فقر جنسیتی در فضاهای شهر تبریز می باشد. جامعه آماری این تحقیق محدوده ی قانونی شهر تبریز در سال 1385 و حجم نمونه نیز تمامی بلوک های آماری سال 1385 تبریز است. روش پژوهش در این مطالعه کاربردی از نوع توصیفی- تحلیلی- تطبیقی است که برای شناخت و سنجش فقر از فن خود همبستگی فضایی با استفاده از تحلیل لکه های داغ در نرم افزار Arc/GIS، برای تحلیل الگوهای پراکنش فقر شهری از آماره موران و برای تعیین سطح معنی داری از آزمون T همبسته استفاده گردیده است. یافته های تحقیق نشان می دهد که توزیع فقر شهری برای هر دو گروه زنان و مردان در فضاهای شهری تبریز از مدل خوشه ایپیروی می کند و خوشه های مرفه نزدیک به مرکز شهر و خوشه های فقیر به حاشیه گرایش دارند. در این پژوهش بیشترین تعداد بلوک های شهری مربوط به گروه مردان با 3506 بلوک مربوط به بلوک های فقیر و برای گروه زنان با 4845 بلوک مربوط به بلوک های خیلی فقیر است. همچنین کمترین تعداد این بلوک ها برای گروه مردان و زنان مربوط به بلوک های خیلی مرفه است که گروه مردان 1% و گروه زنان 5% از تعداد کل بلوک های شهری تبریز را در سال 1385 به خود اختصاص داده است. همچنین آزمون T همبسته تفاوت معنی دار را در گروه زنان و مردان از لحاظ شاخص اجتماعی نشان می دهد.
    کلیدواژگان: فقر شهری، فقر جنسیتی، تحلیل فضایی، فضاهای شهری
  • عیسی ابراهیم زاده، عزت الله قاسمی صفحات 83-104
    امروزه با توجه به رشد سریع جمعیت جهان و تمرکز آن در شهرها، مفهوم توسعه پایدار شهری به عنوان مولفه اساسی تاثیرگذار بر چشم انداز بلندمدت جوامع انسانی مطرح شده است. در عین حال با توجه به اثرات گسترده مسکن بر محیط های شهری و بر حیات اقتصادی، اجتماعی و کالبدی شهر و شهروندان، نقش تاثیرگذار آن بر تحقق اهداف توسعه پایدار شهری نیز بسیار مهم می باشد؛ بنابراین هدف از پژوهش حاضر ارزیابی شاخص های کالبدی مسکن شهری با رویکرد توسعه پایدار می باشد، روش پژوهش از نوع توصیفی- تحلیلی بوده و جهت وزن دهی به شاخص ها از مدل سلسله مراتبی AHP و برای ارزیابی و رتبه بندی پایداری هریک از نواحی شهری، از تکنیک تصمیم گیری تاپسیس و ویکور استفاده شده است. در این پژوهش پنج شاخص کالبدی شامل؛ مصالح یا اسکلت ساختمانی، کیفیت مساکن، قدمت ابنیه، نمای مساکن و تعداد طبقات آن ها مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج حاصل از تحلیل یافته های پژوهش گویای آن است که به لحاظ کالبدی شهر سامان در وضعیت نسبتا نامطلوبی قرار دارد. چنانکه در شاخص مصالح، در تمام نواحی چهارگانه این شهر، وضعیت پایین تر از متوسط مطلوبیت بوده، در شاخص کیفیت مسکن، ناحیه سه، مطلوب ترین و ناحیه چهار نامطلوب ترین، در شاخص قدمت ابنیه هم مطلوب ترین ناحیه سه و نامطلوب ترین ناحیه دو، در شاخص نما، مطلوب ترین ناحیه یک و نامطلوب ترین آن ها ناحیه سه، بالاخره از نظر شاخص تعداد طبقات، ناحیه دو مطلوب ترین وناحیه سه نامطلوب ترین می باشد. با این وجود درشاخص نهایی کالبدی مسکن، ناحیه سه این شهر مطلوب ترین و ناحیه دو نامطلوب ترین ناحیه در شاخص کالبدی مسکن شهر سامان می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: مسکن شهری، توسعه پایدار، شاخص های کالبدی، شهرسامان
  • عفت پورغلامحسن، محمد باعقیده، محمد سلمانی مقدم صفحات 105-126
    پیشینه ی طراحی و ساخت و ساز با توجه به معیارها و ویژگی های طبیعی و اقلیمی در معماری سنتی ایران به صدها سال می رسد و از شاهکارهای معماری در جهان به شمار می آید. رشد تکنولوژی و دستیابی به انرژی های فسیلی موجب شد تا رعایت معیارهای اقلیمی در ساخت ساز مسکن به بوته فراموشی سپرده شود. این پژوهش سعی دارد، که با مطالعه وضعیت زیست اقلیم شهر سبزوار با استفاده از مدل ماهانی به ارایه راهکارهایی جهت طراحی ساختمانی که همساز با اقلیم این منطقه باشد بپردازد، و با بررسی ویژگی های مساکن بافت های قدیم، میانی و جدید این شهر میزان سازگاری بافت های سه گانه با شرایط آب و هوایی شهر سبزوار مورد ارزیابی قرار گیرد. لذا جهت نیل به این هدف مساکن موجود براساس قدمت و ویژگی های معماری به سه بافت قدیم، میانی و جدید تقسیم شدند، و با توجه به ویژگی های معماری ساختمان ها پرسشنامه ای با 195 نمونه از بافت های معماری در مناطق مختلف شهر سبزوار انتخاب و تکمیل شد. در ادامه آمار و اطلاعات ایستگاه سینوپتیک شهر سبزوار در یک دوره آماری 30 ساله شامل دما، رطوبت، باد و بارندگی استخراج و با استفاده از مدل ماهانی وضعیت زیست اقلیمی این شهر مورد بررسی قرار گرفت و پیشنهادات زیر برای طراحی ساختمان ها ارایه گردید: جهت شمالی- جنوبی ساختمان ها، فاصله گذاری ساختمان ها به صورت فشرده، اختصاص 40-25 درصد مساحت دیوار به بازشوها، انتخاب مصالح سنگین ساختمانی برای دیوارهای داخلی و خارجی و کف و طراحی مکانی برای استراحت در فضای آزاد. مقایسه نتایج حاصل از پرسشنامه ها در هریک از بافتهای مختلف شهری وتطبیق آن با پیشنهادات بهینه مدل ماهانی نشان داد در شهر سبزوار الگوی معماری بافت قدیم بیشترین سازگاری را با شرایط اقلیمی این شهرنشان می دهد و دربافت جدید این سازگاری درکمترین حد خود قرار دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: اقلیم، معماری، مدل ماهانی، سبزوار
  • اصغر عابدینی صفحات 127-144
    هدف از این پژوهش، سنجش فضایی بافت محلات شهری به منظور مکان گزینی فضاهای همگانی امن است. در این راستا بافت محله وردآورد که به دلیل ویژگی های خاص، موجبات ایجاد معضلات و آسیب های اجتماعی را در فضاهای شهری خود فراهم کرده است، به عنوان نمونه موردی بررسی می شود. پژوهش از نوع کاربردی و شیوه مطالعه بر حسب روش و ماهیت، توصیفی-تحلیلی و تجربی-پیمایشی است. بنابراین، در تبیین ادبیات و سوابق موضوع تحقیق و ارایه مدل تحلیلی پژوهش از مطالعات کتابخانه ای و برای جمع آوری اطلاعات با توجه به ماهیت تحقیق از روش های میدانی و مطالعات اسنادی استفاده شده است. مدل تحلیلی پژوهش متشکل از شاخص های موثر بر امنیت در فضاهای همگانی محلات شهری در قالب 5 مولفه کالبدی، عملکردی، حرکت و دسترسی، ادراکی-معنایی و مدیریت شهری و 19 معیار و سنجه های ارزیابی آن، ارائه گردیده است. در ادامه، به منظور اولویت بندی شاخص های ارائه شده از فرآیند تحلیل شبکه ای استفاده شده است. بنابراین، بر اساس نتایج حاصل از رتبه بندی، محدوده مطالعاتی مورد تحلیل و ارزیابی قرار گرفت. بدین منظور با استفاده از سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی و روش چیدمان فضا، مناسب ترین مکان ها و موقعیت ها برای مکان گزینی فضاهای همگانی امن جهت ارتقاء امنیت در بافت شناسایی گردید. در انتها نتایج حاصل از تلفیق مدل ها و مطالعات انجام شده، در چارچوب مفهومی سوآت ارائه گردیده و به ارایه پیشنهادات بر مبنای مدل مفهومی پژوهش پرداخته شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: رتبه بندی، رهن، تامین مالی، استطاعت مالی، مسکن، ارومیه
  • رضا مختاری ملک آبادی، رباب حسین زاده، اسماعیل صفرعلی زاده صفحات 145-166
    توسعه پایدار زمانی حاصل می شود که نابرابری های ناحیه ای کاهش یافته و عدالت اجتماعی برقرار شود لذا وجود نابرابری مانعی برای حصول این امر است. تحلیل نابرابری ها با معیارها و شاخص های مختلف می تواند به شناخت نواحی کم توسعه یا در حال توسعه کمک نموده و الزامات لازم جهت تخصیص منابع به آنها را مهیا نماید. تحقیق حاضر با روش توصیفی – تحلیلی به تحلیل نابرابری های ناحیه ای استان فارس با بهره گیری از 62 شاخص اقتصادی، اجتماعی، بهداشتی- درمانی، کالبدی و زیست محیطی، فرهنگی- مذهبی و حمل و نقل و ارتباطات پرداخته است، که در این راستا آمار و اطلاعات لازم از سالنامه آماری سال 1390 استان فارس گردآوری شده و داده ها با روش آنتروپی وزن دهی شده و بر اساس مدل ویکور مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفته است. یافته ها حاکی از آنست که نابرابری در سطوح شهرستانی مشهود بوده که شهرستان شیراز به عنوان مرکز استان در سطح کاملا برخوردار قرار گرفته و شهرستان های جهرم، کازرون و استهبان، برخوردار و شهرستان های مهر، داراب، آباده، لامرد، بوانات و نی ریز، نیمه برخوردار بوده و بقیه شهرستان ها محروم می باشند و الگوی حاکم برتوسعه فضایی این استان مرکز-پیرامون بوده است.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه پایدار، نابرابری ناحیه ای، مدل ویکور، استان فارس
  • محمد طباطبایی نسب، فرزانه ضرابخانه، فائزه اسدیان صفحات 167-188
    در بازار بسیار رقابتی صنعت گردشگری، بازاریابان مقصد دائما به دنبال افزایش ارزش ویژه برند خود با تمرکز بر تعدادی از عوامل کلیدی هستند. ارزش ویژه برند مقصد به طور مستقیم تحت تاثیر ادراکات بازدیدکنندگان در مورد مقصد است. از جمله عواملی که بر ادراکات افراد اثر می گذارد، انگیزه و علاقه فرد نسبت به سفر به مقصد می باشد. علاقه فرد به انجام فعالیتی به خصوص، چون سفر به صورت پی در پی و مداوم به یک مقصد گردشگری خاص، مشارکت پایدار سفر نامیده می شود. هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی تاثیر مشارکت پایدار سفر گردشگران داخلی شهر اصفهان بر ارزش ویژه برند این مقصد گردشگری است. در این پژوهش شهر اصفهان به دلیل برخوداری از جاذبه های فراوان گردشگری و نقش به سزای آن در تامین درآمدهای حاصل از گردشگری انتخاب شده است. اصفهان قطب گردشگری ملی ایران محسوب می شود که سالیانه پذیرای هزاران بازدیدکننده است و از این جهت مقصد بسیار مطلوبی برای پژوهش های علمی و تحقیقات گردشگری است. بر این اساس در این تحقیق، فضای نمونه 143 نفری از میان تمام گردشگران داخلی شهر اصفهان در بازه زمانی تیر و مرداد سال 1393 با استفاده از فرمول کوکران برای جامعه نامحدود انتخاب شد. ابزار گردآوری داده ها پرسشنامه بوده است که پس از تایید روایی و پایایی آن، داده ها جمع آوری شده و با استفاده از نرم افزار اسمارت پی ال اس مورد تحلیل قرار گرفته است. نتایج تحقیق حاکی از آن است که لذت از سفر، اهمیت از سفر و خودبیان-گری تاثیر مثبت بر مشارکت پایدار سفر دارند و از این بین اهمیت سفر با ضریب مسیر 445/0 بیشترین تاثیرگذاری را بر مشارکت پایدار سفر دارد. همچنین مشارکت پایدار سفر از طریق اثرگذاری بر آگاهی از برند، تصویر برند و کیفیت ادراک شده برند بر وفاداری به برند مقصد موثر است. وفاداری به برند مقصد نیز با ضریب مسیر 654/0 بر ارزش ویژه برند مقصد گردشگری تاثیری مستقیم دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: صنعت گردشگری، ارزش ویژه برند مقصد، مشارکت پایدار سفر، ادراکات گردشگران
  • نورالدین عظیمی، رضا اسماعیل پور، سمیرا حیدری صفحه 189
    روند رو به رشد تحولات اجتماعی، سیاسی و فرهنگی، نقش مهم تشکل های مردمی را در اداره جوامع شهری پر رنگ ساخته است. در حوزه مسائل شهری کوچک شدن اندازه دولت – و به تبع آن شهرداری ها – موجب شده است که همیاری مردم در پیشبرد مسائل شهر و شهرنشینی به امری اجتناب ناپذیر تبدیل شود. شهروندان می توانند با استفاده از رسانه های دیجیتال مبتنی بر اینترنت ایده ها و نظرات خود را در خصوص مسایل مهم شهری ارایه و بدینوسیله در پیشبرد امور همکاری و مشارکت نمایند. هدف این پژوهش بررسی عوامل موثر بر مشارکت الکترونیکی شهروندان در مدیریت شهری می باشد که به طور موردی در شهر رشت انجام گرفته است. روش تحقیق در پژوهش حاضر توصیفی-تحلیلی است و داده های اصلی مورد استفاده در آن بصورت میدانی و از طریق پرسشنامه بدست آمده است. با توجه به اینکه بازتاب اصلی این نوع از مشارکت شهروندان بیشتر در بخش های مختلف اداری شهرداری ها قابل مشاهده است، به همین خاطر کارشناسان و کارکنان شهرداری به عنوان کسانی که می توانند به نحو مناسبی عرصه عملی مشارکت فناورانه شهروندان در امور شهری را ارزیابی کنند، جامعه آماری این تحقیق منظور گردید. مهمترین یافته های تحقیق نشان داد که دانش و اطلاعات شهروندان، احساس تعلق و تعهد، تصور ذهنی از پیامدهای مشارکت، زیر ساخت های الکترونیکی شهر و سودآور بودن فعالیت مشارکت بیشترین نقش را از لحاظ درجه اهمیت در بین متغیرهای انتخابی برای مشارکت الکترونیکی شهروندان داشتند. رضایت مندی، اعتماد شهروندان، وضعیت اقتصادی و احساس مالکیت به عنوان عوامل موثر دیگر با درجه پایین تری از اهمیت در مقایسه با دیگر عوامل شناسایی شدند.
    کلیدواژگان: مشارکت الکترونیکی شهروندان، عوامل مشارکت، مدیریت امور شهری، رشت
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  • S. Takalou, F. Habib, Z. Zarabadi Pages 1-22
    Introduction
    Urban design is the art of creating places for people. So، included issues such as function of places and security local community (basiri&danesh، 1999،8). The design of streets and buildings should be maintained with easy access and open spaces for safe urban areas. The location of anomic behavior and crime cuses، has a special role on factors. Through the identify and modification of spatial and physical factors can be reduced hot spot conditions (salehi،2008،72). Good design and proper use of the environment can also prevent crime، improve the quality of life and reduce the fear of crime (crowe، 2000، p64). Theoretical Bases: The purpose of this study is to provide an analytical model for evaluating neighborhoods texture with identify hotspot in urban spaces to increas quality of security in the neighborhoods، through the design of safe public spaces in insecure environments. So، this research highlighting the role of neighborhoods and the relationships between the fundamental principles of creating a secure environment to prevent crimes. In other words، creating defensible spaces in neighborhoods and spaces that attract people and maintain it. 3-Discussion According to the results of the study، was achieved the environmental factors to improve the security of public spaces in neighborhoods. Consist of; physical، functional، mobility and access، perceptual-semantic and urban management factors that prioritized by analytic network process (ANP). accordingly، the factors relating to «surveillance» in urban areas are the priority. Therefore، to identify hot spots،the site selection and space syntax method is used. finally، to determine the neighborhood texture، offering SWOT method for combining the results of the assessment. Presented in the form of public spaces safe environmental cuses. On this basis، guidelines and suggestions are offered to improve safety in the neighborhoods. 4-Conclusion Results of overlapping the user type and Variety layers showed unsafe locations. So that، the intersection of Imam Hussein and Valiasr and the area around this node، reduced Ability to surveillance. also، reduced level of supervision in isolated residential areas on the edge. However، there are greater surveillance by active and retail users in the central part of texture، the intersection of the Vardavrd and Imam Hussein Streets. Therefore، based on the urban management factor، observed imbalance in the distribution of land uses and services at the neighborhood scale. Due to the difference between the highest and lowest integration And mean depth of nodes in the neighborhood of Vardavrd، It was concluded that texture is not monolithic neighborhoods which indicates because of maintaining urban landscape. this type of connection lead to not created public realm as neighborhood centers. thus، the lack of spatial integration and disconnection of pedestrians movement leading to decrease absorbent and commercial functions، so، follow to lack of «natural surveillance» and due to the interdependence between the critenria، reduces the quality of security in the neighborhoods. By main street; respectively، intersection of Vardavrd boulevard and Imam Hussein avenue and intersection of Imam Hussain and valiasr street، have highest integration value. since with configuration can designated movement patterns for pedestrian، increased surveillance in places by guiding behavior and movement into unsafe places. That's feasible way for locating public spaces in unsafe areas. Suggestions: According to the results، the following suggestions provided for the purpose of research: - Based on the predicted movement by space syntax method، the nodes with high integration value and also as insecure space without surveillance or eyes of street along- with undermining activities، can be used as the main activity centers of neighborhoods. so، space attractions are located in movement patterns. - From the viewpoint of urban design، the mixing uses model must be done with consideration of security and surveillance in urban areas. spatial justice and proper distribution of urban users and adapted to locally scale to improve surveillance in edge of neighborhoods should be a priority in urban planning management. - Filling the gaps، especially in visible places and activity centers to improve pedestrian activities and movements. - Creating integrated structure developed by regular street pattern، with small and shallow blocks and multiple entrance، open spaces in adequate location to create visual and functional connection. - Represeuting visual symbols and legible signs. - Creating sense of closure with integration and sequence in physical planning in future developments.
    Keywords: Security, Neighborhoods, Public Space, analytic network process, GIS, Space Syntax
  • E. Zebardast, A. Rezapour Pages 23-42
    Introduction
    Despite policy of using small cities in regional development is an acceptable approach for the theorist of this field and accepting that this type of policy will play an important role in this kind of development; these theorists do not give a clear and definite definition of «small city». Practically in their opinion it isn’t clear what kind of «settlement» is called a small city. Now this question arises: if small settlements and related policies are important and effective in the development planning and regional decentralization، why providing criteria choosing them is unclear and ambiguous. So the authors discuss this important issue: which city can be called “small”? And in clearer way، does every small city have the potential to be used in regional development and decentralization program? Theoretical bases: 2-1-Defining the nature of small cityIn many studies and theories، specific population is used for defining a small city. Our definition of the small city isn’t only a populated settlement but a city which is planned to take part in regional development and to make achieving to the objectives of decentralization in the region possible in regard with justice and integration. 2-2The history of using small city in Regional DevelopmentAfter World War II، the extent of the metropolitan area was increased. With that continuance، some problems were occurring such as depression، lack of adequate services، housing problem، and environmental pollutions. In regard to these issues، «regional development theory» emerged in the 1950s and the most important one was “growth pole theory”. But since the late 1960s، the growth pole theory was strongly criticized. This criticism was for the disappointing results emerged in many implemented projects. Thus، in the 1960s and 1970s، from regional development theories، the other view that can be called «small city’s theories» formed against the view of the growth pole. This view was pursued to do the development planning as a «bottom-up» approach، instead of the «top-down» of growth pole approach and expecting for the development benefits and spread effects toward the lower levels of urban hierarchy. Proponents of this theory believe that if the basic needs and services is provided in small cities، the migration routes are changed and instead of big cities، this time، small (er) cities will be the final destination of rural migrants. The goals of small city policy include improving the economic efficiency of region، increasing equity، poverty reduction، environmental quality، improving living standards in rural and urban centers، reduction in migration to big cities، and regional decentralization. 2-3-The result of implications in the small city policyThe main weakness of the small city policy was the unclear definition of the small city. So implementing this policy made adverse effects and consequences for the cities and areas influenced by these cities. 3- The role of small cities in regional developmentWe can select a small city when we understand which roles it wants to play in regional development. Understanding the role of a small city، in the end، lead to the identification of the features that a small city should have. 3-1-The role of small cities as a market for agricultural products: It is expected that with strengthening the role and function of the small city market and providing access to it، the rural incomes rise. However، the ability of small city centers as the market for agricultural product depend on factors such as access to natural resources and labor، accessibility and affordability for the transportation، storage and production facilities، and connection of these centers to national، regional and urban networks. 3-2-The role of small cities as centers of distribution of goods and services: Two factors which must be considered for the kind of services in small cities as providing goods and services for rural areas are: 1) Characteristics of rural economic activity، income levels and purchasing power of the rural population; 2) the capacity of local institutions to develop and distribute services. So distribution centers in urban centers and the access to health، education، water، and sanitation services lead to increased interaction between the city and the village. 3-3-The role of small cities and rural non-agricultural workers: Non-agricultural employment in small cities is more important than agricultural employment. Because the traits of the population migrating from villages to the cities are usually people who could not be absorbed in the agricultural sector. Therefore preconditions and key subjects should be studied for the creation of non-agricultural employment in small city centers such as the diagnosing the potential of agriculture sector for supporting non-agricultural enterprises. 3-4-The role of small cities and village-city migrationNecessary precondition for this role and then attraction of migrants who move to smaller city centers is accessibility to employment، especially in non-agricultural sectors such as trade، services and production. 3-5-Theoretical and conceptual framework of the study: Writers considered features with regard to the roles of small city in regional development mentioned. This can be done in six major features، population، administrative، economic، service، physical connections، and geography، which are considered for role acceptance of small city. 4-
    Discussion
    The case study (Metropolitan region of Amol، Babol، Sari and Qaemshahr) Metropolitan region of case study has 16 cities which 4 cities of them، Amol، Babol، Sari and Qaemshahr according to demographic، economic and administrative features of them are the major cities and dominate the entire region. Amol، Babol، Sari and Qaemshahr have particular characteristics in population and economic، administrative and political discussions that distinguish them from the rest of the settlements. So for the subject of selecting a small city، the remaining 12 cities are studied and the analysis of this paper was formed in these 12 cities. In regard with facts mentioned above، network model for a small city selection is presented into the study case. Then by using network analysis process (ANP) and also with interviews of experts and scholars the model is implemented; then the obtained scores for each of the cities in the region are designated. With regard to the goal of model which is the selection of a small city in regional development planning، the greater rating scale illustrates being more appropriate city. So Rynhlaryjan in Amol county، Marzikola and Gatab in Babol County، Kiakola in Qaemshahr county and Kiasar and Ferim in Sari county are elected as small cities.
    Conclusion
    In this paper with review of the theoretical literature and practical experiences related to policy of using small city in the regional development، some roles were considered for small cities such as the market of agricultural products، distribution of goods and services، creating non-agricultural employment and attracting rural migrants. Then by using the dimensions of each of these roles، the features such as demographic، administrative، economic، service، physical connections، and geography for a small city that wants to participate in regional development was developed in terms of a conceptual model. Then by using the analytic network process (ANP)، the relationships and interdependencies of each role (criteria) and features (sub-criteria) was examined. A the end using this model، from 12 cities that based on past experiences and theories were small cities and all of them could be used in this policy، only 6 of those cities، Rineh، Gatab، Marzikola، Kiakola، Kiasar and Ferim were selected as a small city. Now with choosing these cities، it can be assured that the implementation of small city policy can create the regional development for metropolitan region of Amol، Babol، Sari and Ghaemshahr.
    Keywords: the small city policy, regional development, the role of small city, the charactoristic of small cit
  • Sh. Rostaei, H. Karimzadeh, F. Zadvali Pages 43-64
    Urban poverty is the greatest challenges of global development. If the current adverse trends continue، over the next years، two billion people will be residents of impoverished areas. Today، Tabriz city as the fifth most populated city of Iran is experiencing rapid urbanization and urbanism which this leads to lack of services and facilities available to citizens and the objectivity of poverty can be found in areas، like Yousef Abad، Khalil Abad، etc. Now more than half the world's population live in cities. That One of the main challenges facing cities in the twenty-first century، the focus of poverty in cities. Urban poverty especially in developing countries، is expanding faster and higher volume. Poverty reduction is a global concern. Now part of the urban poor is rising. Urban poverty threatens urban communities despite all the global and national programs to combat it as social problem and omnipotent force and it organizes cities with chaotic effects. Urban poverty has a gender specified dimension. Gender perspective into poverty increases the perception of poverty as causes with this perspective goes beyond the descriptive analysis of the causes of poverty. So check the status of gender and the spread of urban poverty and ways to improve the current conflict. Feminization of poverty is one of the main problems of the present time That has captivated millions of people to itself And among women in the world are victims of bitter poverty However، due to lack of information about the various groups of poor women in the analysis of this phenomenon is not well but، limited information is also indicative of the fact that it is shocking and grievous That far more women than men suffer from the problem of poverty. The statistical population is legal range of Tabriz city in 2006 and our sample size is 2006 statistical blocks. The research method is an applied، descriptive، comparative analytical. For recognizing and measuring poverty; spatial autocorrelation technique using hot spot analysis in Arc / GIS is used. To analyze the distribution patterns of urban poverty Moran statistic is used after showing indicators of social-economic status for both men and women، Moran index for these indices are calculated. Moran index for the socio-economic characteristics of men and women in 2006 were calculated based on the average of this indicator is equal to 0. 082076 and 0. 317598. Since the Moran index for both positive and close to one Also according to the p-value is very small we can conclude that the socal-economic indicators for both women and men are spatial autocorrelation and the measure of statistical blocks in the cluster are scattered. The index for the index z score equal to 5. 108197 in 2006 for men and women to show 15. 00557. Significant with respect to the point’s Z score، the spatial correlation indicitors of women are than men. Also paired T-test was used to determine the level of significance. The results indicate that a significant level of economic indicators for women and men equal to 0. 09 since this number is greater than 0. 05 and is therefore، there isn’t a significant difference between men and women in terms of economic indicators. But since the level of significance for social index is less than 0. 05، it can be concluded that no significant difference between men and women in terms of social indicators are. In order to recognitize Tabriz in perspective of spatial poverty organization، statistical blocks of year 2006 have been used for both group of mens and womens. Social-economic indicators used in this study، 15 indicators for both women and men that inclouded 6 social indicators and 9 economic idicators fore each group. Also results from the analysis of the data show the distribution of urban poverty in the city of Tabriz space obeys cluster model. Prosperous clusters tend to be close to downtown and poor clusters have been scattered on the outskirts. also The largest number of urban blocks for men group is poor blocks with 34% and for women group is very poor blocks with 47%. The fewer the number of blocks in the block for men and women is very comfortable that this block for men group has 1% and for women group has 5% in year 2006.
    Keywords: urban poverty, spatial analysis, gender poverty, urban spaces
  • I. Ebrahimzadeh, E. Ghasemi Pages 83-104
    Introduction
    Now days housing is one of the most acute problems of developing countries، so that internal migration and problems related to land supply، lack of resources، poor economic management، lack of comprehensive planning، housing and other infrastructure deficiencies are the relate in the country's economy. on the one hand، the rapid increase in urban population as well as the providing of shelter in the country to form complex and multi-dimensional render; Therefore، this way to cause the continuing cities of development in the future and the predictions of contain of the increase in pollution، ecological degradation in urban areas. Along with these developments and concerns of sustainable development theory، its origin dates back to the last decades of the twentieth century، increase. according to the important role of cities in the development of the current instability، theory of sustainable urban development is of great importance and widespread effects on urban environments in order to fulfill the objectives of sustainable development of urban housing. So that the housing sector is an important role in this topic. Saman city is one of Bakhtiari province. Putting into the riverbank Zayanderud and also having the role of agriculture-tourism، high population growth in recent years that have migrated from neighboring villages to Saman. This migrating increased population، so، the providing of house are important for them. The purpose of this study is to investigate the physical approach to the sustainable development of urban housing in the city is Saman. Theoretical bases: The housing has a determining role in the shaping of cities. at the same time in terms of various parameters have been many problems. On the other hand، it is noteworthy that appropriate housing، welfare and psychological aspects also it is an important of role in the town. Therefore، identification of suitable housing indicators and efforts to achieve favorable habitat، it is important to discuss sustainable urban development. Martin Haydygr German philosopher with a qualitative approach to housing issues، believed that the real crisis of the housing it's not shortage، But the real crisis in search of man is to live; man must live ever before learning to learn. His live، build، growing and developing are knows synonymous. Indeed، sustainable development can be defined as a balance between ecological، economic and social protection and it development are depends on the quantity and quality of dealing with resources، skills and community housing development. In addition، can be depends on the environment and social affects، economy and culture. These are includes the development of upward economic and social change. So that urban housing is one of the most important elements in the sustainable development of the city. Mentioning is that one of the most knows aspects in the development of sustainable housing. So that today the housing is effective on change of the natural environment، culture، economy and social of problems. This will allow to the next generation for the providing a good living. Housing Sustainable is defined as a incompatibility of housing and contrary with his environment in the wider area of the world
    Discussion
    The results indicating that the city is settled in the relatively poor satiation. So that، in all four areas of the city، the materials indicator is lower than average. Region three and four are the most desirable and undesirable areas on the quality of housing indicator respectively، on the building date indicator region three and two were most desirable and most undesirable respectively، region one was most desirable and region three most undesirable in facade indicator، finally، in terms of floors number indicator region two and three were most desirable and most undesirable respectively. However، in the final housing structure indicator، region three was most desirable and region two most undesirable in Saman's housing structure. The five components of physical indicators of housing in Saman to make a decision after a review of the model are analyzed by Vykvr it was found that the three degrees of desirability، 0. 00 in the first place and the degree of compliance with 1. 000، is in last place. Also the quality grade four to grade a quality 0. 955 0. 694 in the third and fourth respectively.
    Conclusions
    The housing deterioration in Saman city، in the mountainous climate conditions، is more consistent and coordinated approach to sustainable development with attention to modernization of old and destruction is necessary. In view indicators the most desirable and undesirable area، an area which is three due to the low level of acceptance of the use of aluminum storefront is low، The aim of the current study is to evaluate the structural parameters of urban housing with a sustainable development approach. This study is a descriptive analytical study. The AHP's hierarchical model was used to weighting the indices and for evaluating and rating the stability of each of the urban areas Vicor and TOPSIS decision making techniques were used. In this study five structural parameters including materials or skeleton of the building، housing quality، old buildings، facades of houses and the number of floors were examined. The results indicating that the city is settled in the relatively poor satiation. So that، in all four areas of the city، the materials indicator is lower than average. Region three and four are the most desirable and undesirable areas on the quality of housing indicator respectively، on the building date indicator region three and two were most desirable and most undesirable respectively، region one was most desirable and region three most undesirable in facade indicator، finally، in terms of floors number indicator region two and three were most desirable and most undesirable respectively. Suggestions: In the current study and according to the findings of research in the physical desirability of housing turnover the following suggestions are offered in the Saman city. 1-Use more resistant materials such as steel and concrete in the areas of housing، especially the one and two to four in order of strength and resistance to natural disasters، is essential. 2. Increase the percentage of acceptable housing and repair durable and destructive strength of the housing in the area of the city is required. 3. The modernization and improvement of housing in the area and an area for further strengthening its priority. 4. The increased use of aluminum and composite view in the two and three beautiful part of the building in the style of the times is essential. 5. Using two and three floors of housing in the short and medium term from four to five storeys in order to conserve the land and the creation of intelligent and programmable stabilization city.
    Keywords: Urban Housing, Sustainable Development Structural indicators, Saman city
  • E. Poorgholamhasan, M. Baaghideh, M. Salmanimoghaddam Pages 105-126
    Introduction
    Today، the effect of climatic on architecture is obvious and any architectural projects which don’t consider climatic features of the targeted region would not be cost efficient and perfect. Besides architectures and residential areas، the urban spaces like streets، need to consider climatic studies. In line with this climatic architecture is a science which deals with using climatic elements to improve efficient construction so that it contributes with human comfort and saving fuels. It also distinguishes the architecture of a specific region. Technological developments and attaining fossil fuels led to our distance from the principles of traditional architecture. This study، consequently، aims to investigate the bioclimatic features of Sabzevar and present some ways for designing constructions in line with bioclimatic features of different regions so that constructions become of compatible with the climatic features. Theoretical bases: Architecture compatible with climate is defined as maintains of microclimatic condition of the houses in the comfort limits disregarding exterior condition of buildings. Comfort limit is the condition in which an approximate 80% of people feel comfortable. The main configurations of a building include wall، roof، window and bower; each one is directly influenced by climatic features. Consequently this study initially classified buildings in Sabzevar in to three groups based on architecture and the ago: Old، Middle and Modern textures. Then a questionnaire with 43 questions was designed and distributed among the settlers of a sample of 195 buildings (80 modern، 70 middle and 45 old constructions) randomly selected. Direct interview with the inhabitants، photography and visiting the interior the results were analyzed for all the three textures and were complemented by the meteorological data، including maximum and minimum temperature، the average temperature fluctuation per month، the average yearly temperature fluctuation، the average maximum and minimum relative humidity the average relative humidity per month، the total yearly precipitation and wind direction and speed were used for a period of 30 years (1980-2010) from Sabzevar Synoptic Station. Mahoney Model was also used to investigate the bioclimatic situation of Sabzevar. Finally suggestions were presented for improving the design and architecture of construction in Sabzevar so that they will be compatible with the climatic features.
    Discussion
    The results of this study indicated that the buildings should be constructed with a North-South direction; the buildings are better to be more compact; the windows should take about 25-40% of the walls and the construction materials of the interior and exterior should be heavy to hold the heat with a delay time of 8 hours. Considering the climate of Sabzevar in the second half of the year and the need to save heat، heavy roofs with a delay time of 8 hours are recommended. Furthermore، open spaces for rest and sleep is recommended in the architecture. The compatibility of each texture، modern، old and middle، was analyzed through Mahoney Model indicated that the old buildings are most and modern buildings are the least compatible with the climatic condition.
    Conclusion
    in this research، beside of studying inhabitance building in different period of time، we propose principles for adaptive designing that be proper for Sabzevar climate. We compare adaptive design in old building with new ones، and find that in old building، they consider climate as effective element in designing، but in new building، because of modern technology، climate as effective element has been forgotten. Mahoney Model solutions that are compatible with the climate of Sabzevar are: The proper placement of buildings، building proper spacing، use of specific materials in walls، ceilings and floors، a rest place in open air، specifications windows With this guidelines، we hope more buildings be more comfort and increase energy saving. If these conditions fulfill، huge burden of consumer spending will be removed. 5- Suggestions: for further study the following suggestion are presented: -Changing the altitudes towards old architecture and modeling the positive points in this architecture so that the architecture would be more compatible with climatic conditions in the modern urban texture. -Employing the finding of this research in designing and construction of future houses and apartments in Sabzevar. -Maintaining and repairing the old construction as valuable architectures and making the authorities and decision makers to use this architecture as a compatible one with warm and dry regions. -More supervision on principles of architecture and construction of today’s housing so that there will be a considerable saving in the energy expenses. -Since Mahoney Model doesn’t consider the effect of wind speed، we recommend other modes with this factor in the future studies.
    Keywords: climate, architecture, model Mahany, Sabzevar
  • A. Abedini Pages 127-144
    Introduction
    Providing housing finance is one of the main components of housing sector’s strategy and also one of the most main items of the housing economy. In Urmia like other cities، deteriorating housing prices on one hand and households’ low- income in contact with house prices in other hand، has considered housing affordability of the citizens. This paper first analyses and then prioritizes the mortgage market and mutual funds، the affecting factors on increasing urban households’ housing affordability. Methodology of Research: This is an applied research that applies a descriptive- analytical approach to analyze and rank two factors of the mutual funds and mortgage market on increasing urban households’ housing affordability by using SWOT model. Data collection was done in two stages; inner (strength and weakness) and outer (opportunities and threats) were identified and selected in the first stage based on interviews with experts in finance، banking professionals، experts of urban planning. Then the representative sample including experts was identified to evaluate four factors in mortgages and bond certificates on urban households’ affordability. Using questionnaires and evaluating the representative samples by Likert 1 to 5 the strength، weakness، opportunities and threats were identified. Then the matrix of four factors was evaluated and ranked the factors that have been conducted and the conclusion is based on available data.
    Discussion
    The reasons of Challenges and problems in the housing sector at macro level (country)، especially for low- income groups in urban areas can be found in the following cases in Iran: The low per capita real income in all income groups، low- income deciles’ relatively below the poverty line living، spending more than 50 percent of their income for housing by low- income groups، lack of housing in many low- income classes، lack of welfare facilities and risky housing in low- income groups، Low cost of land and housing prices in the area outside the city limits which causes informal settlements، lack of compliance between programs and low- income household’s conditions، no tendency to new financial instruments to develop credit stock market and the banks investment bonds and certificates of deposit and the secondary mortgage market، increasing liquidity risk for housing loans (loans with deposits)، low- income families going out of the housing finance system، severe impact of exogenous factors such as the rising cost of land and housing in the housing finance system، unequal distribution of income among different groups of income، loss of affordable housing، the uneven distribution of urban income، the rapid growth of rental rates، the imbalance between supply and current housing demand and lack of low- income groups’ tend to sit flat.
    Conclusion
    The results in micro level show that the following factors are more effective in housing affordability of Urmia households between internal and external factors: Facilities without depositing، low-income households’ entrance to housing market، low amount of facilities in proportion to the price of residential units، daily increasing interval between facilities and housing prices، possibility of increasing the repayment period، availability for all income groups، unaffordability of low- income households to bank repayments، raising affordability of low- income households، the lack of participation of all banks in housing، providing a secondary mortgage market and…. Finally this paper shows that the mortgage market and mutual funds act an effective role on housing affordability of the urban households.
    Keywords: Ranking, Mortgage, Financing, Affordability, Housing, Urmia
  • R. Mokhtary, R. Hoseinzadeh, E. Safaralizadeh Pages 145-166
    Introduction
    Regional disparities among Countries in the world are growing trend; this is more visible in the Third World Countries. It causes the rise of big Cities and growing there، In contrast to; the Cities، Villages and Regions is a gradual Retardation. To achieve Sustainable development، Minimizing Regional Disparities is Essential. In Third World Countries، Governments and Political Organizations today are focused more on Economic Growth that results in lack distribution of Income and Regional Inequalities. So that in Iran، during the years 1960 – 2002، the average Economic Growth was 6/4% per year and the GDP Growth of non-oil Substances more than 5/5% during this period. During the years 2000 - 2003 Real GDP Growth was over 6 percent. Good Economic Growth with Oil Revenues has led the Growth of large Cities and Increased Inequality in Regions and Areas. In Fars Province، Shiraz City، as the Provincial Capital، major Services، Facilities and Industry is collect in and has acted as the Premier City in Region. To identify the level of Inequalities، Grouping Indicators، in the Analysis of Regional Disparities with Diverse Population can be Effective، because the most Disparities related Areas and if the need to develop the Regional Economy; it is Necessary to pay Special Attention to Poor Areas. This Research utilizes various Indicators of Regional development، trying to evaluate the Fars Province in terms of Development and Disparities are determined. Theoretical: bases Region، in terms of concept is close to the Hinterland and as a Geography Science Lab. Larousse Dictionary defines Region as Part of a Country that unity comes from Natural Factors (Topography، Climate، etc.) or Human (Population، Economy and Culture، etc.). And Land Use Planning seeks to Balance Development between Regions، Use of Resources to develop، Equitable Distribution of Income and Activities between different Areas and emphasis on Resources، backward and Marginalized Areas and Harmonious development of Poles and Growth Centers. But it is evident discuss of Land Use Planning has not been Implemented in development program before the Revolution. So that in Iran’s Third Developing Program، Growth Pole Policy، Proposed and was developed (This Theory was introduced in the first time by Fransua pero in 1949 with emphasizing Economic Growth and Accumulation of Spatial Concentration)، was not successful Because none of these poles were not locate in less developed Areas، But were in the major provincial Centers، or in fast-Growing Cities and Regions. Another theory that has been discussed in the Context of Regional development is Jon Friedman’s Center - Periphery Theory; that emphasis on Interaction between Polarization and Distribution. If Distribution force is dominant، Development will go to the balance and if the Polarization Effect is dominant، Colonial Relationship is occurring and Spatial Inequality will increase. But many of the Regional development Strategies، on development of Marginal Areas have a Negative Effect and their Distribution effects; less than Effects of Retreat or expected Effects are not followed.
    Discussion
    The 62 indicators، in the fields of Cultural- Religious، Economic، Social، Environmental-Physical and Health، Communication-Transition were selected and weighted by the Entropy Model، and then were analyzed Based on the VIKOR Model. According to the results Cities of Fars Province in four bands possessed full Prosperous، Prosperous، Semi – Prosperous and Deprived was classified based on VIKOR Model. Shiraz City is full Prosperous and Cities of Kazeroun، Jahrom and Estahban were Prosperous and Darab، Neyriz، Mohr، Abadeh، Lamerd، and Bavanat Cities were Semi Prosperous and other Cities (19) were deprived.
    Conclusion
    The Fars Province suffers from Inequality so that The 29 Cities of the Province، The Shiraz City is full Prosperous and Cities of Kazeroun، Jahrom and Estahban were Prosperous and Darab، Neyriz، Mohr، Abadeh، Lamerd، and Bavanat Cities were Semi Prosperous and other Cities (19) were deprived. The common Pattern in Fars Province is influenced by Growth Pole and Hill hoverst Theory، Shiraz، the Provincial Capital، the main Indicators of Economic، Social، Health، Communications، etc. present in، And not as a Growth Pole، but has acted as Parasitic to his Surroundings. In general، the geographical distribution of Cities in Fars Province shows that the northern and eastern City's of provinces are more developed from western half and Southern Half. Also in the area، Health indicators than other Indicators have been more balanced distribution. Suggestions: Several measures can be taken to overcome Inequalities، is one of them the Identification of deficiencies. To resolve this problem in Fars Province to consider this Suggestion can be effective. - Studying cities، separated from Shiraz، mamasani، larestan cities، … and identifying deficiencies and needs of the citizens in them - Regarding the missing link in urban system (small and middle cities) can be useful to reduce migration and brown field development in these cities - Decentralization of administrative، industrial and service sectors of the city of Shiraz and transfer it to middle and small cities in the province are located in the surrounding areas. - Regarding the less developed areas، especially in health indicators in the city of Kavar، Rostam، Kharameh، Zarrin Dasht and… - Create jobs and improving economic and social indicators in small towns to consider and hire locals in each city to prevent migration and growth of provincial centers to achieve Social justice for all people to have equal opportunities. - Promotion of health indicators in the city of Kawar، Rostam and… - Given the role of communication in the development of the city mamasani، Kawar، zarrin plains and sepidan. - Benefit from participation in the procurement process in urban development projects and according to the needs of citizens. - Development centers in the area due to the potential growth in the city for the decentralization of the state and development of disadvantaged city.
    Keywords: Sustainable development, Regional Inequality, Vaikor Model, Fars province
  • M. Tabatabaeenasan, F. Zarabkhaneh, F. Asadian Pages 167-188
    Introduction
    At the same time increasing the range of tourism options and more competitive in the tourism destinations، the idea used of brand destination to increase value is the many attention (Williams، Gil And Chara 2004; 149). To measure destination brand equity، attention to its constituent elements is necessary. So far، some of the ways to increase destination brand equity، such as creating a strong emotional attachment through destination loyalty and destination image is examined. But، the effect of enduring travel involvement، as the interest rate to travel is a new ideas. Review of enduring travel involvement studies، has shown that it play a constructive role in developing destination brand equity (McIntyre، 1989; 596). Therefore، in this study، the rol of enduring travel involvement in the development of brand equity is examined. In this study، by reviewing relevant research literature، the travel enjoyment، the importance of travel and tourist self-expression as three constituent elements on enduring travel involvement is intended. Then، the impact of enduring travel involvement on the destination brand awareness، destination brand image، destination brand quality and destination brand loyalty as factors influencing the development of destination brand equity، is studied. Theoretical bases: 2-1- Enduring travel involvement: Enduring travel involvement is a person’s baseline involvement، which is the default state reflecting the amount of interest، arousal، or emotional attach- ment one has with travel. It occurs even when the action of travel is not operative or one is not planning a trip or visiting a destination. Such interest in travel may arise from an individual’s perception that travel meets important values and goals. Endur- ing travel involvement is the value that one prescribes to the pleasure of travel. 2-2- Travel enjoyment: This measure is conceptualized as the acknowledged significance of an activity (in this case an adventure tourism activity) and the pleasure derived from participation in that activity. This enjoyment dimension was created using items related to importance of participation and enjoyment (Beckman، 2013). 2-3- Self-expression: The second dimension of enduring involvement is self-expression. Self-expression is the degree to which participants express their individuality through the setting. Self-expression denotes the impression of the self that consumers wish to express to others through their participation in the tourism activity. The activity provides the opportunity for self-affirmation، and allows consumers to be themselves (Beckman، 2013). 2-4- Travel Importance: The third dimension of enduring involvement. If the activity is important to the consumer، then the consumer will be more involved with the activity and it will place a greater meaning to that adventure consumer. According to Mittal (1989)، importance is a primary factor for an enduring and lasting involvement (Beckman، 2013). 2-5- Destination brand awareness: Destination brand awareness is consumer's ability to recognize or recall a brand specific destination that create destination image in the minds of potential tourists (Koneknik and Gartner، 2007). 2-6- Destination brand image: Destination brand image is defined by Woodward (2000) as، «Brand perceptions of the brand that reflected in the consumer's mind by brand associated markers (Imani khoshkhoo and Aubi Yazdi، 1389). 2-7- Destination brand loyalty: Destination brand loyalty is a situation that indicates how likely a customer is to bring another brand، especially when that brand is no change in price or other aspects of product creation is stopped (Iranzadeh et al، 1391). 2-8- Destination brand quality: Perceived quality of the brand، is the consumer's perception of the overall quality or superiority of a product or service than other products or services (Imani khoshkhoo and Aubi Yazdi، 1389).
    Discussion
    In this paper، after examined conceptual model by using smart pls software، it became apparent conceptual model is a good fit. Then hypotheses were examined. Results indicate that all hypotheses were confirmed.
  • N. Azimi, R. Esmaeilpour, S. Heidari Page 189
    Introduction
    The main objective of this research is to examine the main factors that influence citizen participation in urban managing. We have focused on the electronic participation of people to identify the main factors that affect this participation. Two approaches could be used to find these impacting factors. One is to study citizens’ perception about the main driving forces for their willingness to participation in urban affairs، and second is to assess the opinion of local authorities and the employees of municipalities to identify the influencing forces for citizen participation. Assuming that local authorities and employees of municipalities are confronting with practical aspects of public participation in urban affairs، this study employed the second approach to evaluate the impacting factors of citizens’ e-participation in urban management. City of Rasht، the largest population centre among the northern provinces of Iran، was used as a case study to conduct this research. The main methodology for this research was descriptive and analytical. The employed data came from a field survey، in which 337 people from local authorities and municipality staffs were interviewed using a researcher made questionnaire. Literature review: Citizen participation is one of the bases of democracy. Establishment of democracy implies increasing citizen participation in public affairs (Hsaio، 2003). Participation is one of the necessities of urban life and it will occur when citizens think beyond their individual life and feel a social responsibility to become a real citizen (Halachmi، 2011). Citizen participation has an essential role in establishing safe and powerful society and having equal and more access to resources (Foster-Fishman، et al.، 2009. In the process of urban development، citizen’s participation has become an important factor not only as a result of democracy and a method to involve people in the planning process، but also achieving to create a real partnership (Muller-Jokel، 2003). In decision making process، urban planners have tried to be informed about citizens’ view and implement their projects through citizen’s cooperation. Conceptually، electronic citizenship participation is defined as information technology to improve and expand citizen participation (Zissis، 2009). Over the last decades، governments have widely adopted electronic government (e-government) to provide information and services online (Coursey and Norris 2008 Citizen participation is very important to the success of urban planning projects، because any planning project will ultimately become part of the public life (Barton، et al.، 2005; Counsell، et al.، 2006). Therefore، the earlier and the more intensively the public is involved in an urban planning project، the more likely the project will succeed (Wu، et al.، 2010).
    Discussion
    To do this research، we first utilized a conceptual model in which nine main variables were assumed as the main factors affecting citizens’ participation in urban management. These variables in essence constituted the research hypothesis (Fig. 1). To evaluate these factors، 30 questions were employed to measure their relative impacts on citizens’ e-participation in urban affairs from municipality staff opinion. After testing the reliability of data using Cronbach’s Alpha test and assuring the normality of data using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test، the non-parametric T-test was used to find the Relationship between selected variables and citizens’ e-participation in urban management. Results of T-test were shown in Table 1After performing T-test، the significance of variables was ranked through the Friedman Test. The output of this test indicates how much each variable affects the e-participation of citizens in urban management in the study area (Table 2).
    Conclusion
    This study assessed the main factors impacting the citizens’ e-participation in urban management in the city of Rasht، Iran. The main findings of the study revealed that required knowledge and informing the citizens، sense of belonging and commitment، perception of the participation consequences، electronic infrastructure of the city and profitability of partnership constitute the most important factors of e-participation of citizens among selected variables. Social satisfaction، citizens’ confidence، economic situation of citizens and sense of ownership were among the other influencing factors of e-participation with lesser degree of importance among the selected variables. Given that this study was conducted in a single city and was based on the opinion of officials، experts and staff in the municipality، certainly، its findings is suited more to the study area. Since different environmental، social، economic and cultural conditions of cities could impact the casual factors affecting citizen participation in urban affairs، more studies of this kind with different approaches are suggested to better understand the main factors affecting electronic participation of citizens in urban management.
    Keywords: Citizen's e participation_main factors_urban management_Rasht