فهرست مطالب

Iranian Biomedical Journal - Volume:20 Issue:1, 2015
  • Volume:20 Issue:1, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/08/23
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Haji Bahadar, Faheem Maqbool, Kamal Niaz, Mohammad Abdollahi * Pages 1-11
    Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing field having potential applications in many areas. Nanoparticles (NPs) have been studied for cell toxicity, immunotoxicity, and genotoxicity. Tetrazolium-based assays such as MTT, MTS, and WST-1 are used to determine cell viability. Cell inflammatory response induced by NPs is checked by measuring inflammatory biomarkers, such as IL-8, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor, using ELISA. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay is used for cell membrane integrity. Different types of cell cultures, including cancer cell lines have been employed as in vitro toxicity models. It has been generally agreed that NPs interfere with either assay materials or with detection systems. So far, toxicity data generated by employing such models are conflicting and inconsistent. Therefore, on the basis of available experimental models, it may be difficult to judge and list some of the more valuable NPs as more toxic to biological systems and vice versa. Considering the potential applications of NPs in many fields and the growing apprehensions of FDA about the toxic potential of nanoproducts, it is the need of the hour to look for new internationally agreed free of bias toxicological models by focusing more on in vivo studies.
    Keywords: Cytotoxicity, in vitro, Metal nanoparticles, Toxicology, Review
  • Somayeh Bohlouli, Arezou Rabzia, Ehsan Sadeghi, Farzaneh Chobsaz, Mozafar Khazaei * Pages 12-17
    Background
    Endometriosis is a complex disorder in reproductive age women which consist of stromal and epithelial cells implantation outside the uterine cavity. Adiponectin is a member of cytokine family with various metabolic roles and proliferation inhibition of many cancer cells. The aim of the present research was to determine adiponectin effect on human endometriotic stromal cells (ESCs) proliferation and their expression of adiponectin receptors.
    Methods
    In this experimental study, endometrial biopsies (n = 7) were taken. ESCs isolation was done by enzymatic digestion and cell filtrations. ESCs of each biopsy were divided into four groups: 0 (control), 10, 100, and 200 ng/ml adiponectin concentrations in three different times (24, 48 or 72 h). The effect of adiponectin on ESC viability and expression of mRNA Adipo receptor1 (R1) and Adipo receptor2 (R2) was determined by Trypan blue staining and semi-quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and unpaired student’s t-test, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
    Results
    Adiponectin inhibited human endometriotic stromal cell proliferation in time- and dose-dependent manners significantly (P = 0.001). Expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 gene receptors was increased in human ESCs significantly (P < 0.05).
    Conclusions
    Adiponectin can suppress endometriosis by inhibiting ESC proliferation and increased AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 expression.
    Keywords: Adiponectin, Adiponectin receptors, endometriosis, stromal cells
  • Leila Pirmoradi, Ali Noorafshan, Akbar Safaee, Gholam Abbas Dehghani * Pages 18-25
    Background
    Oral vanadyl sulfate (vanadium) induces normoglycemia, proliferates beta cells and prevents pancreatic islet atrophy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Soteriological method is used to quantitate the proliferative effects of vanadium on beta-cell numbers and islet volumes of normal and diabetic rats.
    Methods
    Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were made diabetic with intravenous streptozotocin injection (40 mg/kg). Normal and diabetic rats were divided into four groups. While control normal and diabetic (CD) groups used water, vanadium-treated normal (VTN) and diabetic (VTD) groups used solutions containing vanadyl sulfate (0.5-1 mg/mL, VOSO4 + 5H2O). Tail blood samples were used to measure blood glucose (BG) and plasma insulin. Two months after treatment, rats were sacrificed, pancreata prepared, and stereology method was used to quantitatively evaluate total beta cell numbers (TBCN) and total islet volumes (TISVOL).
    Results
    Normoglycemia persisted in VTN with significantly decreased plasma insulin (0.19 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.97 +/- 0.27 ng/dL, P<0.002). The respective high BG (532 +/- 49 vs. 144 +/- 46 mg/dL, P<0.0001) and reduced plasma insulin (0.26 +/- 0.15 vs. 0.54 +/- 0.19 ng/dL, P<0.002) seen in CD were reversed in VTD during vanadium treatment or withdrawal. While the induction of diabetes, compared to their control, significantly decreased TISVOL (1.9 +/- 0.2 vs. 3.03 +/- 0.6 mm3, P<0.003) and TBCN (0.99 +/- 0.1 vs. 3.2 +/- 0.2 x 106, P<0.003), vanadium treatment significantly increased TISVOL (2.9 +/- 0.8 and 4.07 +/- 1.0 mm3, P<0.003) and TBCN (1.5 +/- 0.3 and 3.8 +/- 0.6 x 106, P<0.03).
    Conclusion
    Two-month oral vanadium therapy in STZ-diabetic rats ameliorated hyperglycemia by partially restoring plasma insulin. This was through proliferative actions of vanadium in preventing islet atrophy by increasing beta-cell numbers.
    Keywords: Vanadium, Pancreas, Islet volumes, Rats
  • Simin Riahi, Mohammad Taghi Mohammadi *, Vahid Sobhani, Shima Ababzadeh Pages 26-32
    Background
    Overexpression of lectin-like low density lipoprotein (LOX-1) receptor plays an important role in hyperglycemia-induced vascular complications such as atherosclerosis. Based on the beneficial effects of exercise on preventing cardiovascular complications of diabetes, we aimed to examine the protective effects of aerobic exercise on expression of LOX-1 receptor and production of free radicals in the heart of diabetic rats.
    Methods
    Four groups of rats were used: (n = 5 per group): sedentary normal, trained normal, sedentary diabetes and trained diabetes. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). The exercise protocol was consisted of swimming 30 min/day, 5 days/week for eight weeks. Plasma glucose was evaluated at initiation, weeks 4 and 8 of experiment. At the end of experiment, rats were sacrificed and the heart was removed for determination of nitrate, malondialdehyde, and LOX-1 gene expression.
    Results
    In normal non-diabetic rats, the blood glucose level was <150 mg/dl; however, the induction of diabetes resulted in levels more than >400 mg/dl. Gene expression of LOX-1 was increased in the heart of diabetic rats. Exercise reduced the gene expression of this protein in diabetic states without reducing the blood glucose. Finally, swimming exercise decreased the malondialdehyde and nitrate levels in heart tissue both in control and diabetic rats.
    Conclusion
    Swimming exercise reduces heart expression of the LOX-1 receptor in accompany with reduction of free radicals production. Since these parameters are important in generation of diabetic complications, swimming exercise is a good candidate for reducing these complications.
    Keywords: Hyperglycemia, Diabetic complications, LOX, 1 receptor, Exercise, Free radicals
  • Soraya Abbasi Habashi *, Farzaneh Sabouni, Ali Moghimi, Saeed Ansari Majd Pages 33-40
    Background
    Microglial cells act as the sentinel of the central nervous system. They are involved in neuroprotection but are highly implicated in neurodegeneration of the aging brain. When over-activated, microglia release pro-inflammatory factors, such as nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines, which are critical in eliciting neuroinflammatory responses associated with neurodegenerative diseases. This study examined whether bromelain, the pineapple-derived extract, may exert an anti-inflammatory effect in primary microglia and may be neuroprotective by regulating microglial activation.
    Methods
    Following the isolation of neonatal rat primary microglial cells, the activation profile of microglia was investigated by studying the effects of bromelain (5, 10, 20, and 30 µg/ml) on the levels of NO, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in microglia treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 µg/ml). Data were analyzed using Student's t-test. P values less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant, compared with the LPS-treated group without bromelain.
    Results
    Results showed that pretreatment of rat primary microglia with bromelain, decreased the production of NO induced by LPS (1 µg/ml) treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Bromelain (30 µg/ml) also significantly reduced the expression of iNOS at mRNA level and NF-κB at protein level. Moreover, the study of mitochondrial activity in microglia indicated that bromelain had no cytotoxicity at any of the applied doses, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effects of bromelain are not due to cell death.
    Conclusion
    Bromelain can be of potential use as an agent for alleviation of symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases.
    Keywords: Microglia, Nitric oxide, NF, kappa B, Neuroimmunomodulation, Ananas
  • Babak Baharvand, Mansour Esmailidehaj *, Jamileh Alihosaini, Shirin Bajoovand, Saeedeh Esmailidehaj, Zeynab Hafizi Barjin Pages 41-48
    Background
    This study was conducted to reveal that whether i.v. injection of oleuropein, the most potent polyphenolic antioxidant in olive leaf, has any effect on the magnitude of reperfusion arrhythmia in anesthetized rats or not.
    Methods
    Eighty male Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups of 10 each: groups 1 and 5 were assigned as the prophylactic and treatment control groups, groups 2 and 6 as the prophylactic and treatment groups with lidocaine (10 mg/kg), groups 3 and 4 as the prophylactic groups with 10 and 50 mg/kg oleuropein (i.v.), and groups 7 and 8 as the treatment groups with 10 and 50 mg/kg oleuropein (i.v.), respectively. Reperfusion injury was induced by 5-min regional ischemia and 15-min reperfusion of left anterior descending coronary artery. Heart rate, blood pressure, and electrocardiogram were monitored throughout the procedure.
    Results
    blood pressure was significantly decreased by infusion of 50 mg/kg oleuropein in groups 4 and 8, but unlike the lidocaine as a standard anti-arrhythmic drug in groups 2 and 5 had not significant effect on heart rate. The onset of arrhythmia in groups received oleuropein (groups 3, 4, 7, and 8) was significantly delayed. The mortality rate due to irreversible ventricular fibrillation was also significantly reduced in groups 3, 4, 7, and 8. The effect of lidocaine in groups 2 and 5 was more potent than that in oleuropein group.
    Conclusion
    These findings indicate that i.v. injection of oleuropein possibly through its antioxidant activity reduces the magnitude of reperfusion-induced arrhythmia.
    Keywords: Oleuropein, Arrhythmia, Reperfusion, Rats
  • Majid Akbari, Bita Bakhshi *, Shahin Najar Peerayeh Pages 49-55
    Background
    Based on biochemical properties, Enterobacter cloacae represents a large complex of at least 13 variant species, subspecies, and genotypes that progressively identified as the most species causing hospital-acquired infections. The aim of this study was to determine the relevance between phylogenetically related strains within the E. cloacae complex and the frequency of urinary tract infection caused by them.
    Methods
    A 268-bp fragment was obtained from hsp60 gene for 50 clinical E. cloacae isolates from urine cultures of inpatients that admitted to six hospitals in Tehran, Iran during December 2012 to November 2013. The 107 nucleotide sequences were analyzed and the evolutionary distances of sequences were computed and neighbor-joining tree was calculated.
    Results
    It showed that all of the genetic clusters have not an equal involvement in pathogenesis of urinary tract infections. Three superior clusters were found, together representing more than two third (80%) of the isolates (cluster VI with 25 members; clusters III and VIII with 9 and 6 members, respectively) and some genetic clusters were absent (IV, X, XII, and xiii), some of which are supposed to be associated with plants and no human infection has been reported.
    Conclusions
    This study, for the first time, reports the unequal contribution of E. cloacae complex subspecies and clusters in urinary tract infections in Iran and together with studies from other countries suggest that the subspecies of E.hormaechei subsp. Oharae is the most prevalent E. cloacae complex subspecies regardless of country under study.
    Keywords: Enterobacter cloacae complex, Urinary tract infection, hsp60
  • Babak Mamnoon, Ahmad Reza Kamyab, Dariush Ilghari, Ali Khamesipour, Mohsen Karimi Arzenani *, Taghi Naserpour Farivar Pages 56-62
    Background
    Existence of bacterial host cell DNA contamination in biopharmaceutical products is a potential risk factor for patients receiving these drugs. Hence, the quantity of contamination must be controlled under the regulatory standards. Although different methods such as hybridization assays have been employed to determine DNA impurities, these methods are labor, intensive and rather expensive. In this study, a rapid real-time PCR test was served as a method of choice to quantify the E. coli host cell DNA contamination in widely used recombinant streptokinase (rSK), and alpha interferon (IFN-α) preparations.
    Methods
    A specific primer pair was designed to amplify a sequence inside the E. coli 16S rRNA gene. Serial dilutions of DNA extracted from E. coli host cells along with DNA extracted from Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients of rSK, and IFN-α samples were subjected to an optimized real-time PCR assay based on SYBR Green chemistry.
    Results
    The test enabled us to detect a small quantity of genomic DNA contamination as low as 0.0002 picograms, in recombinant protein-based drugs. For the first time, this study showed that DNA contamination in rSK and IFN-α preparation manufactured in Pasteur Institute of Iran is much lower than the safety limit suggested by the US FDA.
    Conclusion
    Real-time PCR is a reliable test for rapid detection of host cell DNA contamination, which is a major impurity of therapeutic recombinant protein to keep manufacturers’ minds on refining drugs, and provides consumers with safer biopharmaceuticals.
    Keywords: Host cell DNA contamination, Real, time PCR, Recombinant streptokinase (rSK), Alpha interferon (IFN, ?)
  • Ali Bazi *, Mohammad Reza Keramati, Mehran Gholamin Pages 63-67
    Background
    Recently, it has been revealed that tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) act through inducing both oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in chronic myeloid leukemia cells. However, ER stress signaling triggers both apoptotic and survival processes within cells. Nevertheless, mechanisms by which TKIs avoid the pro-survival effects are not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential role of oxidative stress in activity of unfolded protein response (UPR) survival pathway within K562 cell line.
    Methods
    The expression of UPR survival target genes, Xbp1, and Grp94 (glucose requiring protein 94) was studied in single and combined exposure to oxidative and ER stress in K562 cell line by quantitative and qualitative PCR.
    Results
    The expression of UPR-related survival gene Grp94 was hampered by exposing to oxidative stress in cell induced with ER stress.
    Conclusion
    Interaction of oxidative and ER stress may role as a mediator influencing UPR signaling activity.
    Keywords: Unfolded protein response, Oxidative stress, Endoplasmic reticulum stress