فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:3 Issue:1, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/08/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Leila Sarparast, Mohammad Jafar Saffar* Page 1
    Context: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection is an emerging human disease that has been reported from the Arabian Peninsula and Middle East countries since 2012. Although zoonotic transmission was postulated, virological and serological finding suggest that the dromedary camels act as the potential reservoirs of MERS-CoV infection to humans. As October 2014, a totally 855 confirmed cases with 333 related deaths were reported to WHO. All cases occurred in or epidemiologically linked to affected countries. The virus ability to induce a pandemic attack is limited. The clinical presentations vary and range from asymptomatic infection to severe respiratory disease and death. However, most severe disease occurs in elderly and in those with underlying conditions. Infection prevention and control measures are critical to prevent the possible spread of MERS-CoV infection is health care facilities and in the community. The WHO encourages all member states to perform surveillance of patients with acute severe respiratory infection and to carefully monitor any unusual patterns. This paper aims to review the current key characteristics of MERS-CoV infection in human and update the WHO recommendations about this illness.
    Keywords: MERS, COV, Infection, Measures
  • Zohreh Hajheydari, *, Leila Sarparast, Soheila Shahmohammadi Page 2
    Psoriasis is an inherited chronic inflammatory papulosquamous disorder with a variable clinical spectrum affecting about 0.5% to 2% of children and adolescence. In spite of all performed researches around the world for seeking better treatments with fewer adverse effects to control the disease, there is still no cure for psoriasis. Treatment of psoriasis in children is very conservative and many therapies used for adults may not be appropriate for children due to possible long-term or delayed adverse effects. A wide range of therapeutic options are existed including; topical therapy, phototherapy, chemotherapy, systemic therapies and biologic therapies. Here in, because of the lack of data in this specific field of dermatology, we decided to review the current therapies of childhood psoriasis.
    Keywords: Psoriasis, Papulosquamous Disorders, Treatment, Children
  • Javad Ghaffari*, Soheila Shahmohammadi, Hossein Ashrafi, Ali Reza Ranjbar, Negar Ghaffari Page 3
    Generally, 15-25% of general population experience urticaria during their life. The prevalence of chronic urticaria is about 0.1-0.3% in children and most often occurs between ages of 6-11 years. There are several causes for development of chronic urticaria. Known etiologies of chronic urticaria in children vary from 21% to 83%. Chronic urticaria caused by infections is more common in children than adults. Diagnosis of chronic urticaria is based on clinical history and physical examination and routine laboratory testing in the absence of a clinical history is rarely helpful. Similar to adults, antihistamines are the first line of treatment. Omalizumab as a biological engineering molecule is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody, which targets the CH3 domain of the ε chain of the free IgE. Omalizumab has been used in patients with H1-antihistamine-refractory chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). Here in we made a review about possible mechanisms by which omalizumab may be effective in children above 12 years with chronic urticaria, and also focused on its therapeutic effects, onset criteria and possible side effects.
    Keywords: Omalizumab, Chronic Urticaria, Child, Therapeutics
  • Nazanin Shafie Pour, Majid Saeedi*Katayoun Morteza Semnani, Jafar Akbari Page 4
    Chronic ultraviolet exposure results in premature skin aging (photoaging), dyspigmentation, sallow color, textural changes, loss of elasticity, and premalignant actinic keratoses. UVB radiation is mainly responsible for acute damages such as sunburn, and long-term damage including melanoma. Today the sun''s ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induced skin cancer is a major issue worldwide. History of sun exposure and sunburns are the most important behavioral risks. Childhood sun exposure is considered as a substantial risk because a child’s skin has a thinner stratum corneum, lower levels of protective melanin, and a higher surface area to body-mass-ratio. Thus, protection against UVR in childhood is essential. Research has shown that people who have had a sunburn in childhood or were in the sun unprotected are more likely to have skin cancer. In this article, we review the literature to address the protection of children against sun and skin cancer.
    Keywords: Sunlight, Infant, Ultraviolet Ray, Sun Protection Factor
  • Kobra Shiasi Arani* Page 5
    Context: Cartilage-hair hypoplasia is a rare hereditary cause of short stature. The aim of this study was to familiarize physicians with this rare but important disease.Evidence Acquisition: This article is a narrative review of the scientific literature to inform about clinical features and management of Cartilage-hair hypoplasia. A systematic search identified 127 papers include original and review articles and case reports.
    Results
    Cartilage-Hair Hypoplasia characterized by short-limb dwarfism associated with metaphyseal chondrodysplasia. The inheritance is autosomal recessive. Other findings include hair hypoplasia, anemia, immunodeficiency, propensity to infections, gastrointestinal disorders (Hirschsprung disease, anal stenosis, esophageal atresia and malabsorption), defective spermatogenesis, increased risk of malignancies and higher rate of mortality. Immunodeficiency in cartilage-hair hypoplasia may be an isolated B-cell or isolated T-cell immunodeficiency or combined B and T-cell immunodeficiency; however, severe combined immunodeficiency is rare. There is no known treatment for hair hypoplasia. Growth hormone was used with conflicting results for short stature in children with Cartilage-hair hypoplasia. Skeletal problems must be managed with physiotherapy and appropriate orthopedic interventions. Hirschsprung disease, anal stenosis and esophageal atresia should be surgically corrected. Patients with severe hypoplastic anemia require repeated transfusions. Bone marrow transplantation may be required for patients with severe combined immunodeficiency or severe persistent hypoplastic anemia. Treatment with G-CSF is useful for neutropenia. Patients should be monitored closely for developing malignancy such as skin neoplasms, lymphomas and leukemias.
    Conclusions
    Cartilage-hair hypoplasia is an important hereditary disease with different medical aspects. The high rate of consanguineous marriages in Iran necessitates considering CHH in any child with severe short stature or other clinical features of disorder.
    Keywords: Cartilage Hair Hypoplasia, Hirschsprung Disease, Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes, Osteochondrodysplasias
  • Leila Sarparast, Roya Farhadi* Maryam Sarparast, Shabnam Shafai Page 6
    Context: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) is a supportive technique that beings at the neonatal period and is one of the skin-to-skin contact methods of holding neonate by mother. This method has an important role in exclusive breastfeeding and thermal care of neonates. This study aimed to investigate the application of KMC and evaluate the effect of this technique in different neonatal outcomes, particularly in Iranian neonates. Moreover, this review can be a tool for formative evaluation for this newly introduced treatment intervention in Iran.Evidence Acquisition: This review was conducted in national and international databases concerning experience with KMC on term and preterm neonates admitted in Iranian hospitals from 2006 to 2014. The measured outcomes included physiologic, psychologic, and clinical effects of this practice on newborn infants.
    Results
    In this study, 42 Persian and English language papers were reviewed and finally 26 articles were selected. Various effects of KMC on different factors such as analgesia; physiological effects, breastfeeding, icterus, length of hospitalization, infection, psychologic effects, and weight gain were found.
    Conclusions
    The results showed that as a simple and suitable strategy for increasing the health status of the mothers and newborns, KMC had an important role in improvement of neonatal outcomes in neonatal wards of Iranian hospitals in recent ten years. Therefore, promoting this technique in all neonatal wards of the country can promote health status of this population.
    Keywords: Kangaroo, Mother Care Method, Newborn, Iran
  • Ali Abbaskhanian, Vahid Rashedi, Ataollah Delpak, Roshanak Vameghi, Masoud Gharib* Page 7
    Context: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of movement problems that do not worsen over time. They cause physical disability mainly in areas of body movement. It is caused by damage to the motor control centers of developing brain. Management of a child with CP to optimize functional abilities, typically includes the input of many disciplines, including occupational therapy (OT), physical therapy (PT) and orthotic treatment. The main aim of this review was to compare the effects of most common rehabilitation intervention on CP.Evidence Acquisition: This systematic review was conducted on published papers that studied rehabilitation interventions approaches for children with CP. A literature search was performed using PubMed, SCOPUS and Google Scholar on papers published from January 1990 to October 2014.
    Results
    From 125 articles related to rehabilitation interventions for children with Cerebral palsy, 36 articles met the inclusion criteria.
    Conclusions
    The efficacy of rehabilitation interventions for children with CP is still inconclusive. Functional ability and social participation should be the main outcome measures in evaluating rehabilitation efficacy.
    Keywords: Rehabilitation, Intervention, Cerebral Palsy
  • Mehrnoush Kosaryan* Mandana Zafari, Aili Aliasgharian, Masomeh Mosawi Page 8
    Context: Vitamin D deficiency is a common nutritional disorder in Iran. Vitamin D is an essential health factor from birth onward. This study was conducted to summarize epidemiologic researches regarding vitamin D deficiency in different parts of the country and to conclude if food fortification is necessary.Evidence Acquisition: The study was designed in Thalassemia Research Center, Sari, Iran. It was a narrative review on the current situation of vitamin D deficiency in Iran. Related literature of the studies, in Farsi and English, conducted in the recent decade were explored. Data source of the study was Medline, SID, PubMed, Scopus, Request, Web-of-knowledge, Springer, Ovid, and Google Scholar.
    Results
    Twenty five cross-sectional researches were found regarding vitamin D status in Iran from 2003 to 2013. There was also a Meta-analysis conducted in 2008. The total amount of 25(OH) D3 was measured mostly by radio immune assay (RIA) method. Most of the studies were done on adults. Definition of vitamin D deficiency was based on cut off of the kit in most studies; however in some studies the serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) was measured and cut off for diagnosis based on increased PTH. Maximum rate of sever vitamin D deficiency was reported as 47% in 2011.
    Conclusions
    Vitamin D deficiency is very frequent in Iran. Dealing with a national important nutritional problem is important. One way is to fortify suitable foods or edible products such as milk or cooking oil. Increasing public awareness about the problem and motivating people to do something on their expense is another option. In the current case taking vitamin D supplements on a regular basis, daily, weekly, or any other routines which could be available and cost effective may solve the problem. For people above one year old it is recommended to take 300’000 IU (as intramuscular injection or oral dose) of vitamin D as a starting dose, then 50,000 IU oral dose every three months.
    Keywords: Vitamin D2, Vitamin D3, Calciferol, Deficiency, Prevention, Fortification
  • Daniel Zamanfar, Mohsen Aarabi*, Iman Sadeghian Page 9
    Context: Type one diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disorder that is yet the most common type of diabetes in children and adolescents. Several genetic risk factors have been associated with T1DM, auto immune thyroiditis and other autoimmune disorder. Among autoimmune disorders, autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) is the most frequent disorder associated with T1DM. Its prevalence varies depending on age, sex and ethnic origin of the subjects and is considerably higher than the general population and increases with duration of T1DM. The aim of this study was to review the prevalence of ATD in Iranian children with T1DM compared with other countries.Evidence Acquisition: We conducted a review on all papers published on the association between autoimmune thyroiditis and T1DM, which was available on Google Scholar, Scientific Information Database (SID), Magiran and Iran Medex databases up to June 2014. Both Persian and English articles were checked. The searched terms were: diabetes mellitus, autoimmune thyroiditis, prevalence, frequency, Iranian children and adolescents. All papers which were done on patients with age under 20 years old and have used Anti-TPO and Anti-TG to evaluate patients were included.
    Results
    Six papers met all the criteria. A total of 736 participants were included in this review. After review of all the papers, the prevalence of Anti-TPO was reported between 8% and 30% and Anti-TG was reported 6.06% to 23.6% in diabetic children in Iran.
    Conclusions
    Autoimmune thyroid disorders are the most prevalent immunological diseases in patients with type 1 diabetes. All these studies have shown a higher prevalence of the disorder in patients with T1DM compared to the Iranian healthy population. Anti-TPO reported between 8% and 30% and Anti-TG reported 6.06% to 23.6% in diabetic children in Iran that was similar to the studies in other countries.
    Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Autoimmune Thyroiditis, Prevalence, Frequency, Child, Adolescent, Iran