فهرست مطالب

Medical Hypotheses and Ideas - Volume:9 Issue:2, 2015
  • Volume:9 Issue:2, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/07/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Hamid Abdollahi, Mohammadreza Atashzar, Maryam Amini Pages 67-71
    Radiation induced injury is a limiting factor in radiation related approaches from earth to space. Inductions of a wide spectrum of damages in radiotherapy patients due to unwanted normal tissues irradiation and space radiation related diseases in astronauts have been caused many limitations in cancer treatment and space missions. There are many radiation protection/mitigation approaches including: physical, chemical, biological and physiological methods. Radiation protection using these methods is expensive and also has many problems including acute toxicities and difficulties in their targeting to normal tissues. Based on experimental and hypothetical data, showing that medical/biological gases have many protective effects such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and induction of radioresistance, we hypothesize that similar gases which have been produced by microorganisms (biogases) have those properties and may be used as radiation mitigators/protectors in radiation related approaches such as radiotherapy, radiation accidents and in space missions. Isolation microorganism in safe laboratory conditions in enough amounts, finding non-toxic dose of microorganisms that provide highest radioprotection percent, dose reduction factor (DRF) calculation to compare the radioprotective efficacy of the microorganisms, finding the best targeting techniques to deliver those microorganisms into normal tissues, genetically manipulations of microorganism to achieve the highest amount of biogases with lowest side effects can be done for testing the hypothesis.
    Keywords: Radiation protection, Biogas, Microorganisms, Hypothesis
  • Patricia Gorecki, Philipp Stockmann, Jorg H.W. Distler, Wolfgang Wuest, Daniela Schmidt, Friedrich Wilhelm Neukam, Emeka Nkenke, Falk Wehrhan Pages 72-78
    Even though increasing knowledge is emerging about synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome its pathogenesis remains enigmatic. Women are preferentially affected by SAPHO syndrome. Here we present the case of a 39-year-old woman suffering from this syndrome whose bone involvement was first interpreted as diffuse sclerosing osteomyelitis of the mandible. As treatment with clindamycin did not improve the symptoms, the decision was made to administer bisphosphonates intravenously. This treatment led to a rapid improvement in symptoms, which could be explained by the apparent tendency of bisphosphonates to exert a positive effect on the jaw. With this case report we attempt to offer an explanation for the influence of this group of medications on patients suffering from SAPHO syndrome with mandibular involvement.
    Keywords: SAPHO syndrome, Diffuse sclerosing osteomyelitis, Spondyloarthropathy, Bisphosphonates, Zoledronate
  • Zihni Sulaj, Altin Kuqo, Gentian Vyshka Pages 79-85
    Chronic alcoholism is a public health issue, and several theoretical frameworks have been proposed to explain its nature. The developmental approach to chronic alcoholism has a double contour, with neurobiological theories counting on several aspects of the deleterious effects exerted from ethanol over neural structures. Psychological and neurobiological theories are not intrinsically contradictory to each other. The importance of early experiences and the potential sensory clues leading to ethanol-self administration are integral parts of the developmental neurobiology of an alcoholic. The developmental theories need to consider any further the accumulative and deleterious effects of ethanol during the nervous system maturation.
    Keywords: Ethanol, Chronic alcoholism, Behavioral models, Beverages, Taste, Olfaction
  • Somayeh Mirsadeghi, Rassoul Dinarvand Pages 86-87
  • Maryam Roya Ramzgouyan, Jafar Ai Pages 90-93
    Recent studies on stem cells differentiation into germ cells have changed scientists’ attitude to reproductive problems as well as infertility topics. It is supposed there are promising and new approaches in treatment of infertile couples and numerous advances will be made in reproductive medicine in near future. Application of embryonic stem cells for clinical trials is limited due to high potent of tumorogenicity and ethical issues. Therefore, pluripotent cells taken from adult tissues or organs, could be a good alternative for gamete production. Herein, we hypothesize to stimulate human endometrial stem cells (hEnSCs) differentiation into germ cell-like cells by culturing in retinoic acid (RA) as 2D medium and then in fibrin as 3D scaffold. Germ cell markers such as DAZL, DDX4 and Dppa3, will be assessed by immunofluorescence and real-time PCR. Fibrin mechanical properties will be examined by rheology analysis and cell viability will be determined by MTT assay. Specific markers expression and the cells’ integrity will be detected by immunofluorescence staining and SEM analysis respectively. We suggest differentiation of hEnSCs into germ cell-like cells in a medium containing 10−5 M RA in which the specific markers were expressed properly in both 2D and 3D medium cultures. Additionally, fibrin scaffold will offer a proper 3D scaffold for hEnSCs-derived germ cell-like cells.
    Keywords: Human endometrial stem cells (hEnSCs), Differentiation, Retinoic acid, Fibrin gel, Germ cells
  • Atefeh Shamosi, Mehdi Farokhi, Jafar Ai, Esmaeel Sharifi Pages 94-98
    Endothelial dysfunction is a broad pathological disorder of the endothelium (innermost layer of blood vessels) which is assigned by vasoconstriction, thrombosis and ischemic diseases, alone or with other disorders such as coronary artery disease, hypertension and atherosclerosis. The fundamental imperfection of endothelial layer injury due to decrease in the number of functional endothelial progenitor cells and inhibition of endothelial progenitor cell differentiation, resulting into impairment of angiogenesis, vasculogenesis, tube formation properties and endothelial regeneration. Multiple significant therapeutic achievements in impediment and treatment of vascular diseases include the use of antithrombotic agents, statin class of drugs, lifestyle changes, and revascularization therapies. Nevertheless, a certain number of patients with endothelial dysfunction disease are resistant to the usual therapies, so new therapeutic strategies for endothelial dysfunction disease are urgently needed. Recent studies show that stem cell-based therapy has important promise for repair and treatment of vascular dysfunction. In this study, we describe a novel choice for treatment of endothelial dysfunction in vascular regenerative medicine via the human endometrial stem cell culture (as a new source for the increasing the number of endothelial progenitor cells) with bioglass (angiogenic agent) to investigate the enhancing expression of CD34, CD31 and gene markers of endothelial progenitor cells and endothelial cells. In the end, application of immuno-privileged, readily available sources of adult stem cells like human endometrial stem cells with bioglass would be a promising strategy to increase the number of endothelial progenitor cells and promote spontaneous angiogenesis needed in endothelial layer repair and regeneration.
    Keywords: Endothelial dysfunction, Angiogenesis, Vasculogenesis, Human endometrial stem cells, Endothelial progenitor cells, Bioglass
  • Behnam Ebrahimi Pages 99-103
    Reprogramming of adult somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has attracted considerable attention in both the scientific and public communities. This is due to the importance of iPSCs in drug screening, disease modeling, cell transplantation therapies and regenerative medicine. A lot of efforts have been devoted to the generation of iPSCs with fewer reprogramming factors and with higher efficiencies. It has been shown that removal of reprogramming barriers increases the efficiency of iPSC generation from differentiated cells up to 90%. Interestingly, having relatively fast cell cycle kinetics, plasticity and endogenous expression of particular pluripotency regulators make adult stem/progenitor cells potentially elite cells poised to become iPSCs. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that adult stem/progenitor cells are more amenable to pluripotent reprogramming than mature cells. Accordingly, it is hypothesized that certain adult stem cells could be reprogrammed into iPSCs without overexpression of exogenous pluripotency transcription factors by only combinatorial modulation of barriers and enhancers and relying on the endogenous expression of key reprogramming factors (e.g. Oct4, Sox2, etc.).
    Keywords: Stem cells, Cellular reprogramming, Progenitor cells, Induced pluripotency
  • Hila Yousefi, Nima Rezaei Pages 104-106
    The approach of current modern medicine towards human body system is solely molecular and cellular. Despite the great efforts, current medicine has not been successful enough, and spectrum of disorders has remained untreated. It emphasizes on the essential need for more careful approach to the body system. Prior to the molecules and cells human body system has been composed of countless of atomic and subatomic particles, considering laws of quantum physics and the principles of chemistry the energy levels of energy photons of these particles play the most crucial role in designing human body characteristics and conformations.In this hypothesis paper, we outline the novel approach towards human body system and concluded that exposing a form of energy to the energy photons of the subatomic particles in one of the molecules of oxygen bound to phosphor in phosphate group would be beneficial therapeutic method regarding all types of cancers, refuting concerns of variety of gene mutations and signaling cascades engaged with engendering and progression of various types of cancers.
    Keywords: Gene, Molecule, Cancer, Signaling pathway