فهرست مطالب

Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine - Volume:5 Issue:6, 2015
  • Volume:5 Issue:6, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/09/09
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • Hassan Boskabadi, Sepideh Bagheri Pages 479-484
    Objectives
    Although breast milk is considered the best nutritional option for neonates, use of traditional supplements such as sugar water, camel thorn, and flix weed in the first week of life of infants is quite common in Iran and many other countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether consuming such supplements has any impact on infant’s breastfeeding behavior.
    Materials And Methods
    Four hundred fifty four term infants who were referred to the neonatal clinic of Ghaem hospital were enrolled and divided into two groups. Control (exclusively breastfed infants, N=243) and case (breast milk feeding plus traditional remedies such as sugar water, camel thorn, and flix weed, N=211). Spss 19.5 was used for statistical analysis. T-test and Man-Whitney tests were used. A p-value of
    Results
    The two groups were similar in their baseline data. Regarding duration of breastfeeding and breastfeeding frequency, use of these supplements resulted in a reduction in both breastfeeding frequency and duration (p<0.05). Breastfeeding problems such as poor let-down reflex and incorrect breastfeeding position were more common among mothers feeding these supplements to their infants. Moreover, infants with delayed initiation of first breastfeeding were more likely to receive these supplements.
    Conclusions
    Based on the results of this study, feeding infants with sugar water, camel's thorn, and flix weed is clearly associated with breast feeding problems such as poor let down reflex and incorrect breast feeding position. Use of these supplements resulted in a reduction in frequency and duration of breast feeding. Infants with delayed initiation of breast feeding are more likely to receive these supplementations. Therefore, any attempts to improve the community's culture would be of great benefit to the health and well being of our babies.
    Keywords: breast feeding, neonate, Traditional medicine
  • Ali Zarei, Saeed Changizi Ashtiyani, Soheila Taheri, Majid Ramezani Pages 485-497
    Many herbaceous plants contain compounds that have biological effects in addition to their medicinal properties. They have compounds with numerous properties, including hypo lipidemic, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, and hepato protective ones, which have been analyzed at different levels. One of these plants, with the scientific name of Berberis vulgaris, is barberry. The most important compounds identified in this plant are berberine, oxycontin, palmatine, bervulcine, berbamine, columbamine, jatrorrhizine, coptisine, and berbamine. In addition to alkaloids, organic acids such as chelidonic acid, citric acid, malic acid, resin, tannin, pectinic, and mucilagic substances are among the ingredients of barberry. In this paper, it was attempted to determine the role and effect of the extract of barberry on various body organs. The results showed that berberine actually increases insulin sensitivity and is capable of inhibiting alpha glucosidase, adipogenesis, and thus acts as an anti-obesity and hypoglycemic agent. Berberine reduces the density of serum cholesterol and triglycerides and can improve the function of liver enzymes, therefore, it can be suggested as a hypo lipidemic and hepato protective plant extract. The hepato protective effects of this extract are probably due to its antioxidant properties. Studies showed that barberry have numerous health benefits, including anti-inflammatory ones. Moreover, it can be used as a medicinal herb to treat a variety of disorders, such as diabetes, liver disease, gallbladder pain, digestive, urinary tract diseases, and gallstones. However, more studies on this issue and doing more focused and intensive researches in this field are recommended.
    Keywords: Liver, Cholesterol, Diabetes, Thyroid, Barberry, Berberis vulgaris
  • Masumeh Ghazanfarpour, Ramin Sadeghi, Robab Latifnejad Roudsari, Khadijeh Mirzaii Najmabadi, Mojtaba Mousavi Bazzaz, Somayeh Abdolahian, Talat Khadivzadeh Pages 498-511
    Objectives
    To critically evaluate the effect of red clover on hot flash, endometrial thickness, and hormones status in postmenopausal and peri- and post-menopausal women.
    Materials And Methods
    MEDLINE (1966 to July 2014), Scopus (1990 to July 2014), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library issue 1, 2014) were searched for published randomized controlled Trials (RCTs).
    Results
    Of 183 relevant publication trials, 11 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The mean hot flashes frequency in red clover was lower than the control groups (MD -1.99; p=0.067). There was larger decrease in FSH (SMD -0.812; CI: -1.93 to 0.312; p=0.157) and SHBG (SMD -0.128; CI-0.425 to 0.170; P=0.4) in red clover group, compared with placebo, which was not however statistically significant. LH (SMD 0.144; CI-0.097 to 0.384, p=0.242), estradiol (SMD 0.240; CI-0.001 to 0.482, p=0.051), testosterone (MD 0.083; CI: -0.560 to 0.726; p=0.901), and endometrial thickness (SDM 0.022; CI: -0.380 to 0.424, p=0.915) showed greater increase in red clover, compared with placebo, although the effect of estradiol was only significant.
    Conclusion
    Red clover had a positive effect of alleviating hot flash in menopausal women. Our data, however, suggested very slight changes in FSH, LH, testosterone, and SHBG and significant effect in estrogen status by red clover consumption. However, the interpretation of results of the current study is limited due to methodological flaws of the included studies, menopause status, and large heterogeneity among them. Further trials are still needed to confirm the current finding.
    Keywords: Red clover, hotflashes, circulating hormone concentrations, Menopause, systemtic review, Meta, analysis
  • Satish Patel, Vikas Sharma, Nagendra Chauhan, Mayank Thakur, Vinod Dixit Pages 512-519
    Objectives
    This study was designed to investigate the potential Phyllanthus niruri extracts in promotion of hair growth.
    Materials And Methods
    Here, we studied the hair growth promoting activity of petroleum ether extract of P. niruri following its topical administration. Alopecia was induced in albino rats by subcutaneous administration of testosterone for 21 days. Evaluation of hair loss inhibition was done by concurrent administration of extract and monitoring parameters like follicular density, anagen/telogen (A/T) ratio and histological observation of animal skin sections. Finasteride solution was applied topically as standard. In vitro experiments were also performed to study the effect of extract on the activity of 5α-reductase enzyme
    Results
    Groups treated with petroleum ether extract of plant showed hair re-growth as reflected by follicular density, A/T ratio and skin sections. Histopathology and morphologic observations of hair re-growth at shaved sites showed active follicular proliferation. In vitro experiments results showed inhibitory activity of petroleum ether extract on type-2 5α-reductase enzyme and an increase in the amount of testosterone with increasing concentrations.
    Conclusion
    It could be concluded that petroleum ether extracts of P. niruri might be useful in the treatment of testosterone-induced alopecia in the experimental animal by inhibiting 5α-reductase enzyme.
    Keywords: 5α, reductase, Alopecia, Finasteride, Hair growth, Phyllanthus niruri
  • Seyed Hadi Mousavi, Atiyeh, Sadat Davari, Mehrdad Iranshahi, Sarvenaz Sabouri, Rad, Zahra Tayarani Najaran Pages 520-530
    Objectives
    7-prenyloxycoumarins are a group of secondary metabolites that are found mainly in plants belonging to the Rutaceae and Umbelliferae families. This study was designed to evaluate and compare the cytotoxic and apoptotic activity of 7-prenyloxycoumarin compounds and herniarin on MCF-7, a breast carcinoma cell line.
    Materials And Methods
    Cells were cultured in RPMI medium and incubated with different concentrations of auraptene, herniarin, umbelliferone, and umbelliprenin. Cell viability was quantified by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were determined using propidium iodide staining of DNA fragmentation by flow cytometry (sub-G1peak). Bax protein expression was detected by western blot to investigate the underlying mechanism.
    Results
    Doses which induced 50% cell growth inhibition (IC50) against MCF-7 cells with auraptene, herniarin, umbelliferone, and umbelliprenin were calculated (59.7, 207.6, 476.3, and 73.4 µM), respectively. Auraptene induced a sub-G1 peak in the flow cytometry histogram of treated cells compared to control cells, and DNA fragmentation suggested the induction of apoptosis. Western blot analysis showed that auraptene significantly up-regulated Bax expression in MCF-7 cells compared to untreated controls.
    Conclusion
    Auraptene exerts cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in breast carcinoma cell line and can be considered for further mechanistic evaluations in human cancer cells. These results candidate auraptene for further studies to evaluate its biosafety and anti-cancer effects.
    Keywords: Apoptosis, Bax, Cytotoxicity, MCF, 7, 7, Prenyloxycoumarins
  • Mostafa Jamalan, Mahin Rezazadeh, Majid Zeinali, Mohammad Ali Ghaffari Pages 531-539
    Objective
    Diabetes mellitus Type 2 is one of the most widespread chronic metabolic diseases. In most cases, this type of diabetes is associated with alterations in levels of some inflammatory cytokines and hormones. Considering anti-inflammatory properties of plant extracts rich in ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), anti-diabetic properties of these two well-known antioxidant vitamins were investigated through measurement of serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), insulin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and serum amyloid A (SAA) in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.
    Methods
    Male patients (n=80) were randomly divided into two groups each consisted of 40 subjects. Test groups were supplemented with ascorbic acid (1000 mg/day) or alpha-tocopherol (300 mg/day) orally during four weeks. Before and after treatment, serum biochemical factors of subjects were measured and compared.
    Results
    Our results showed that both ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol could induce significant anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing the level of inflammatory factors such as TNF-α, SAA, and hs-CRP in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients. Effects of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid in decreasing serum leptin level were similar. Ascorbic acid in contrast to alpha-tocopherol diminished fasting insulin and HOMA index but had no effect on LDL serum level.
    Conclusion
    Concerning the obtained results, it is concluded that consumption of supplementary vitamins C and E could decrease induced inflammatory response in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. It is also possible that vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation can attenuate incidence of some proposed pathological effects of diabetes mellitus.
    Keywords: Diabetes mellitus type 2, Ascorbic acid, alpha, tocopherol, Leptin, serum amyloid
  • Malek Taher Maghsoodlou, Nasrin Kazemipoor, Jafar Valizadeh, Mohsen Falak Nezhad Seifi, Nahid Rahneshan Pages 540-552
    Objective
    Eucalyptus (Fam. Myrtaceae) is a medicinal plant and various Eucalyptus species possess potent pharmacological actions against diabetes, hepatotoxicity, and inflammation. This study aims to investigate essential oil compositionfrom leaves and flowers of E. microthecaand E. viminalisleavesgrowing in the Southeast of Iran.
    Materials And Methods
    The aerial parts of these plants were collected from Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran in 2013.After drying the plant materials in the shade, the chemical composition of the essential oils was obtained by hydro-distillation method using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS.
    Results
    In the essential oil of E. microtheca leaves, 101 compounds representing 100%, were identified. Among them, α-phellandrene (16.487%), aromadendrene (12.773%), α-pinene (6.752%), globulol (5.997%), ledene (5.665%), P-cymen (5.251%), and β-pinene (5.006%) were the major constituents. In the oil of E. microtheca flowers, 88 compounds representing 100%, were identified in which α-pinene (16.246%), O-cymen (13.522%), β-pinene (11.082%), aromadendrene (7.444%), α-phellandrene (7.006%), globulol (5.419%), and 9-octadecenamide (5.414%) were the major components. Sixty six compounds representing 100% were identified in the oil of E. viminalis leaves. The major compounds were 1, 8-cineole (57.757%), α-pinene (13.379%), limonene (5.443%), and globulol (3.054%).
    Conclusion
    The results showed the essential oils fromthe aerial parts of Eucalyptus speciesare a cheap source for the commercial isolation of α-phellandrene, α-pinene, and 1, 8-cineole compounds to be used in medicinal and food products. Furthermore, these plants could be an alternative source of insecticide agents.
    Keywords: Essential oil, Eucalyptus microtheca, Eucalyptus viminalis, Myrtaceae, Hydro, distillation, GC, MS
  • Mahsa Motaez, Seyed Ahmad Emami, Zahra Tayarani Najjaran Pages 553-559
    Objective
    Scutellaria (Lamiaceae) has been implicated for medicinal purposes both in modern and traditional medicine. Some species of the genus Scutellaria has extensively been studied for anticancer activity. Scutellaria luteo-coerulea (S. luteo-coerulea) is one of the Iranian species of the genus Scutellaria.
    Materials And Methods
    In the present study, cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of CH2Cl2, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and H2O fractions of S. luteo-coerulea were investigated on K562. Moreover, HL-60. DNA fragmentation in apoptotic cells were determined by propidium iodide (PI) staining (sub-G1 peak).
    Results
    Scutellaria luteo-coerulea inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a dose-dependent manner. Among solvent fractions of S. luteo-coerulea, the CH2Cl2 fraction was found to be the most cytotoxic one among others. Sub-G1 peak in flow cytometry histogram of treated cells suggested the induction of apoptosis in S. luteo-coerulea.
    Conclusion
    Scutellaria luteo-coerulea could be a novel candidate for further analytical elucidation in respect to fine major components responsible for the cytotoxic effect of the plant also clinical evaluations.
    Keywords: Scutellaria luteo, coerulea, Cytotoxicity, Apoptosis, Lamiaceae
  • Malihezaman Monsfi, Zahra Azarbahram, Mehrnaz Abedian, Mohammad Javad Ashraf Pages 560-567
    Objectives
    In traditional medicine Salvia officinalis (sage) has been used as menstrual cycle regulator. In the present study the effects of sage extract on breast tissue were examined.
    Materials And Methods
    Fourteen female rats were divided into two groups: 1) Distilled water-treated rats (Con) that were gavaged with 1ml distilled water and 2) Saliva officinalis hydroalcoholic extract (SHE)-treated rats that were gavaged with 30mg/kg/body weight of sage extract for 30 days. The estrus cycle changes were monitored by daily examination of vaginal smear. Whole mounts of right pelvic breast were spread on the slide and stained by carmine. The number of alveolar buds (ABs) type 1 and 2 and lobules of mammary gland were scored. Tissue sections of left pelvic mammary gland were prepared and its histomorphometrical changes were measured. Blood samples were taken from dorsal aorta and estradiol and progesterone concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay.
    Results
    Estrous cycles decreased significantly in SHE-treated animals. The number of alveolar buds and lobules in mammary gland whole mount of SHE-treated group were higher than the Con group. The number and diameter of ducts in histological section of mammary gland in SHE-treated group increased as compared to the Con group.
    Conclusion
    Sage promotes alveologenesis of mammary glands and it can be used as a lactiferous herb.
    Keywords: Alveolar buds, Salvia officinalis, Lobules, Whole mount mammary gland
  • Najmeh Sadeghi, Mahin Dianat, Mohammad Badavi, Ahad Malekzadeh Pages 568-575
    Objective
    Several studies have shown that Chichorium intybus L. (C. intybus) which possesses flavonoid compounds has an effective role in treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Contractile dysfunction mostly occurs after acute myocardial infarction, cardiac bypass surgery, heart transplantation and coronary angioplasty. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of C. intybus on ischemia- reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart.
    Materials And Methods
    The animals were divided into four groups (Sham, Control, 1 mg/ml and 3 mg/ml of extract) of 8 rats. The aorta was cannulated, and then the heart was mounted on a Langendorff apparatus. Next, a balloon was inserted into the left ventricle (LV) and peak positive value of time derivate of LV pressure (+dp/dt), coronary flow (CF), and left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) in pre-ischemia and reperfusion period were calculated by a Power Lab system. All groups underwent a 30-minute global ischemia followed by a 60-minute reperfusion.
    Results
    The results showed that heart rate (HR), coronary flow, and left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and rate of pressure product (RPP) significantly decreased in the control group during reperfusion, while these values in the groups receiving the extract (3mg/ml) improved significantly during reperfusion (p<0.001).
    Conclusion
    It seems that flavonoid compounds of aqueous extract of C. intybus reduce ischemia - reperfusion injuries, suggesting its protective effect on heart function after ischemia.
    Keywords: Chichorium intybus L, Ischemia, Reperfusion, Heart Contractility, Rat
  • Houshang Najafi, Saeed Changizi Ashtiyani, Sayed Abolhasan Sayedzadeh, Zeynab Mohamadi Yarijani, Sajad Fakhri Pages 576-586
    Objectives
    Curcumin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of curcumin on functional disturbances, oxidative stress, and leukocyte infiltration induced by renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R).
    Materials And Methods
    Animals were randomly divided into 9 groups. The groups with 24-h reperfusion consisted of sham-24h, I/R-24h, and three I/R groups treated with curcumin at 10, 20, or 30 mg kg-1, i.p. after the ischemic period. The 72-h reperfusion groups also included Sham-72h, I/R-72h, I/R treated with curcumin at single dose of 20 mg kg-1, i.p., and I/R group which received three doses of curcumin at 20 mg kg-1, i.p., consecutively. Renal functional injury was assessed by measuring serum creatinine and urea-nitrogen concentrations. Oxidative stress was evaluated by assessment tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) levels. Moreover, renal tissue leukocyte infiltration was measured by histopathology examination.
    Results
    Ischemia/reperfusion resulted in a significant increase in serum concentration of creatinine, urea-nitrogen, tissue MDA level, and leukocytes infiltration as well as reduced FRAP level. Treatment with curcumin in 24-h reperfusion groups could only lead to a significant change in the levels of MDA and FRAP. However, in 72-h reperfusion groups, curcumin was able to correct all functional disturbances, oxidative stress, and leukocytes infiltration with more effectiveness in groups that received three doses of curcumin.
    Conclusion
    The administration of curcumin during 72-h reperfusion following 30 minutes of ischemia can decrease renal oxidative stress and leukocytes infiltration as well as improve kidney function. However, during first 24-h reperfusion, curcumin only decreased oxidative stress.
    Keywords: Curcumin, Acute renal failure, Oxidative stress, Ischemia, Reperfusion
  • Mohammad Magaji, Aliyu Muhammad Musa, Musa Abdullahi, Jamilu Yau, Isa Marte Hussaini Pages 587-596
    Objectives
    Securinega virosa Roxb (Ex Willd) Baill (Euphorbaiceae) root bark has been reportedly used in African traditional medicine in the management of mental illnesses. Previously, the sleep-inducing potential of the crude methanol root bark of Securinega virosa extract and its butanol fraction have been reported. The study aimed to isolate and characterize the bioactive constituent that may be responsible for the sleep inducing property of the root of the plant.
    Materials And Methods
    The phytochemical investigation of the S. virosa root bark was carried out leading to the isolation of a compound from the butanol-soluble fraction of the methanol extract. The structure of the compound was elucidated on the basis of its spectral data, including IR, 1D and 2D NMR, mass spectrometry as well as X-ray diffraction analysis. The compound was investigated for sleep-inducing potential using diazepam-induced sleeping time test and beam walking assay in mice.
    Results
    This is the first report on the isolation of bergenin from the root of the plant. It significantly decreased the mean onset of sleep [F (2, 15) =7.167; P < 0.01] at the dose of 10 mg/kg, without significantly affecting the total sleep duration [F (2, 15) = 0.090, P=0.914]. Conversely, it did not significantly affect the number of foot slips at the doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg tested.
    Conclusion
    Bergenin isolated from the root bark of S. virosa possesses sleep-inducing property and could be partly responsible for the sedative potential of the root of S. virosa.
    Keywords: Securinega virosa, Bergenin, Sleep, Isocoumarin