فهرست مطالب

Toxicology Scientific Quarterly Journal - Volume:10 Issue:1, 2015
  • Volume:10 Issue:1, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/09/18
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Saeed Hasanpour, Shaban Rahimi, Omid Fani Makki *, Gholamreza Shahhosseini, Alireza Khosravi Pages 1-7
    Background
    This cross sectional study was conducted to evaluate the effect of γ-rays and electron-beam irradiation with a commercial toxin binder-milbond-TX on the performance, feed components, and meat quality of Japanese quails challenged with aflatoxin B1.
    Methods
    Overall, 168 One-d-old chicks (Japanese quails) were allocated to eight treatments with three replicates based on a completely randomized design in a 2×4 factorial arrangement. Two levels of aflatoxin (Zero and 2 ppm) were considered as the essential factor. The secondary factor was involved in four levels (Control, 27 k Gy doses of γ-rays, electron-beam irradiation, and 0.3% commercial toxin binder-milbond-TX).
    Results
    In vitro condition showed that experiment diets do not have any effect on meat quality and feed components such as malondialdehyde, protein, fat, ash, and the dry matter. However, the highest and the lowest levels of feed intake and body weight gain were observed in the 7th treatment (2-ppm aflatoxin B1 + electron-beam irradiation) and the 2nd treatment (2-ppm aflatoxin B1 alone), respectively in 1-15 and 29-42 days (P≤0.05). In addition, the highest liver weight (1.73), spleen (0.57) and bursa (0.18) were seen in the second treatment (2 ppm aflatoxin B1) alone (P≤0.05) at the age of 42 days.
    Conclusion
    γ-rays and electron-beam irradiation plus commercial toxin binder-milbond-TX can be used for aflatoxin B1 absorption in poultry diets.
    Keywords: Aflatoxin B1, Irradiation, Performance, Toxin Binder
  • Ahmad Kakaei *, Mohammad Kazemeini Pages 9-14
    Background
    Heavy metals, even at low concentrations, are harmful to human health and environment. Cadmium as a heavy metal is highly toxic and can cause serious threat to living organisms. This research was designed to evaluate the adsorption potential of modified magnetic iron nanoparticles by 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol ligand for the removal of cadmium ions from water solutions.
    Methods
    This study was conducted in Ilam Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran, in 2014. Modified magnetic iron nanoparticle was used as adsorbent for the removal of cadmium from aqueous solution. In batch extraction, the effects of parameters like pH of sample solution (3.0-11.0), initial metal concentrations (50-300) mgL-1), contact time (1.0-10 min) and adsorbent dose (10.0-60.0 mg) were studied on the adsorption process. Modified magnetite nanoparticle was presented as the adsorbent for the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous samples and later was confirmed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.
    Results
    The adsorption of cadmium ions on modified magnetite nanoparticles strongly depends on pH. The experimental isothermal data were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The removal process followed the Langmuir isotherm. Maximum adsorption capacity for the adsorption of cadmium ions by the sorbent was 24.09 mgg-1.
    Conclusion
    The method was successfully applied to adsorption of cadmium in water samples with satisfactory results. Other advantages include high capacity, good stability and fast adsorption kinetics. High pre-concentration factor was obtained easily by this method (120) and low analysis cost.
    Keywords: Cadmium Ions, Flame Spectrometry, Magnetic Nanoparticle, Removal
  • Borhan Mansouri *, Seyed Ali Johari Pages 15-20
    Background
    The increasing use of nanomaterials and nanoproducts has increased the possibility of contamination of the environment, which may have adverse effects on different organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of silver nanoparticles on histopathology and gill ultrastructure of zebrafish (Danio rerio) under laboratory conditions.
    Methods
    Zebrafish were exposed to four concentrations of silver nanoparticles (0.0015, 0.00375, 0.0075, and 0.015 mg/l) for a period of 4 days. Gill ultrastructure and histopathological changes were studied using scanning electron microscope and haematoxylin - eosin staining.
    Results
    Exposure to silver nanoparticles significantly (P < 0.001) increased the diameter of gill filaments and secondary lamellae, while silver nanoparticles significantly reduced the length of the secondary gills in zebrafish. Moreover, other changes such as vacuolization, dilated and clubbed tips, hyperplasia, edema, fusion, swelling of mucocytes, hypertrophy, and necrosis were observed. The effects of silver nanoparticles in zebrafish gills were dose dependent.
    Conclusion
    Based on the adverse effects of AgNPs on zebrafish gills, silver nanoparticle solutions can be hazardous pollutants for the environment.
    Keywords: Gills, Metal Nanoparticles, Silver, Water Pollution, Zebrafish
  • Amadu Kayode Salau *, Musa Toyin Yakubu, Adenike Temidayo Oladiji Pages 21-29
    Background
    This study investigated the protective effects of aqueous extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC) Guill & Perr (Combretaceae) and Terminalia avicennioides Guill & Perr (Combretaceae) root barks, as well as their 1:1 (w/w) mixture on liver redox and haematological parameters of diethylnitrosamine-treated rats.
    Methods
    Rats were orally administered distilled water, diethylnitrosamine (30 mg/kg body weight once a week on weeks 3 and 4), curcumin (200 mg/kg body weight), extracts and 1:1 mixture (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight) for 4 weeks. Malondialdehyde, markers of oxidative stress and hematological indices were evaluated.
    Results
    The extracts and their mixture significantly (P<0.05) reversed the diethylnitrosamine-induced alterations in the levels of liver malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione, vitamin C and platelet counts. The other haematological parameters (red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, white blood cell count, lymphocyte count and neutrophil count) were not affected by diethylnitrosamine and extracts.
    Conclusion
    The extracts possess antioxidant, hepatoprotective and haemoprotective activities that compared well with curcumin. These activities were better exhibited by the mixture than the individual extracts.
    Keywords: Antioxidants, Combretaceae, Curcumin, Diethylnitrosamine, Oxidation, reduction, Oxidative stress
  • Zeinab Sharifinasab, Mahdi Banaee *, Mohammad Mohiseni, Ahmad Noori Pages 31-40
    Background
    Paraquat is nonselective bipyridyl herbicide that induces hepatotoxicity through oxidative stress. Vitamin C and chitosan have antioxidant as well as radical scavenger properties and show protective effects against reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, hepatoprotective effects of chitosan and vitamin C were evaluated in common carp exposed to paraquat.
    Methods
    While exposed to 0.02 mg. L-1paraquat for 21 days, common carp were fed chitosan (1000 mg. kg‑1 feed), vitamin C (1000 mg. kg-1 feed), and vitamin C combined with chitosan. At the end of the experiment, activities of hepatic enzymes and oxidative stress biomarkers were evaluated.
    Results
    Paraquat induces changes in the activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase in liver tissue of fish. However, these enzymes were restored to normal levels in fish fed with vitamin C and vitamin C combined with chitosan following exposure to paraquat. Increased levels of malondialdehyde were observed in liver after exposure to paraquat, while glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase activities and the total antioxidant levels decreased. Administration of vitamin C combined with chitosan significantly reduced malondialdehyde levels and increased the total antioxidant capacity, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase activities.
    Conclusion
    Administration of vitamin C is effective in reducing liver toxicity of paraquat. However, administrating both vitamin C and chitosan is more effective. In other words, chitosan and vitamin C have a synergic effect. They could be used as hepatoprotective agents against paraquat-induced hepatotoxicity in fish.
    Keywords: Biochemical parameters, Chitosan, Oxidative stress, Paraquat, Vitamin C
  • Musa Tmusa Toyin Oyin Yakubu *, Ayodeji Luqman Quadri Pages 41-47
    Background
    Garcinia kola seed is consumed indiscriminately in Nigeria without recourse to its potential toxicity. Therefore, this study was aimed at assessing the toxicity of the aqueous extract of G. kola seeds on selected tissues of male rats.
    Methods
    Thirty male rats (215.00 ± 18.58 g) were assigned into four groups: A, B, C and D which received 0.5 ml of distilled water, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively, once daily for 7 days. Biochemical indices of organ damage and toxicity were determined using standard methods.
    Results
    The extract significantly (P<0.05) increased the testes-body weight ratio, activities of testicular alkaline phosphatase (ALP), heart, testes and serum gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity, serum concentrations of uric acid, K+, creatinine and PO43-. The liver-body weight ratio, activities of kidney and serum ALP, liver, heart and serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST), serum and testicular acid phosphatase (ACP), concentrations of serum albumin, globulin, urea, Na+, HCO3-, conjugated and total bilirubin were reduced. The heart- and kidney-body weight ratios and liver ALP were not significantly (P>0.05) altered.
    Conclusion
    The treatment related alterations in the present study indicates that the aqueous extract of G. kola seeds at the doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight caused functional toxicity to the organs of the animals and thus not safe as an oral remedy.
    Keywords: Functional toxicity, Garcinia kola, Guttifera, Organ dysfunction, Safety
  • Arash Yazdanbakhsh, Amir Mohammad Kazemifar, Kamyar Nazari, Bahman Sadeghi *, Hassan Solhi Pages 49-52
    Background
    Acute opioid overdose is a common cause of admission in emergency department. In spite of the fact that naloxone is the main therapy for decades, there are controversies about the proper way of its use. This study aimed to compare two most recommended administration modes for naloxone.
    Methods
    In this single-blind clinical trial, 80 patients with methadone overdose syndrome were randomly divided into two equal groups. The patients in infusion group received a constant infusion of naloxone preparation; while in the patients in PRN group, naloxone was administered only if needed clinically. Severity of withdrawal syndrome was evaluated after 30 min, 3 h, and 12 h of the treatments in both groups.
    Results
    Eighty patients completed the study (10 women and 70 men). Both groups were similar in terms of mean age, sex ratio, and the severity of intoxication. The severity of withdrawal symptom was significantly lower in the PRN group (P<0.001).
    Conclusion
    Naloxone administration as PRN mode lowers the rate and severity of withdrawal syndrome. It is recommended as the preferred mode of naloxone administration.
    Keywords: Infusion, Methadone Intoxication, Naloxone, PRN, Withdrawal syndrome
  • Mohammad Moshiri, Seyed Reza Mousavi, Leila Etemad* Pages 53-55
    Background
    The herbicide 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) can cause moderate to lethal poisoning. Although urine alkalization has been recommended as the main treatment, hemodialysis (HD) may be more effective in severe cases.Case: On 24th June 2014, a 53- year-old man ingested a high amount of 40% 2, 4-D. He suffered from mouth and epigastric burning sensation, vomiting and nausea. He was treated, in Emam Reza’s Hospital of Mashhad University Of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran, with maintenance daily fluid infusion plus 10 meq/L NaHCO3. Up to 9 hours after exposure, he became progressively stuporous. He developed diarrhea and hypotension, BP=100/60, unresponsive to volume replacement therapy. He received regular hemodialysis (HD) with bicarbonate for three hours. At the end of HD, his blood pressure rose to 110/70 and the level of consciousness began to improve. Four hours later, he was fully conscious with stable blood pressure (130/80 mmHg).
    Conclusion
    HD may be an effective, safe and fast method for 2, 4-D high dose intoxication induced coma.
    Keywords: 2, 4, dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, Alkaline diuresis, Hemodialysis, Herbicide intoxication, Iran