فهرست مطالب

هنرهای زیبا - معماری و شهرسازی - پیاپی 60 (زمستان 1393)
  • پیاپی 60 (زمستان 1393)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/11/21
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • سید حسین بحرینی، الهام فلاح منشادی صفحات 5-16
    آموزش شهرسازی شامل سه مولفه اصلی است: دانش، مهارت ها و ارزش ها. مطالعات گسترده ای به معرفی مهارت های اصلی موردنیاز شهرسازان پرداخته است ولی تفاوت های بنیادی در آموزش شهرسازی در کشورهای در حال توسعه و کشورهای پیشرفته لزوم شناسایی مهارت های مورد نیاز شهرسازان در این کشورها را افزایش می دهد. برای شناخت مهم ترین مهارت های شهرسازان در ایران مجموعا 341 پرسشنامه توسط دانشجویان، دانش آموختگان، استادان و کارفرمایان شهرسازی تکمیل شده است. در حالیکه مهم ترین مهارت شهرسازان در کشورهای پیشرفته مهارت های ارتباطی است، نتایج این بررسی نشان می دهد که در ایران مهم ترین مهارت برای شهرسازان با مدرک کارشناسی مهارت های کار تیمی، مهارت های تکنیکی و مهارت جمع آوری اطلاعات می باشد، و برای شهرسازان با مدرک کارشناسی ارشد مهم ترین مهارت ها شامل مهارت های تحلیلی، ارائه شفاهی و تعریف مسئله است. این درحالی است که دو مهارت بودجه بندی و مدیریت پروژه هم برای شهرسازان با مدرک کارشناسی و هم برای شهرسازان با مدرک کارشناسی ارشد دارای کم ترین اهمیت می باشد. ارزیابی موفقیت آموزش شهرسازی در انتقال مهارت ها در ایران نشان می دهد که سطح موفقیت در حد متوسط بوده است. بیشترین موفقیت آموزش در انتقال مهارت هایی چون مهارت های تحلیلی، تکنیکی و سپس ارائه شفاهی دیده می شود. در حالیکه مهارت های مدیریتی (هر سه مهارت)، مهارت ارتباط با برنامه ریزان و مسئولین طرح نیز در پایین ترین حد است.
    کلیدواژگان: مهارت های شهرسازان، آموزش شهرسازی، ارزیابی، ایران
  • خلیل حاجی پور، نرجس فروزان صفحات 17-26
    ارتقاء راندمان انرژی در بخش مسکونی مناطق شهری در آینده نزدیک به بخش مهمی در دستیابی به توسعه پایدار تبدیل می شود. لذا این مطالعه با هدف بررسی پایداری الگوهای مسکن از منظر انرژی عملکردی صورت گرفته است که در ضمن آن به محاسبه میزان مصرف انرژی عملکردی و بررسی چگونگی ارتباط آن با مشخصه های فرم شهر پرداخته است. در راستای انجام این مهم به بررسی وجود ارتباط بین متغیرهای تحقیق -مشخصه های کالبدی فرم شهر (متغیرهای مستقل) و اطلاعات میزان مصرف گاز و برق خانوارها در طول یک سال (متغیرهای وابسته)- اقدام شده است و الگوهای مسکونی به هفت دسته کلی حیاط مرکزی، بافت فرسوده، ویلایی، ردیفی یک، دو و سه طبقه و آپارتمانی تفکیک شده اند. تحلیل نتایج حاصل از تحلیل همبستگی آشکار می سازد که بین الگوی سکونت و میزان مصرف انرژی عملکردی رابطه همبستگی قوی وجود دارد. همچنین بین کیفیت بنای ساختمان، عمر ساختمان، نوع سازه و مساحت با میزان مصرف انرژی عملکردی رابطه همبستگی با شدت متوسط برقرار است. در بخش تحلیل واریانس نیز مشخص شد که خانه های حیاط مرکزی با 65 گیگاژول بر متر مربع دارای بیشترین سرانه مصرف انرژی عملکردی در بین سایر الگوهاست و یکی از دو گونه سکونتی ویلایی با سرانه انرژی عملکردی 8 گیگاژول بر متر مربع و بافت فرسوده با سرانه انرژی عملکردی 14 گیگاژول بر متر مربع کارآمدترین گونه سکونتی تشخیص داده شدند.
    کلیدواژگان: فرم شهر، برنامه ریزی شهری، میزان مصرف انرژی، انرژی عملکردی، الگوهای مسکن
  • محمد باقر قهرمانی، مرضیه پیراوی ونک، حامد مظاهریان، علیرضا صیاد صفحات 27-36
    سرگئی آیزنشتاین، فیلمساز و نظریه پرداز بزرگ سینمای شوروی، علاقه فراوانی به الهام گرفتن از ظرفیت های معماری در راستای بارور نمودن هنر نوپای سینما داشت. آیزنشتاین اعتقاد داشت، تماشاگر فیلم از میان فضاهای متنوع و در زمان های متفاوتی گذار می کند و جهت یابی او در دنیای داستانی، این فضاها و زمان ها را به یکدیگر متصل می سازد. بزعم وی، فیلم چنین امکانی برای حضور تماشاگر پرسه زن در فضاهای سینماتیک را از معماری به ارث برده است، و بر لزوم در نظر گرفتن «مسیر سینماتیک» و «مسیر معمارانه»تاکید می نمود.لوکوربوزیه، معمار برجسته مدرن، پس از آشنایی با آیزنشتاین، بیان داشت می کوشد به شیوه ای معماری کند که آیزنشتاین فیلمسازی می کند و الگوی معماری پرومناد را بنیان نهاد. در این الگو، «حرکت ناظر» به مثابه مهم ترین مولفه در ادراک فضا عمل می نماید، و ادراک معماری تنها با حضور کالبدی مخاطبی معنا می یابد که در حرکت و پرسه زنی به گونه ای روایت مند و سکانسی، همچون تماشاگر فیلم، فضاها را به یکدیگر پیوند می دهد و به معماری ماهیتی زمان مند و سینمایی می بخشد.این مقاله می کوشد تا این نکته را آشکار سازد که کالبد متحرک مخاطب با شکل دادن به قلمرویی روایی در ارتباطش با فضاها، می تواند به مثابه نقطه اشتراکی برای هنرهای معماری و سینما در نظر گرفته شود.
    کلیدواژگان: فضای سینماتیک، معماری پرومناد، سکانس فضایی، کالبد متحرک ناظر، فضاسازی باروک
  • علیرضا فلاحی، هاله مهدی پور صفحات 37-46
    در پی زمین لرزه آذر ماه سال 1384 جزیره قشم واقع در استان هرمزگان، برنامه بازسازی روستاهای آسیب دیده همانند برنامه های پیشین بازسازی کشور در دستور کار قرار گرفت. این در حالیست که سنت و باور مردم منطقه عمدتا اهل تسنن بوده و بر نحوه زندگی آنان نیز غالب می باشد. در مقاله ی حاضر، ابتدا تاثیر فرهنگ و سنت مردم منطقه در مسکن پیش از زلزله بررسی می شود و سپس تغییرات کالبدی مردم بر اساس فرهنگ و سنت هایشان که پس از زلزله اعمال نمودند، عنوان می گردد. روش این پژوهش مبتنی بر استفاده از رویکرد کیفی تحلیل محتوا بوده و از ابزار های مشاهده میدانی، مصاحبه عمیق با مسئولین دولتی، محلی و مردم آسیب دیده و نیز بررسی اسناد مرتبط با بازسازی پس از زلزله قشم مانند مستند نگاری از طریق گزارش و عکس برداری استفاده شده است. برای تحلیل داده ها، کدگذاری و مقوله بندی داده های حاصل صورت گرفته و براساس سلسله مراتب الویت های تحقیق برگزیده می شوند. مقاله نتیجه می گیرد که در بازسازی مسکن به ویژگی های فرهنگی مردم بسیار اندک توجه شده است. این در حالیست که نقش فرهنگ، سنت و باور جز لاینفک روستاهای منطقه خصوصا روستای گورزین در ابعاد کالبدی و غیرکالبدی بوده و در اثر نادیده گرفتن این موضوع مهم مسکن بازسازی شده دچار تغییرات کالبدی بر اساس اعتقادات و فرهنگ مردم توسط خودشان گردیده است.
    کلیدواژگان: بازسازی، سنت و باور، مسکن، روستای گورزین
  • حمیدرضا پارسی صفحات 47-64
    ایران در قرون سوم تا پنجم هجری، شاهدیکی از دوره های رونق شهرنشینیاست. شهر این دوره شهر تجاری، دارای قابلیت تولید صنعتی و فضای شهر تبلور حضور فعال گروه های زنده اندیش است. در خصوص چگونگی روند و تشکل فضایی آن، مباحثات فراوانی بوده و هست. هدف این مقاله تبیین آن از طریق تحلیل پویش های عمومی توسعه شهرنشینی و شهرگرایی و تبیین ساختار و مفهوم شهر است. روش این بررسی روش تحلیل سیستمی تاریخی است.
    مباحث اصلی در این تحقیق، بررسی رویکردها و روند تدارک تولید مازاد، تحول سیستمی متعادل نیروهای حکومت محلی با بازار، اصناف و سایر بنیان های اجتماعی آن، توسعه روند شهرنشینی، توسعه شهرگرایی و مهمترین یافته، معرفی ملازمت روند شهرنشینی و شهرگرایی است که رشد شهر آزاد اندیش در قرون سوم تا پنجم هجری ممکن کرد.
    این شرایط در دوره غزنویان و سلجوقیان با چالش مواجه شد: الگوی سیاسی حکام محلی و جانبداری از خلفا، نابودی استقلال نسبی اصناف، منازعات فرساینده گروه های خردگرا و جنبش های اجتماعی مردمی با خود و با حکومت و منازعات دینی، به تدریج خردگرایی و موسسات مدنی و علمی را در شهر زایل کرد، حاکمیت عقل از صحنه اجتماعی رخت بربست و زوال عقل و عدم ملازمت شهرنشینی و شهرگرایی به پیش شرط زوال شهر آزاداندیش بدل شد.
    کلیدواژگان: پویش شهرنشینی وشهرگرایی، حیات مدنی، عقل گرایی، شهرآزاد اندیش
  • راضیه رفیعی، ناصر برک پور صفحات 65-76
    برنامه های توسعه شهری در راستای ایجاد نظم در شهرها و پاسخگویی به نیازهای روزافزون جمعیت شهری از سوی برنامه ریزان شهری تهیه می شوند و دارای ویژگی ها و اهداف متفاوتی هستند. اغلب این برنامه ها، بدون توجه به اهداف و نتایج برنامه های پیشین تدوین می شوند و به ارزیابی میزان موفقیت برنامه های گذشته نمی پردازند. ارزیابی اجرای برنامه های توسعه شهری می تواند موجبات تهیه برنامه هایی کارآمد و پاسخگو را فراهم آورد. در این بین، برنامه کاربری زمین که تاثیر قابل توجهی بر منافع افراد دارد، بیش از همه نیازمند ارزیابی است.
    یکی از روش های ارزیابی اجرای برنامه ها، سنجش میزان انطباق میان برنامه پیشنهادی و شرایط کنونی شهر است. این تحقیق با بهره گیری از این رویکرد با اتکا بر سه شاخص کاربری، سطح اشغال و تراکم به ارزیابی اجرای برنامه کاربری زمین شهر لواسان پرداخته است تا مغایرت های بروزیافته در سطح شهر را تشخیص دهد. یافته های تحقیق نشان می دهد که 54 درصد از سطح شهر دارای مغایرت در کاربری هستند. علاوه بر این، 5 درصد از قطعات نیز دارای مغایرت در سطح اشغال و تراکم هستند. مهم ترین دلایل بروز این مغایرت ها را می توان نظارت ناکافی بر روند تغییر کاربری اراضی، عدم توجه شهروندان و مسئولان به منافع عمومی و ابهامات و خلاءهای موجود در برنامه پیشنهادی دانست.
    کلیدواژگان: ارزیابی اجرا، انطباق محور، کاربری زمین، شهر لواسان
  • سمیه فدایی نژاد، پرستو عشرتی صفحات 77-86
    اصالت به مثابه انتقال دهنده ارزش ها و بعد معنایی میراث فرهنگی مولفه ای کلیدی در فرآیند حفاظت به شمار می آید، که در اسناد بین المللی بر ضرورت توسعه چارچوب مفهومی به منظور تعیین معیارهایی ثابت برای ارزیابی آن تاکید ویژه گردیده است. ماهیت کیفی و چند لایه بودن این مفهوم دستیابی به این چارچوب را با دشواری هایی مواجه ساخته است که تاثیر آن را می توان در فرآیند بازشناخت و ارزیابی اصالت میراث در بسترهای مختلف مشاهده نمود. از این رو، مقاله حاضر از طریق بازخوانی و واکاوی اسناد و کنوانسیون های بین المللی از یک سو و دیدگاه های صاحب نظران از دیگر سو، با بهره گیری از روش تحقیق کیفی و راهبرد تحلیل محتوا در پی دست یافتن به سطحی از شناخت و تعیین وجوه و ابعاد اصلی اصالت به عنوان پایه ای در راستای توسعه چارچوب مفهومی آن می باشد؛ بررسی سیر تحول میراث از مقیاس خرد به کلان، از مفهومی تک بعدی به چند بعدی، از کالبد محور به معنا محور، از ملموس به ناملموس و از ثابت به متغیر، پنج مولفه اصلی را برای بازشناخت مفهوم اصالت آشکار می سازد که در این مقاله به صورت دو جنبه ی «ملموس» و «ناملموس» و سه بعد «ثبات»، «تداوم» و «تغییر» به عنوان پایه های چارچوب مفهومی اصالت معرفی می گردد.
    کلیدواژگان: اصالت، ثبات، تداوم، تغییر، ملموس، ناملموس
  • غزال راهب صفحات 87-100
    این مقاله به دنبال ارائه حوزه بندی جغرافیایی (پهنه بندی مکانی) در سطح کشوربه منظور شناسایی پهنه هایی که در آن گونه های همسان مسکن روستایی استقرار یافته اند، است. گونه، زبان مشترک و حاصل خردجمعی در پاسخگویی به مسائل محیط پیرامونی است درطول زمان حفظ شده و تداوم یافته است. گردآوری اطلاعات موجود در زمینه شناخت گونه های مسکن به تفکیک استان ها و در یک قالب تعریف شده، انجام شد. به موازات آن، شناسایی عوامل موثر بر شکل گیری گونه های مسکن و همپوشانی آن ها، تفکیک مکانی پهنه های مختلف سرزمینی ایران را ارائه نمود. تطابق اطلاعات گونه شناسی و نقشه های پهنه بندی مکانی عوامل موثر بر شکل گیری مسکن، منجر به شناخت رابطه علی شکل گیری گونه های مسکن به تفکیک استان های کشور شد. مرحله بعد، گذر از مرزبندی سیاسی، تجمیع اطلاعات و شناخت کانون های شکل گیری گونه های مسکن، طیف تغییرات و گونه های مبدل حاصل از آن و البته رفع نواقص اطلاعاتی با کمک مطالعات میدانی بود. پهنه سرزمینی ایران از نظر مشابهت گونه های کالبدی مسکن به هشت حوزه کلان تقسیم شد که هریک دارای کانونی اصلی و طیف تغییراتی درونی بودند. در ادامه، در هر یک از حوزه های فوق، گونه های مسکن در رابطه علی با زمینه شکل گیری آن تشریح شده و طیف تغییرات آن بررسی شد و مهم ترین مشخصه های آن در تعامل با عوامل محیطی ارائه شد.
    کلیدواژگان: روستا، مسکن روستایی، سکونتگاه های روستایی، پهنه بندی
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  • Hossein Bahrainy, Elham Fallah Manshadi Pages 5-16
    There has been extensive debates about the similarities and differences between urban planning educations in developed versus developing counties. Some believe that increasing interdependence among nations، an ever greater need for cross – cultural cooperation، is required to close the gap in skill and knowledge between developed and developing countries and shrinking international borders make it necessary to have universalism in planning education (Amirahmadi،1990). On the other hand significant differences in value systems، stages of development، and socio – economic priorities between developed and developing countries make some fundamental differences in education in developing countries which could not be ignored (Burayidi،1993). In fact، urban planning education currently offered in the developed western countries may not be quite relevant and adequate for the students in the developing countries، which is due to fact that there exist real challenges in developing worlds (Banerjee، 1990). These challenges make it necessary for urban planners in developing countries to have some specific skills to be successful in a world with different planning processes، compared to developed countries. For example، while the proposed plan should be accepted by the public or residents of a neighborhood in a developed country، it only needs the approval of certain elected/selected officials in developing countries. This means that although communication skill is the most important skill in developed countries (Gospodini & Skayannis، 2005)، it is the technical role which is the most important skill of planners in the third world countries (Diaw، Nnkya، & Watson، 2002). It becomes، therefore، obvious the required skills to be taught to planning students in developing countries، such as Iran، are not quite similar to that of developed countries. This paper has two objectives. First، attempt will be made to prioritize urban planner''s skills، at the undergraduate and graduate levels، in developing countries، using the case of Iran، and second، to survey how much planning education in Iran has been successful in training this skills. A total of 341 questionnaires were filled by planning directors and instructors، students and graduates of eleven universities throughout all over Iran. The results of this research show that there is a crucial difference between urban planners’ skills in developing vs developed countries which comes from difference in preparation and approval procedure of urban development plans in these countries. While the most important skill required for planner in developed countries is communication skill; it is not the case for developing ones. For an urban planner in Iran، it is the team working، technical، and data collecting skills in the undergraduate level، and analytical skills، oral presentation and problem defining in the graduate level that are regarded as the most important skills for planners. Managerial skills، such as ability to prepare a budget program and project management is less important، both for planners with undergraduate and graduate degrees. Planning education in Iran is at the moderate level in training planning skills. It is more successful in training analytical، technical and oral presentation skills while management skills، relation with other planners and official are neglected.
    Keywords: urban planner skills, urban planning education, evaluation, Iran
  • Khalil Hajipour, Narjes Foroozan Pages 17-26
    Reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions have become a worldwide necessity. Iran has the sixteenth ranking position of global greenhouse gas emissions and its rate of growth is above global average. Built environments are responsible for about 40% of energy consumption and it is generally approved that the greatest portion of built environment is dedicated to residential land use. Thus improving energy efficiency of the existing dwelling stock in urban regions will increasingly be part of achieving sustainable development in future. Therefore the main goal of this article is analyzing the sustainability of urban residential sector with focusing on operational energy consumption (Energy consumed during the in-use phase of a building's life which is their biggest environmental impact). For this purpose we calculated the operational energy consumption of residential sectors (annual sum of gas and electricity consumption) and study it’s correlations with urban form characteristics. To do this urban form characteristics influencing energy consumption of residential sector were chosen regarding literature review (independent variables). These variables include plot orientation, quality of the building, prime material of the building façade, building archaism, structure of the building, area of the plot and some other influencing characters. Data regarding gas and electricity consumption of residents (dependent variables) were gathered via contacting related organizations. In this regard the next step was to transfer these energies to joule unit. Residential sectors were divided to seven different dwelling types including central-yard houses, attached terrace houses (one, two and three stories), apartments (above 3 story buildings), and villas and declined houses. To better understand effects of urban form on residential energy use we normalized energy consumption data with housing areas. Several important conclusions were derived from correlation coefficients including the strong correlate between dwelling type and capitation consumption of operational energy. It was also specified that there is a mediocre correlate between capitation consumption of operational energy and quality, archaism, structure and area of the plot. In calculating operational energy of residential buildings, we found out that central-yard houses with 65 GJ/M2 are the least energy efficient dwelling type among others. The most energy efficient dwelling type couldn’t be determined between villas with 8 GJ/M2 and declined houses with 14 GJ/M2 via the data base of this study. In ANOVA analyses, other important outcomes could be summarizes as follow: “concrete and steel structures” consume less operational energy per capita than “brick and iron” and similarly “brick and iron” structures consume less energy than “clay and wood” structures. Furthermore we discovered that buildings solar gain and operational energy consumption per capita have inverse relationship with each other. It is also evident that those buildings favoring south sunlight consume less energy than central yard buildings (which are in advantage of the four dimension sunlight). Statistical analyses also revealed that with a little connivance dwellings dating back to over 60 years are the least energy efficient types while newly built dwellings (less than 5 years) are the most energy efficient housing types in operational energy consumption per square meter.
    Keywords: Urban Form, energy consumption, Operational Energy, Dwelling Types
  • Mohammad Bagher Ghahramani, Marzieh Piravi Vanak, Hamed Mazaherian, Alireza Sayyad Pages 27-36
    Sergei Eisenstein, the prominent Soviet filmmaker and theoretician, was interested in the inherent inspirations from the potentials of ancient art of architecture in order to enhance the emerging art of cinema. He regarded highly the baroque architecture and its capabilities to incorporate the user and convert him/her to an active character in architectural drama. Eisenstein believed in the primary relationship between an architectural construction and the structure of a film, and considered a corporeal presence of a moving viewer for both of them. A film's observer moves along an imaginary path and passes through multiples filmic spaces and cinematic times. He suggested that film had inherited such ability from architecture and emphasized the importance and necessity of considering the "cinematic path" and the "architectural path". The model of architectural promenade, influenced by Eisenstein's debates, declared by Le Corbusier, is often considered as an attempt to shape to a cinematic architecture. By realizing the affinity between the spatial perception of a user in an architectural complex and a spectator of the film, Le Corbusier attempted to borrow from potentials of cinema in the architectural design process. In this procedure, the spatial sequences are formed by considering the changing positions and the shifting perspectives of the moving observer.A moving user forms a coherent image from the varying perspectives and architectural frames which provoke him to keep moving through a building. It might be discussed that for Le Corbusier, the perception of architecture makes sense only by the corporeal presence of a user in the building who, due to bodily movement through the spaces, may give a temporal and cinematic essence to architecture in such a way as a film's spectator, by moving through a narrativized space and sequential path, could relate the spaces to each other. It is worth citing that great architecture historian,Siegfried Gideon, in his famous argument about sequential and Space-time characteristics of Le‌ Corbusier's works (particularly Villa Savoye), compares them with baroque architecture and the works of Borromini. As Gideon declares Borromini to be an architect to have all of his techniques in design act as strategies to create a sense of movement in the user. The Gideon's tutor, Heinrich Wölfflin believed that baroque art is the emblem of aesthetic of movement and in baroque, every fragment finds its meaning only in its relation with movement. The present article, at first by borrowing arguments from philosophers such as Walter Benjamin and Maurice Merleau-Ponty, attempts to show that in both film and architecture, a spectator perceives space in haptic and tactile way and by an embodied presence. Then, we try to make clear that the capacities and potentials of cinema can act as an inspiration source for architects in the design process. Due to advances in the cinematic space making and achieving the more complex relationship between space and time, and also between body and space in contemporary cinema, we believe, architectural adaptation from the potentials of space-centered medium of cinema, can help augment contemporary architectural space.
    Keywords: Cinematic Space, Promenade Architecture, Spatial Sequence, Moving Body of Spectator, Baroque Space
  • Alireza Fallahi, Haleh Mehdipour Pages 37-46
    Reconstruction programs often take only physical aspects into consideration, however, deep perception of the people’s lifestyle as well as their beliefs, values and culture is critically important to ensure a successful design of destroyed houses and contexture. In addition, efficient and successful management scheme after any disaster is drastically dependent on such an understanding. Due to its position and history, Qeshm Island possesses social, religious, traditional, cultural conditions and values different from other neighbouring area the mainland of the country. These varieties emerged during reconstruction period after 2005 earthquake and resulted in people dissatisfaction and thus modification on the reconstructed houses. This paper investigates the role of belief and tradition in housing reconstruction after the earthquake in rural areas of Qeshm Island. Typical components of the native people’s beliefs generally include: being strongly influenced by religious leaders, living together in extended families, having more than one wife, fundamental religious beliefs such as prohibition of getting bank loan with interest and the traditions such as land ownership rules. In some occasions, these beliefs were in favour of, and some other times they were against the housing process. This is notable that over the past ten years, a large number of houses are still vacant or have been changed inappropriately by the people to satisfy their needs. The methodology employed in this qualitative research is content analysis by conducting deep interviews, photography, sketching, analysing obtained data and reviewing available documents such as books, reports, articles and internet resources. In order to collect field data, four trips were programmed to the region and one village was selected. This village was selected with regard to a number of parameters such as: the amount of its devastation, the positioning method, replacement of the reconstructed village after the earthquake and formation of various contexts after the reconstruction.Furthermore, in order to select sample houses, stratified random sampling method was utilized. For this purpose, existing families of the village were divided into some numbered groups according to their location (old context, new township, Gavarzin Baalaa and emergency settlement), type of livelihood, number of wives and number of each house’s residents; and thereafter, 11 samples were selected in proportion to their frequency. In addition, deep interviews were conducted with people of different specifications and backgrounds as well as the local leaders and relief /reconstruction officials. It was observed that in the villages of Qeshm Island, religious values play a crucial role and the local people changed their reconstructed houses based on their own needs. The study concludes that officials concentrated on physical aspects of reconstruction only. Nevertheless, other intangible aspects such as culture and beliefs of the people and their influence on daily activities, particular cultural issues originating from ethnicity and religion, the role of religious leaders and cultural changes before the disaster are rarely taken into consideration. Therefore, it is recommended that the officials gain a comprehensive knowledge about the affected society prior to any other operations.
    Keywords: Reconstruction, Tradition, Beliefs, Housing, Gavarzin village
  • Hamid Reza Parsi Pages 47-64
    Iran, between Third to fifth centuries AD, witnessed one of the urbanization boom periods in his history. In this period, Iranian towns were capable of Commodity exchange and manufacturing products. In this context, growth of knowledge and Rationalism, Moderation in politics, community participation, Growth and development of the intellectual trends and movements caused Rationality and reasoning. This period is named Iranian Renaissance. During the renaissance movement, scientific and cultural life of the people was important: at Literature: Rudaki, Jami, Abu-Shakur Balkhi, Ferdowsi, farokhi, M, Khayyam; at Philosophy and science: Farabi, Avicenna, Miskawayh, Khayyam; at training: Nezamieh schools, Ismailia centers, Tasavouf centers; at official Management(Divans): A. Balkhi, Saheb ibn Abbad, Hasanak the Vizier, abdol Malik kondri, Nizam al-Mulk, Taj al – mulk. at Tasavouf movement: Imam Muhammad al-Ghazali, Imam Ahmad Ghazali; at Religious Movement: Mutazilite, Mutekalemin, Motesharehin and Fogaha, Batnyvn and Ismailia are cases in point which shows space of life which were crystallized in towns. In my opinion, growth of Asnaf (trade-union) activities and their link with scientists is one of the most important factors in Industrial production growth and business development, growth population in Towns and villages, formation of independent states and development of the policy. In this study, questions are: 1 - Between third to fifth centuries AD, What mode of economic and social relations were dominated and which foundations of civic life were there? 3 -Through which mechanism, social groups are formed the urban life and a system of urban settlements that have been involved? 4 –which and how internal and external factors caused the collapse of civilization were sighted? In relation to these processes and its spatial form, there are a lot of debates. It seems, Due to continuous Tension, both in Infrastructure (Economics) and the superstructure (politics), and according to the dynamics of social interaction, our historical society has constant oscillation between the two systems: Feudalism and Asiatic mode of production. Thus, the urban life has not a relative stability for Sustainable accompaniment between processes of Urbanization and Urbanism. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the general dynamics of urban development and urbanism and explain the content of concepts of the Towns in that period. This study is based on systematical – Historical Method. The main topics of the study is to evaluate of Interactions system between market forces, local government, Asnaf (trade unions), social foundations, Material and intellectual production and upgrading of social life in towns. The most important findings are an explanation of the accompaniment between Urbanization and Urbanism which made possible growth of Town and made them librated from domination of government. And as in Ghaznavid and Seljuks periods is showed: due to pattern of local government– religious policy, accompaniment between process of urbanization and urbanism as a precondition of civilization declined and social life in towns began to confine. Thus spatial form of towns experienced a backward to pre -boeyan period.
  • Razieh Rafie, Naser Barakpur Pages 65-76
    Planning of cities in order to respond to considerable needs of urban population, is one of the most important concerns of urban managers and authorities. Urban development plans which have been provided to respond to these issues, have different objectives and characteristics. Hence different plans are developed to plan and organize cities. Most of these plans are being prepared without consideration of outcomes and results of previous plans. They dont evaluate and measure the success of previous plans in improving the condition of city. Evaluation enhances planning practice. It legitimizes planning before citizens, providing sustained appraisals on planning products, procedures and results. Implementation evaluation of urban development plans can result in creating efficient and responding plans. Many regulatory-oriented planning systems employ comprehensive land-use plans as a central tool for carrying out planning policies. Aside from the vast effort invested in planning, land-use plans have a direct economic effect on land value and property rights. So, Land-use plan as a part of urban development plan which has considerable influence on public and private interest, needs to be evaluated more than other parts. Implementation evaluation of plans is performed based on three main approaches: Conformance-based, Performance-based and synthesis approaches. Conformance-based evaluation means judging the success or failure of planning using one or two criteria - the conformance degree between the outcomes on the ground and the plan proposals and the promotion of planning goals and objectives through the available implementation instruments-. Performance-based evaluation follows from defining a plan as a decision framework. After distinguishing between project plans and strategic plans and concluding that the conformance criterion is useful only in the evaluation of the former, performance-based approach develops the performance criterion to assess strategic plans. In some few studies on plan implementation, researchers explore the potentialities of an integrated use of both approaches and their simultaneous application for comparative purposes. These researchers have tried to create new methods based on the strengths of those approaches. This study wants to measure the conformance between proposed plan and current condition of city and to evaluate the implementation of land-use plan of Lavasan with regards to this. The evaluation is based on three factors: land-use, density and floor area ratio. Non- conformances in land-use has been grouped in 12 main groups. Results show that 54 percent of city area has non -conformance in land -use which 12 percent of these non -conformances are basic and they represent disobedience from proposed plan. Moreover, 7 percent of city area is allocated to lots with non-conformance in floor area ratio and 9 percent of city area is allocated to lots with non -conformance in density. 5 percent of lots have both non - conformances - floor area ratio and density-. Most of non- conformances has been occurred in central neighborhoods of city. In order to reduce these non-conformances, it is useful to consider specific situation of Lavasan in providing new plans. Control and supervision of plan implementation is also helpful for improving plan's degree of success.
    Keywords: conformance, city of Lavasan, Implementation evaluation, land, use
  • Somayeh Fadaei Nezhad, Parastoo Eshrati Pages 77-86
    Following the development and the qualitative and quantitative changes in communities, that have made substantial changes in historic environments; the authenticity concept has attracted attention in order to strike a balance between conservation and development approaches. The concept of authenticity has a fundamental role in balancing the plans and measures of historic urban heritage revitalization. Thus, the more consistent the new developments are with the concept of authenticity, the more integrated and balanced they will be with conservation. Authenticity possesses abstract origin and roots of the significance and value of the property and is as a transmitter of values and significance of cultural heritage has played the major role in the process of registration, conservation and management of cultural heritage. Authenticity as a multi-layered concept which has the role of transmitting values and significance of cultural heritage has found a special position in the process of recognition and conservation of heritage. As a result, developing a conceptual framework and following that, determining criteria for its evaluation in international documents and theories have been particularly emphasised. Thus, this paper; related to identification of authenticity, recognition components in cultural heritage conservation, poses its main question and works toward its main goal which is to develop a conceptual framework by determining the effective components in authenticity recognition based on analysis of international documents, conventions, and experts’ opinions. In this regard, this paper begins with reading and analysing international documents and conventions and theories related to the concept of authenticity in the field of cultural heritage, and then determines the aspects and dimensions explaining the concept of authenticity. Based on research questions and goals, the qualitative research methodology is chosen and with applying logical reasoning strategy as well as “content analysis” and “logical inference”; Moreover, reading and evidential observation based on books, papers and authentic documents are used as research tools.This paper aims to analyze the content by recognizing and categorizing international documents, conventions and theories. So, by determining the effective components in authenticity concept recognition; based on the literature review, the context for developing an authenticity conceptual framework in cultural heritage is provided. Based on the conducted analysis, five main components in authenticity, recognition are deduced that can be presented as two Tangible and Intangible aspects, as well as three dimensions of Stability, Continuity and Change. In addition, the evolution of heritage concept, from a solo monument to complexes, urban contexts, and beyond that to Cultural Landscape and Historic Urban Landscape, reveals that the more the scale of the view towards heritage changes from small to large; on one hand the more importance the intangible aspect gains. On the other hand, change and transformation which are inherent in heritage authenticity; beside the continuity of a stable condition, are more paid attention and discussed. Therefore, the current level of understanding of authenticity can be approached to develop a conceptual framework on the condition that the presented dual aspects and triple dimensions are considered in a complementary and consistent relation as an intertwined phenomena.
    Keywords: Authenticity, Stability, Continuity, Change, Tangible, Intangible
  • Ghazal Raheb Pages 87-100
    Providing appropriate rural housing in the country is a critical and ever- increasing demand. Solving current problems, in the rural housing prospects of the country requires essential research and planning. The first step in any type of planning towards improving or rehabilitation of rural housing conditions in Iran demands comprehensive and macro level information and an overall correct classification in the territorial rural geographic zone of the country. This paper has been pursuing to introduce geographical district classification (or territorial zoning) across the country (i.e. the rural settlements network) in order to identify zones in which similar types of rural housing are located.The classification intends to recognize and highlight rural settlement zones in terms of district classification of similar spatial areas and similar types of rural housing. This research study has been pursuing the following
    Objectives
    - Identification of the basic (or lead) housing formation “types” across territorial zone of the country, cognition of the occurrence central point and the authority area of each major “housing type” and explaining how each of these types interact with environmental factors. - Determination of the role of each geographic, natural, climatic, social, economic, political, and … factors on formation of indigenous housing across territorial rural geography of the country. In line with the above two objectives, the following basic information has also been formulated and prepared that may be mentioned as notable achievements of the plan: - Brief and harmonized introduction of “transformed types” emerged from “basic types” and classified by province. This part of the work has uniformly collected the country’s available rural housing typology information from all provinces and classified in a predefined structure: - Information layered map of all parameters influencing rural housing formation, classified by different provinces - Basic ethnical zoning map of the country, in accordance with linguistic information Rural housing in Iranian territorial zones is classified into eight “lead types”, with “transformed types” located within each “lead types”. Since no clear and definite boundary can be defined to breakdown or classify “types”, in many cases, distinct boundaries have not been defined. This discussion focuses on “basic types”’ formation center (or concentration point) and on spectral study of their area of authority. Accordingly, rural housing formation zones of the basic (or lead) “types’” in Iran are as follows: Zone 1: The Oman Sea and the Persian Gulf littoral Zone 2: Caspian Sea fringes Zone 3: Mountainous Kurdish settling areas of West Zone 4: Azari settling areas in North West Zone 5: Mid Alborz district and eastern Zagros plains Zone 6: Settled Nomads and permanent residents of the western Zagros foothills Zone 7: Central and eastern plains of Iran Zone 8: Central highlands and plains in the central and eastern mountainous fringe areas In continue, effective environmental factors in rural housing in identified zones have been studied.Sstudies show that somefactorshave adecisiverole, based on whichthehousing formationis up built. The factors determinethehousing formation “types”, in a monopolistic appearance forsome “types”.
    Keywords: Village, Rural housing, Rural settlement, Zoning