فهرست مطالب

مدیریت شهری - پیاپی 40 (پاییز 1394)
  • پیاپی 40 (پاییز 1394)
  • ویژه نامه لاتین
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/10/22
  • تعداد عناوین: 19
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  • K. Kaveh, K.Daneshfard*, G.Memarzadeh Tehran, M.A. Afsharkazemi Pages 7-20
    This study’s goal is determining the accurate relationship of central bank with its environment through recognizing the conditions of this bank in four aspects of autogeny(internal authority), heterogeny (interaction), discretion(influence in environment) and detachment (organization self usage of it’s resources). This study is discovery and survey in terms of method. Collecting data tool is questionnaire. After Delphi bike, detachment variable was removed in final questionnaire and for autogeny 10 questions, heterogeny 11 and discretion 17 were designed so it can be said that content and facial validity of questionnaire are confirmed. Since Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was higher than 0.7, it showed acceptable reliability of questionnaire. For analyzing data SPSS and MATLAB software were used. Results showed that there is a significant difference between ideal situation of central bank’s conditions in Iran 2025 with existing situation in all three aspects of autogeny, heterogeny and discretion. There has also been significant relationship among each one of aspects of autogeny, heterogeny and discretion in ideal situation and existing one. In autogeny aspect, experts’ mean was more than population’s mean which showed that central bank’s autogeny in Iran 2025 should be increased compared to current status. In heterogeny aspect, experts’ mean was less than population’s mean and it represented that central bank’s heterogeny in current situation is more than what it should be and central bank should decrease its heterogeny with environment in future. In discretion aspect, experts’ mean was more than population’s mean and so central bank’s discretion is needed to be increased in Iran 2025 compared to current status.
    Keywords: central bank, Iran 2025 vision, detachment, heterogeny, discretion, autogeny
  • Daryoush Rahmati, Mehran Shiravand*, Ali Moradi Pages 21-38
    Promotion of urbanization is one of characteristics of current societies that in their evolutionary trend results in establishment of megalopolis and brings the complex urban management in these huge population centers every day, together with new difficulties. Urban environmental problems, providing public and security services, green space and city façade, urban economic problems, informing, research and training makes the urban management duties list every day longer. Tehran Metropolis as the most important and greatest city of Iran and one of the most important metropolises of Middle East and included in the 20 great cities in the world, face these challenges more and less. Doubtless, management in this city with a population of 8 million peoples and 2/3 million families residing therein in an area equal to 800 square km, is not possible without participation of citizens. Citizens’ participation in their city and neighborhood matters, firstly has frequent benefits for municipality. If citizens based on their well-known motto “our city, our home” are sensitive to the city matters and public profits, then plenty of municipality responsibilities will be fulfilled in a better manner. Therefore, quality of assistance to the growth of organizational model of urban NGOs’ participation has been converted to an important phenomenon and one of the most essential questions. The experience of participation of NGOs in the developed societiesindicated that solving many urban problems such as urban environment, inappropriate status of security, unsuitable city façade and improper urban economic status is possible only at the extensive presence of NGOs and upon active participation and responsibility in the urban services management.Despite of awareness of necessity of development of NGOs participation in the urban matters administration, this concept in its organized concept in each one of participation levels encounters a lot of barriers such as deliberation, commenting, proposing, decision making, planning, execution and supervision on urban projects which limits the opportunity of NGOs upward from participation stair.Objectives of this research: Identification of grounds of need to citizens’ participation and identification of citizens’ participation promotion that upon studying national documents in national context (including constitutional law, viewpoints of supreme leader of Iran, 20-year perspective document of regime, fourth and fifth socioeconomic and cultural development plans and policies applicable on sixth development plan), and in urban context and comparative urban study in foreign cities consistent to Tehran, based on comparative and focal studies, at first strategies for promotion of NGOs’ participation in urban services are presented. Later theoretical model was offered for formulation of strategies for NGOs’ participation promotion in urban services management.
    Keywords: NGOs, Need, Participation, Urban Services Management, Perspective Document
  • Yousefali Ziari*, Mahkameh Fattahi, Rahele Khodadadi Pages 39-54
    Quality of urban areas and improvement of it have always been considered as one of the main issues in the process of urbanization. It might be possible to consider this importance as the result of fundamental changes in intellectual patterns during the past two decades in one side and its proposal in all aspects of human life on the other side; though this is one of the main influential concepts in urban landscape and vision, and there are various approaches available regarding this matter. These approaches have decreased the nature of landscape concept to simple decorating concept and even considering it equal to any type of interaction between human and environment and it identification. So there are several results for each definition in terms of planning and management. Urban landscape – as the objective of city – is the most impressive urban index for human beings. The issue of lack of attention to city vision and landscape, and efforts in identifying and creating of it, is one of the most important problems of cities. Increase in Population as a threat to city life, migration of rural population to urban areas and large cities, traffic, air pollution, open space, green space and playgrounds and several other issues, are among the items that have been discussed relatively more than issue of urban landscape and its problems and more papers and books have been written on it. Urban landscape is in fact all the elements that can be seen in the city and can be watched by human eyes. These items form urban landscape when they are integrated and combined with several factors in every moment. This article seeks to enhance the environmental quality to organize urban landscape in Sa’di Street through discovery of historical meanings, cultural codes and local architectural terms in visual landscape of the city, and giving sense to it in physical and visual formats. Therefor with review of Store street in New York – as an foreign sample - and Hamze street in Isfahan – as a domestic sample – the existing situation of Sa’di street is reviewed and SWOT analysis is then implemented for examining the weaknesses and strength factors and regulating the urban landscape of this street through field-documentary studies.
    Keywords: transition, urban growth, sprawl, compact city
  • Mansoureh Kamalizadeh, Mohammadreza Bemanian* Pages 55-64
    Security as one of the basic human needs has a special place in relaxation, comfort and spiritual needs provision. For this reason, security is always of managers, planners, architects and urban designers’ interest. Solutions and strategies of security provision have been fundamentally changed following prevailing change of housing architecture patterns from homes to residential complexes and high-rise buildings. Principles, concepts and patterns of residential complexes form are also more originated from its resources and ideas shaping namely Western culture rather than Iranian-Islamic foundations. Individual and social security is emphasized as one of effective aspects in housing design and residential complexes in Islam. The present study was done aimed to explain a conceptual framework for Iranian-Islamic design of residential complexes. The method is a qualitative type and using documents and Islamic texts and also a few examples of residential complexes and validation by experts. The results of the study show that two main principles are dignity and privacy and subsidiary principles are contentment, clarity, nature, evolution from diversity to unity, classification and spatial hierarchy and proximity of the main structure of conceptual framework of individual and social security in residential complexes.
    Keywords: Personal, Social Security, Dignity, Privacy, Hierarchy, Residential Complex
  • Hassan Esmaeilzadeh*, Leila Masoomi, Majid Abdollahi Pages 79-88
    Everyone acknowledges the fact that good management is one of the necessary and sufficient conditions for urban development programs. The theoretical pattern of urban governance that is in Endeavour to configure the best ways of urban management refers to a process that decisions and power enforcement take shape in it and is a place that the government, citizens and the private organizations interact with each other. Since the city of Tehran has different classes (affluent and poor), so it is expected that urban governance indicators be executed by the same way in the management of neighborhoods. In this respect, this paper examines the state of neighborhood management in three neighborhoods such as affluent (Velenjak), medium (Alestom), poor (Ismail Abad) neighborhoods in Tehran, to be good indicators of eight urban governance. The type of this research is descriptive- analytical and assessment and questioning tools from the group of experts. The sample size is equal to 60 questionnaires (three groups of 20 people in affluent, average and poor neighborhoods).the method of Sampling was also simple random sampling. The derived data were analyzed in SPSS software using MANOVA statistical tests, One-way ANOVA analysis within groups, post hoc LSD test and single-sample T-test. The results show that the factor of class is not affecting the good urban governance and we haven’t found any significant difference among different classes of neighborhoods. The results also show that Alestom neighborhood in respect of good governance indicators is in rather medium condition, in the Velenjak neighborhood, participation, fairness and transparency indicators are low and the other indicators has been reported as moderate and, ultimately, in Ismail Abad neighborhood, all indicators except indicator of consensus (consensus) are low.
    Keywords: good urban governance, class, Velenjak, Alestum, Ismail Abad
  • Mehdi Saidi*, Elham Shiri, Mortaza Khalili Pages 89-104
    The bus system in a high-speed public transportation systems are equipped with modern technology that due to accuracy, speed and flexibility have been considered as one of the improvement solutions in Tehran’s public transport system. In this article the performance of BRT line three of Tehran has been evaluated based on the established standard in 2013, developed by the Institute for Development Policy and Public Transportation (ITDP) through the rankings and SWOT models. Research method of the present article is comparative and descriptive - analytical. Our results show that BRT line three in Tehran with total score 50 has the basic rank and close to bronze according to international standards. After introducing the evaluation model for BRT system and factors affecting the system, strategies to promote the quality and quantity of BRT line three have been presented.
    Keywords: Ranking, index, BRT, evaluation standards
  • Dr Reza Mokhtary Malek Abadi, Dr Nafisesh Marsosi, Dr Ali Hosaini, Mohammad Gholami* Pages 105-118
    Among various types of cities, mining cities have special features including a high concentration of industrial activities associated with the exploration, extraction, refining, processing and export of groundwater resources, the risk of reduction and termination of non-renewable resources, high degree of environmental pollution, high production of domestic and industrial waste and social issues related to job migration and cultural duality which can create or exacerbate unsustainability matter on environmental, economic, socio-cultural and physical scales in urban environment of such cities. The aim of this study was to analyze and evaluate the environmental and economic dimensions of sustainable urban development in Asalouyeh situated in southern Iran, northern coast of Persian Gulf and in terms of methodology, this research employs a descriptive- analytical approach. Information required was collected through reviewing documents, fieldworks and questionnaire and were analyzed applying SPSS and Likert scale to value indicators. The results of data analysis using T-test, Wilcoxon and Friedman test, implied that the mining activity in the coastal town of Asaluyeh not only did not contribute to the stability of this city but it also led to greater instability. In the environmental sustainability component, pollution control component, as one the most important parameters in the presence or absence of the issue of sustainability in Asaluyeh, had the lowest rank and priority (1.05) between components of this dimension. Also, on the economic stability dimension, activity and employment components (2.03) and investment (1.41) are not in good condition.
    Keywords: assessment, mining, extractive City, sustainability indicators, Asalouyeh, sustainable urban development
  • Jamileh Tavakoliniya, Mohammad Shali* Pages 119-132
    Nowadays, Spatial and social inequalities are universal and expanding phenomenon. Identification and spatial analysis of social, economic and ecological inequalities in metropolises is one of the essential and basic proceeding for planning and achieving urban sustainable development. The present research method is descriptive-analytical and using 13 sub criteria based on three main criteria of social, economic and environmental analyzes the status of spatial fragmentation among the metropolis Tehran’s districts. For this purpose, the criteria and sub- criteria’s internal and external dependencies was determined using the Delphi and ANP method in Super Decisions Software and assessed and scored relative to each other. The results of assessing the indicators shows that Tehran metropolis lacks of the physical unity and spatial heterogeneity between the north and south of the city remains as main feature of its spatial structure. It is necessary that the authorities of Tehran urban management to take actions for better understanding of this phenomenon and consequently offer new and efficient solutions for reducing the effects of various impacts of spatial inequality and duality. For this reason, it is essential to rethink the concept of city in terms of social, economic, political, and ecological and sustainability dimensions.
    Keywords: spatial fragmentation, urban sustainable development, Analytic network process (ANP), Tehran metropolis
  • Mahdi Rezaei* Pages 133-148
    The questions of centralization and decentralization arise in every polity. The constitution or the practice or both have to settle how much of policy making is to be decided by the central government and by component bodies. By and large liberalism and decentralization tend to go together while authoritarianism tends to be associated with centralization. The constitutional model which is generally regarded as bringing about the largest amount or decentralization is federalism. This is said to sonstitute a half way house between confederacies (where component units dominate)and unitary states (where the center dominates) In its classical form at least, federalism stipulates that there have to be two independent levels of government (the centre and upper level component bodies (often named states) each of these levels has the right to decide on matters falling within its own sphere. There are difficulties in practice especially with respect to the constituent power and to the fields allocated to each level. Federalism must be based on a rigid constitution there has to be s supreme court protecting the independence of the two levels of government there has to be a second chamber defending the rights of the component bodies at the central level.yet there are variations in the extent to which the component bodies are protected and generally in the extent to which there is decentralization. On the one hand federal states are becoming more centralized on the other centralization cannot go beyond a given point without leading to gross inefficiency and perhaps to a break up of the regime as the communist experience showed. Partly for this reason there is a degree of convergence between federal and unitary states. Federalism is also associated with efforts to bring together independent states but this has occurred in a smell number of polities only. Attempts at achieving closer cooperation between states has led more commonly to confederacies, such as the Unites Nations. The European community or European Union has innovated by forming a type of association labeled supranational which is intermediate between the confederal and the federal models. There is innovation in that developments take place gradually with new fields beings progressively covered new structures being set up and new member states joining. The problems of centralization and decentralization have exercised the minds of many in relation to many types of organization: both efficency and freedom appear to be at stake. federalism succeeded in a number of contexts but it is not the panacea which some suggest it is; it is also so diverse that one has to refer to federalisms rather than to federalism. what is at stake is the need to find an equilibrium between the two extremes of over centralization and break up. Given the large number of situations in the contemporary world one should look for a variety of solutions and for a continuous evolution of the models which have hitherto been proposed.
    Keywords: Centralization, decentralization, federalism, social forces, ideology
  • Qanbar Amirnejad*, Toufiq Fahimi Zadeh Pages 149-156
    The present study aimed to explain the factors affecting the usage of electronic insurance in Iran insurance company and its operating strategies in Khuzestan province. The research method is descriptive-survey method, and data collecting instrument is questionnaire. The study population is consisted of 480 people of all staff and experts the sales network in Iran insurance company in Khuzestan province that 206 statistical sample were selected using Cochran’s sampling method. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS software after the completion and examination of 160 questionnaires. Data analysis performed using single-sample t-test and Friedman test. The results of hypothesis tests showed that components of the usability of the website, the type of insurance coverage, quality of service and security in the network of the factors affecting the usage of electronic insurance in Iran insurance company are in Khuzestan, however, the internet- advertisement weak impact on the usage of electronic insurance in Iran insurance company. The results of the study hypotheses using Friedman test showed that security in the network and then the usability of the website as the most the importance and influence the usage of electronic insurance in Iran insurance company in Khuzestan. In fact, it said that proposed model is proportional to collected statistical data.
    Keywords: electronic insurance, usage of electronic insurance, operational indicators of electronic insurance
  • Ali Karbasi*, Amir Hossein Amir Khani, Sayed Ali Akbar Ahmadi, Ali Nejatbakhsh Esfahani Pages 157-166
    Organizational sense making is the process that helps managers to understand how organization’s members change ideas and eventually what they chose, maintain and achieve among different meanings. This study examines and presents a model of sense making in service organizations and results in addition to the research community in other service organizations such as municipalities and municipal services organizations used. The present study investigated the subject scientific literature and research conducted try to design sense-making model in service organizations and ultimately the validity and reliability confirmed and try to provide the model. The study population included 44 PNU centers and units in the Isfahan province that have considered and 325 members of the community, according to Morgan table have chosen as a sample. According to the regression derived from the path analysis conducted, it turns out organizational changes by coefficients of 0.68 maximum impact and personal contexts 0.36 low impact and sense making with the coefficient 0.81 had more impact on individual outcomes.
    Keywords: Sense making, service organization, organization, organizational change
  • Davoud Hossein Pour, Shaghayegh Kermanshahi* Pages 167-174
    This study intends to propose a modern model in the field of human resources (HR) strategic management through designing human resources’ competence framework. Based on this strategic orientation of organization on human resources management system has been investigated considering the mediating role of competence approach in Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran. In order to implement and test assumed model, researcher has proposed clear and measurable indicators for each one of research’s concepts and in order to determine the best indices of research through Delphi method and expertise inventory, 30 professors and experts of management and central bank managers were asked about items. Data collection was done based on an inventory with 109 questions and distributing it among random sample of 330 managers and central bank staffs. Analyzing data was accomplished through structural equation modeling and Lisrel software in two sections of measurement and structure. In section of measurement model, technical feature of inventory was investigated and necessary reforms were applied and in structural section, model’s structural coefficients were used for investigating research hypotheses. The results of research show significant and positive effect of mediating variable of competence approach on relationship between organization’s strategic orientation and human resource management. Based on research results by using efficiency strategy in organization and the mediating role of job-oriented competence approach, traditional human resources management is recommended. Effectiveness strategy has a significant relationship in the effect of future-orientation approach mediating role with strategic human resources management and with selecting creativity strategy and the mediating role of individual-orientation approach; competence-oriented human resources management is suggested.
    Keywords: competence, strategic orientation, competence framework, competence, based human resources management
  • Akram Ghelichkhan, Hamid Reza Saeednia* Pages 175-184
    One of the most valuable assets of each firm is the brand of that firm. Whatever the brand equity is more in the consumers, mind, the firm can gain more benefits from the consumers in its shadow. The continuous controlling of this concept is as a necessary step in its effective management. In recent decades, studying and searching about the brand has allocated a special position in different domains such as university and business market to itself. Most of the researchers and managers of companies have concluded that the most valuable asset of a firm for improvement of marketing is the knowledge of branding which is accomplished by investing in marketing plans and creates the brand picture in the consumer’s mind. With regard to this important, studying the effective factors on the brand equity and its effects on the customer responses with a comprehensive look which includes both dimensions is needed. In this research we intend to design an optimal model for Samsung company to study that which variables can have the most effect and also they can have what effect on the customer behavior and response. The purpose of doing this research is to introduce the conceptual model about the effect of the Marketing Mix elements on the brand equity and its relation with the customer responses. This research has been a descriptive-survey kind and the field information was collected by the questionnaire tool. The statistical population of this research includes the consumers of the audio-video products of Samsung company. The sample size was assessed according to the Coachran formula in the unlimited population including 384 samples and data analysis was done with modeling the structural equations by statistical software named SPSS and LISREL. The research results have indicated the existence of positive relation between the research variables and fitting the conceptual model of the research.
    Keywords: the brand equity based on consumer, consumer response, Marketing Mix
  • Ali Mahdi*, Masoomeh Mahdian Bahnemiri Pages 185-194
    One of the most important issues in today’s urban world is increasing use of cars and its noise pollution, which is now one of the most important affecting pollutants on health and quality of lives of residents in urban areas. Noise pollution effects on various aspects of human and the community health as well as the high cost of treatment, thus more studies in this field is needed. Hence the importance of this study is to measure noise pollution caused by traffic and its impact on public health and mental health of the citizens in Qom. The study method was field studies and library. The data obtained over a period of three months regularly studies from the streets of Qom and using the B & K-2230, Quest-2900 and dosimeter. Overall, the results indicate that almost in all streets, noise pollution rate is higher the standard level. Among these the Imam Khomeini Avenue, 19 Day, Eram, and Enghelab streets have more noise pollutions. Noise pollution reflects is determined by field studies. Analyzing the questionnaires distributed among residents of adjacent streets, the results show that there are mild to severe illness and eventually decrease mental and general health of nearby residents in the streets.
    Keywords: noise Pollution, traffic, public health, mental health, Qom
  • Mostafa Abdi*, Esmail Kavosi Pages 195-204
    The currect study was conducted with the aim of designing and presenting a model of measurement for cultural development in the field of citizens’ innovation and cultual products. The study wasconductedwith objectives in which, indicators and components presented in UNESCO 2000 and Abdi et al. (2015) model of measurement for cultural development were presented to 34 people in the form of a questionnaire in order to test and confirm them. The population for the study consist of all graduate and Ph.D. candiates (in their second or higher years of academic study) in Islamic Azad Univeristy, Science and Reseacrh Branch in Tehran and the Isfahan Branch. Participants were selected by the application of Cochran formula. In order to analyze the data, factor analysis was performed using Lisrel software. Finally, according to the data obtained and after the removal of several primary indicators, the finalmodel of measurement for cultural development was presented for the field of cultural innovation in the form of six main aspects: books, translations, newpapers and magaznines, artistics products, handicrafts and entertainment, and cultural services/activities/products.
    Keywords: Culture, cultural deelopment, cultural innovation, cultural products, cultural services
  • Hassan Sattari Sarbangholi* Pages 205-216
    Utopian thoughts have precedence as old as human history. Islamic civilization utopian thought owes its progress to the Farabi’s utopian concept and expansion and academic study of utopian term in west owes to the Thomas More Utopia book. Theoretically, Farabi’s utopian thoughts influenced development of utopian system in both Islam and Western civilizations. By emphasis on Farabi’s Utopia as an example of utopian ideas in Islamic civilization, and Thomas More’s Utopia as an example of utopian though in the western civilization, this research tries to investigate the commonalties and differences of these utopias. The architectural and urban building spaces of these examples were studied in the conceptual viewpoint. Thomas More Utopia consists of fifty four similar cities. All of the cities have been constructed well according to the same plan as possible as. The nearest cities have approximately twenty four miles distance, and the furthest ones are not so far from each other; so that the people can travel less than one day. Because of similarities in the cities, only one of them has been referred in the “Utopia”; this city is Amaurot. Each city sends three wise old men to Amaurot every year to negotiate on their common affairs. Amaurot is the main city of the island and it is near the center of the island. “The opinions of the Utopians” and “The Policy of the City” are two books of Farabi. He expresses the political and philosophical systems of Utopia comprehensively. He divides communities qualitatively and in addition, there are cities in contrary to Utopia. He pays attention to the quality of communities from perfectionism and auspicious perspective. In other words, the goal of the city determines type of the city. Farabi likens utopia to a creature that has independent existence beyond the members of the city. The comparison of the architectural and urban building spaces of Farabi’s utopia and Thomas More’s utopia showed that both of the cities are placed in the defined space from urban structure perspective; both of them have defined volume and level, and the difference is that Thomas More’s utopia is located in an islands and Farabi’s utopia is universal. The More’s city has a defied localization but Farabi’s city does not posse this characteristic. Farabi has referred to the market space and transaction regarding to the urban micro spaces; while Thomas More has referred to passages, hospitals, market and hall and other specification, situations and services. More has not explained the social and geographical divisions, but Farabi divides his utopia into complete and incompetent city and offers subcategories of human communities. Thomas More has emphasized on the urban divisions on streets and fragmentation of the city and also has referred to details like type of material, material used and entrance of city; while, in Farabi’s utopia has no references to the details of the architectural spaces and he has emphasized on educational and social goals.
    Keywords: Utopia, Thomas More, Farabi, architectural space, urban space
  • Hamid Reza Saednia*, Davood Ghorbanzade Pages 217-230
    The present study aimed to investigate and identify factors affecting the intention tobuy of Islamic Azad University students to foreign brands of clothing among thestudents of this university in Tehran has been carried out. In which the impact ofindividual characteristics (unique needs and brand attitude) and normative characteristicsof students (normative influence and brand awareness) on model of cognitive- emotional intention to buy was studied. present study is kind of survey and to collectresearch data, a questionnaire that in combination of different sources available inresearch literature has been designed, was used. In order to achieve the objectives ofthe study, 384 students of Islamic Azad University in Tehran who knowingly boughtforeign brands of clothing, was selected. To analyse the data from the tests of confirmatoryfactor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) was used andthe two software package of LISREL and PLS SMART have used. Research findingsshowed that the individual characteristics students on the perceived quality of foreignbrands of clothing have a significant and positive impact. As well as individual andnormative characteristics of students on the emotional value of foreign brands ofclothing and emotional value of foreign brands of clothing also has a significant andpositive impact on intention to buy of students. The other hand, the impact of normativecharacteristics of students on the perceived quality of foreign brands of clothingand the perceived quality also on intention to buy of students was not significant.
    Keywords: need for uniqueness, normative influences, intend to buy, foreign brands of clothing
  • Naimeh Morsali, Morteza Mousakhani, Ali Badizadeh* Pages 231-240
    The purpose of this research was to identify and prioritize effective factors in socialresponsibility of professors of Islamic Azad University of Qazvin branch which wasconducted in 2014 and 2015. Among all statistical population which included 395professors of the university, 195 professors were selected as statistical subjects fromthe population. In this research, it was attempted that by using written sources, viewsof experts, field investigation, and also interview with experts, a questionnaire be designedto identify the said factors. The instrument used for collecting information wasthe questionnaire. To determine formal and content validity of the questionnaire (theproposed indexes), content validity was used, and in order to determine reliability factor,Cronbach’s Alpha method was used for 5-Choice questionnaire of Likert. Thenrequired data of the research were collected and by using statistical descriptive andinferential techniques, date analysis was conducted by SPSS software. Results indicatedthat structural dimension has the highest effect on accepting social responsibilityamong behavioral, structural, and contextual dimensions.
    Keywords: Social responsibility of professors, behavioral factors, structural factors, contextual factors
  • Khosro Movahed* Pages 241-252
    In this era that new technology has affected human life, many research scientists believe that Biophilic design can improve human well-being. Biophilic architecture can provide healthy spaces connected with nature and reduce stress and enhance longevity. Different researchers have identified and categorized different patterns in the Biophilic design. These patterns have a wide range of applications for both interior and exterior environments with physiological, cognitive and psychological benefits. This paper focuses on the 14 Biophilic patterns connected with nature that have been shown to impact human health.The objective of this qualitative study is to determine if one of the traditional mosque-schools in Iran has incorporated the 14 patterns of Biophilic Design defined by Ryan (2014). We aim to meet this objective by researching people‘s reactions to the fourteen Biophilic patterns (Ryan, 2014) using questionnaires and assessing people’s connection to nature when present at the mosque. Aqa-Bozorg mosque-school in Kashan city which is one of the oldest cities in Iran was selected as the case study. Through questionnaires we asked whether visitors felt connected to or removed from nature while physically present in this mosque-school. Data results indicated that most of the visitors felt connected to nature while they were present in the building. We concluded that Aqa-Bozorg Mosque-school which was built long before the conceptualization of “Biophilic design” does incorporate these patterns.
    Keywords: Biophilic Design, Pattern, Nature, Mosque, School, Iran