فهرست مطالب

نثر پژوهی ادب فارسی - سال پانزدهم شماره 32 (پاییز و زمستان 1391)
  • سال پانزدهم شماره 32 (پاییز و زمستان 1391)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1391/09/18
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
  • Ahmad Amiri Khorasani*, Hakimeh Mojahedi Page 1
    As an astronomical phenomenon, sun has inspired the creation of grand themes and concepts in poetical texts. The connection and integration of sun with the myth of "Mehr" have caused its surrounding mythical beliefs make their path into literature. Also the widely believed superstitions around it among different groups of people have been reflected in the works of poets and authors. The images of sunrise and sunset have accounted for the embodiment of most poetic imaginations. The present paper has tried to study the sun and its related symbols in Nezami's poetry. To this end, Nezami's Khamseh has been comprehensively studied and the related verses have been identified and categorized. The appearance of the verses in this paper is according to the order of the composition of the poems. The number of the verse is initially presented followed by the number of the page and the associated abbreviation of each poem.
    Keywords: Nezami, Khamseh, Sun, Myth (Mehr), Artistic images
  • Gholam Ali Pashazadeh* Page 21
    Namegh Kamal was a well-known 19th century Ottoman poet and intellectual. In spite of the general attention to Western literature and disapproval of learning Persian language and literature in the general cultural atmosphere of the 19th century Ottoman society, Namegh Kamal was one of the people who learnt the Persian language and benefitted from Persian literature. He reflected upon literary reforms in the Ottoman Empire, and he wrote about the relationship between the Persian and the Ottoman language and literature, the influence of Persian literature on the history of Ottoman literature, and the howness of encountering this influence in order to carry out literary reforms. Kamal’s approach to Persian language and literature is the subject of the present paper which was studied through descriptive and analytic methods, using Kamal’s works and writings as well as important literary and historical sources of his era. The study provides an answer to the question, why and how Namegh Kamal paid attention to the Persian language and literature in the reform-oriented Ottoman atmosphere.
    Keywords: Namegh Kamal, Persian language, literature, Ottoman language, literature, 19th century, Tanzimat, Literary reforms
  • Gholam Reza Pirouz*, Adeleh Ghaemi Divkalaei Page 39
    One of Sepehri's poem collections, namely "Seda-ye-Boo-ye Ab", is the essence of his thoughts, emotions, longings, and inner world through which his worldview can be understood. Elements such as nature, travel, and escape from urban life and industrialism, are symbols of Sepehri's worldview through which his experiences can be tangible since these elements are a microcosm of Sepehri's worldview that can be meaningful by connecting them to one another and also by a broader connection to the whole. This method of reading has been established in Wilhelm Dilthey's hermeneutic theories in which it is vital to understand the author's worldview –through exclusion of time gap and understanding the conditions under which the literary work is created- to understand the author's work since a literary work is the illustration of the author's worldview and the reproduction of the author's emotions, wishes, and longings can be gained through understating the text. This study is an effort to interpret and analyze Sepehri's discourse in Seda-ye- Boo-ye-Ab based on Wilhelm Dilthey's hermeneutic principles.
    Keywords: Hermeneutics, Dilthey, Sepehri, Seda, ye, Booye, Ab, Empathy, reproduction
  • Kavoos Hasanli*, Azadeh Najafian Page 61
    Abdolali Dastgheib is one of the prominent pioneers of Persian New Criticism who has dedicated nearly six decades of his life to research and criticizing and analyzing Persian literature. His works in this area exceed 100 books and articles. This study investigates characteristics of Dastgheib’s Criticism methodology, focusing on 15 of his books on works of Jalal Al-e Ahmad, Mehdi Akhavan Saaless, M.A.Beh Azin, Mohamad Ali Jamalzadeh, Sadegh Choobak, Gholamhosein Saedi, Sohrab Sepehri, Ahmad Shamloo, Mahmood Dolatabadi, Bozorg Alavi, Foroogh Farokhzad, Ahmad Kasravi, Ahmad Mahmood, Sadegh Hedayat and Nima Yooshij. Based on this study, the characteristics of Dastgheib's criticism can be summarized as: 1- Employing simple lexicality close to colloquial language, 2- Constant inclination to analyze and criticize the content and the social message of the works, 3- Lack of a clear and consistent methodology, 4- Incoherent stylistic. 5- Angry and aggressive tone. In his criticism, Dastgheib is clearly inclined to Marxist scholars and Socialist-Realist approach. This closeness and resemblance is reflected in five areas; regarding art as a social matter, regarding realist art to be authentic, insisting on committed art, prioritizing content over form, and paying attention to character and characterization.
    Keywords: Literary criticism, Abdolali Dastgheib, Methodology
  • Seyedeh Maryam Rozatian, Ali Asghar Mirbagheri Fard*, Mahnoush Mani Page 85
    “Shadow” is one of the most deeply rooted archetypes in human’s subconscious. Jung considers shadow as the inner layer and hidden part of the persona, which includes the negative aspects of our animal instincts. In Jung’s view, the shadow consists of all the human effusions that are considered as evil, sin and immoral by the society. The meaning of shadow, its features and the way to harness it remind us of the “self” and the importance of controlling it in Islamic mysticism. To harness this refractory self is one of the most important goals of rites of passage and makes a large volume of mystical texts regarding the self and ways to fight it. Since the views of Carl Gustav Jung, because of his spiritual insight and his attention to the mythological personality of the mankind, besides in psychology has found way in literary critic, eloquence and mythology. Some of the literary analyses have been conducted based on his views, too. In this article, along with an analysis of the shadow in Jung’s psychology and the meaning of self in mysticism, the similarities and differences between these two topics are analyzed. To this end, the meaning of shadow and its features in Jung’s views were initially studied and after discussions about the “self”, the focus is tuned to two literary works of pre-seventh century (Hijri calendar) and they were compared, contrasted, and analyzed.
    Keywords: Islamic Mysticism, Analytical Psychology, Archetype, Shadow, Self
  • Aliyeh Kord Zaferanlou Kamboozia*, Farzaneh Tajabadi, Behrouz Mahmoudi Bakhtiari Page 105
    This article deals with the phonological phenomenon of metathesis in Farsi. In order to carry out this research, about 2000 words from standard Farsi and its several dialects were studied, and 60 words were extracted, in which metathesis in two adjacent phonemes had occurred. After classifying these words according to their number and frequency of syllables, their syllabifications were checked according Sonority Sequence Principle (SSP) and Syllable Contact Law (SCL). Among the three major phonological approaches (the rule-based approach, the non-linear phonology, and the Optimality Theory), the third one turned out to be more efficient in the study of metathesis, and revealed that this phonological process may also be accounted for a synchronic phenomenon in Farsi. The results of this research show that in New Persian, the words entering this process should have three syllables at most and those with two syllables are the most frequent. It was also shown that all the words which undergo this process are loan words, and do not have Farsi roots.
    Keywords: Persian, metathesis, Optimality Theory, Sonority Sequence Principle, Syllable Contact Law
  • Mohammad Reza Sarfi, Mahsa Esfandyari* Page 129
    Studying and analyzing narrative styles from different points of view is one of the most recent arguments in the area of literary criticism which is considered to be an independent and crucial issue of fiction writing. A considerable extent of Attar's poem collections consists of dialogues and conversation between the characters, to a point that even the whole narration does not exceed those dialogues. Some of the dialogues do not address anyone specific; in other words, the narrator or the protagonist talks to themselves in moments of intense sentiment or excitement during which the pursuit of the story is facilitated and also some of their conscious or unconscious thoughts get unveiled for the readers. And this is how monologues are formed in Attar's poetry. Based on the purpose of the author, the structure and the style of monologue can be: 1- interior, 2- dramatic, 3- self-revelation. This paper investigates monologue as a narrative style in Attar's four poem collections namely Elahi Nameh, Asrar Nameh, Manteq-al-Teir, and Mosibat Nameh.
    Keywords: Interior monologue, Dramatic monologue, Selfrevelation, Dialogue, Attar
  • Seyyed Esmail Ghafelehbashi* Page 145
    Azerbaijani is one the most important styles in Persian poetry which is well illustrated in the poetry of Khaghani, Nezami, Mojir, Falaki, and Abolala Ganjavi. It is one of the richest and most remarkable styles of Persian poetry, from both form and content views, that has had a considerable and positive influence during the history of Persian poetry; even succeeding poets took the most of its vividness and fruitfulness. By a comprehensive study of the features of this style, it can be deducted that one the most crucial factor of its flourish is special consideration of rhyme and masterfully employment of meter and other rhyme-related and rhythmic. The purpose of the present paper is investigating the different aspects and techniques of creating rhyme, rhythm, and, generally speaking, music while highlighting and illustrating the expertise of the poets in creating the music.
    Keywords: Azerbaijani Style, Rhyme, Meter, Rhythm
  • Ahmad Reza Yalmeha* Page 175
    One of the subjects that have been proposed in rhetoric books for a long time is the subject of plagiarism. This issue, like other concerns; in literary criticism discussions has a special position. This subject matter and its types and instances should be analyzed and studied carefully. One of the most important branches of plagiarism is in the field of imagination and imagery of poetry. A great extent of the poetic images created by a poet has been exploited and repeated by another poet. Interestingly enough, poets who have created poetic texts and certain poetic images, have used their own creation themselves repeatedly in their other works, to the point that these images lose their originality and become cliché. Farokhi Sistani -4th and 5th century poet- is one of the poets whose poems are obvious cases of the issue of self-plagiarism. The purpose of the present paper is studying some instances of this case.
    Keywords: Persian poetry, Imagery, 5th century, Plagiarism, Selfplagiarism, Farokhi Sistani