فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 21 (پاییز 1394)
  • بهای روی جلد: 75,000ريال
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/09/13
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • D. Fazeli*, A.R. Farsi, B. Abdoli Pages 15-32
    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of observing relative and absolute information on learning a novel skill. The population for this research was male students of Shahid Beheshti University. 14 participants were selected by available sampling; they were right handed and did not have any physical problem. In this study information were provided in Point Light Displays. The first group observed the information of all body parts (RELATIVE group) and the other one just observed the information of throwing wrist (ABSOLUTE group). In acquisition they performed 20 trials and 24 hours later they performed 5 trials as retention test. After retention، all groups observed the full body film (relative information)، this period was called as re-acquisition. The results showed that ABSOLUTE group performed more like the model in relation to RELATIVE group. This effect was observed in all periods. There was no difference between two groups in control related parameters (all P>0. 05). Also observing the relative information in re-acquisition had no effect on intra limb coordination and accuracy، but it had a meaningful effect on control related parameter (maximum wrist velocity) made it more like the model. Relative motion information was not always the most important information for acquisition of coordination، in some cases like this the end point information play a more important role.
    Keywords: Relative information, Absolute information, Point Light Display, Intra limb coordination
  • M.Saremianfar*, A.R. Movahedi, M. Rafei Brojeni, M. Najafi Pages 33-46
    The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 8 weeks of horseback riding on social interaction of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The study included 25 eligible (diagnosed ASD, school age) children with ages ranging from 5 to 16 years whom they assigned to an exercise (n=11) or a no-exercise control group (n=14). Participants of the experimental group received horseback riding skills four times per week for 8 weeks (32 sessions). Social interaction was assessed at baseline and two days’ post-intervention in both groups. Results showed that horseback riding significantly improves social interaction in the exercise group. The participants of the control group did not show significant changes in their social interaction scores. The findings of the present study indicate that instructing horseback riding to children with ASD improves social interaction of children with ASD.
    Keywords: Autism spectrum disorders, Social interaction, Horseback riding
  • A. Ahmad Pour*, M.A. Aslankhani, H. Ashayeri, Z. Jafari Pages 47-64
    Sensorineural hearing impaired children who have vestibular hypofunction suffer from posture control problems. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of a selected rhythmic exercise program on the balance control of these children. 24 sensorineural hearing impaired children who hypofunction of their vestibular system were detected by video nystagmaography، randomly assigned in to either the intervention (n=12) or control group (n=12). Intervention group participated in six weeks’ rhythmic exercise program and control group continued their regular activities at home and school. Their balance control was assessed by balance subtest of Bruininks-Oseretsky test2 in the pretest and posttest. ANOVA with repeated measures showed the total score of BOT2 balance subtest (p=0. 003)، items with eyes open (p=0. 000)، eyes close (p=0. 000)، on a line (p=0. 000) and on a balance beam (p=0. 000)، of the intervention group was significantly better than control group. A six weeks’ period of rhythmic physical activity with emphasize on sensory stimulation could decrease visual dependency and increase vestibular sensitivity.
    Keywords: Balance, Hearing impaired children, vestibular system, rhythmic exercise, Bruininks, Oseretsky test2
  • S. Rafiee*, M.K.Vaez Mousavi, A. Ghasemi, E. Jafarzadehpour Pages 65-76
    This study aims to draw a comparison of Visual Search Behavior and Decision Making accuracy among expert and novice Basketball referees. 38 male referees took part in the research and were divided into two groups of experts and novices (Each group consisting of 18 people). Participants took part in a video test (50 clips in 2 section) in which the number of fixation، average fixation duration and their decision making accuracy was registered through a Visual Search device. t- Test and effect size was used to compare results. results showed that there is a significant difference between the two groups in their decision making accuracy، but there is no significant difference in their number of fixation and average fixation duration. Expert referees may be able to extract more relevant decision making information from the same visual field as compared to the novice referees that will help to make more accurate decisions.
    Keywords: Visual search, Number of fixation, Fixation duration, Decision making, Basketball referee
  • S. Arsham., F. Keshvari* Pages 77-94
    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different doses of nicotine on psychomotor performance in athletes and non-athletes. Seventy-two male college students (36 athletes, 36 non-athletes; range age=18 to 24) were recruited from Kharazmi university to participate in the study. Their level of physical activity participation determined via a General Information Questionnaire. Each group of 36 males was randomly divided into three subgroups of 12 (4 mg nicotine gum, 2 mg nicotine gum, and 0 mg nicotine gum). In order to ensure the health and no history of drug use, particularly smoking cigarette, a general health screening form was used. This study was an experimental and applied. The data were collected using a choice reaction time (CRT) apparatus and Vienna Two-Hand Coordination (2HAND) test. In addition to descriptive statistics, between groups repeated measures ANOVA was used (α=0.05). The results show that there were no significant differences between choice reaction time means in terms of groups (P=0.353) or type of intervention (P=0.646). Therefore, the effects of different dosages of nicotine on CRT in both athletes and non-athletes was not significant (P=0.0501). There were significant differences between the difficulty of two-hand coordination means in terms of groups (P=0.001), but overall effects of different dosages of nicotine on 2HAND in both athletes and non-athletes was no significant (P=0.544). Results indicate that there were no differences between psychomotor performance of athletes and non-athletes before and after different doses of nicotine administration.
    Keywords: Choice Reaction Time, Two, Hand Coordination, Nicotine Gum, Athlete, Non, athlete
  • H. Safari*, M. Eskandarnejad Pages 95-110
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of neurofeedback and physical training on balance in stroke patients. Methods the study was a RCT، the study group was participants studied six patients who were randomly assigned to 12 sessions of 40 minutes in control physical training and neurofeedback training (group 2) were studied. SMR neurofeedback training was carried out to amplify the wave. The Cawthorne and Cooksey exercises were selected as physical exercises for these patients. In this study، descriptive statistics to preliminary data، the mean and standard deviation of the two-way mixed design ANOVA statistical method and Cohen''s d was used for data analysis. The effect size in this study، using a method based on the mean and standard deviation (d Cohen) was calculated. Results showed that neurofeedback and physical training group showed significant improvements in balance، but there was little change in the conventional therapy group. We concluded that neurofeedback and physical therapy as an adjunct to regular physical exercise can speed healing and help improve balance in patients with stroke
    Keywords: Stroke, Neurofeedback, Physical exercise, Balance
  • A. Ghamari*, J. Mohamadi, M. Mohamadi Pages 111-126
    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of errorless and error full practice programs on dart throwing skill in girl adolescents with intellectual disabilities. 24 subjects with a convenience sampling selected and randomly divided into two groups based on the pre-test. One week prior to the acquisition phase of the experiment، average of ten pretest trials at a distance of 3. 5 m was taken. Four different intervals during the acquisition phase was practiced that errorless group performed from the least to the greatest distance and error full group in reverse order. The retention and Dual transfer tests were completed 48 h after the acquisition. Performance was scored by absolute error and variable error. Data was analyzed with ANOVA with repeated measures and independent t-test. According to the error variable، significant differences were found between the two groups in the acquisition (P=0. 001) and retention stage (P=0. 002). In dual transfer test، both the absolute error (P=0. 025) and the variable error (P=0. 001) in errorless group were lower than error full group significantly. Overall، based on the results، especially the dual transfer test as a measure of more valid، practice programs in which errors are restricted are useful and this approach to improve the accuracy، stability and consistency of performance in individuals with intellectual disabilities is suggested.
    Keywords: Intellectual disabilities, Errorless, Error full, Dual transfer
  • A. Shams* Pages 127-144
    The aim of this research was the effect of off-line time different periods on stabilization and enhancement-based consolidation process in explicit memory. students were randomly divided into 9 groups with distance of 12 h enhancement، immediate interference + retention with distance of 12 h، delay interference with distance of 12 h + immediate retention، delay interference with distance of 12 h + delay retention with distance of 12 h، distance of 48 h enhancement، immediate interference + retention with distance of 48 h، delay interference with distance of 48 h + immediate retention، delay interference with distance of 48 h + delay retention with distance of 48 h. This research consisted of two phases of learning and retention. Alternating serial reaction time and two selection reaction time tasks were used for this research. In retention results showed that group with 48h period occurred consolidation based enhancement. Results showed that in groups with off line period 48 and groups with delay interference with distance of 12 h + delay retention with distance of 12 h occurred stabilization based consolidation. In group with 12h offline period (immediate interference + retention with distance of 12 h) occurred retrograde interference effect. Groups delay interference with distance of 12 h + delay retention with distance of 12 h، and delay interference with distance of 48 h + delay retention with distance of 48 h have better stabilization based consolidation (P<0. 05). Finally، results showed that enhancement and stabilization in alternating serial reaction time task cannot be obtained by practice and during session training، but enhancement and stabilization based consolidation obtained after off line stage.
    Keywords: Consolidation, Motor explicit memory, Off line Distance, Enhancement, Stabilization
  • M. Memarmoghaddam, H.R. Taheri, M. Sohrabi, A. Mashhadi, A. Kashi* Pages 161-176
    The aim of the current study was to examine effectiveness of period of selected exercise program on planning and problem solving of children with ADHD. To do so، 40 male students aged 7-11 years were selected from area 6 in Mashhad’s primary schools and voluntary sampling. SNAP–IV، CBCL and clinical interviews were employed to diagnose ADHD. The participants were randomly assigned to the two groups (experimental and control group). experimental group received selected exercise program for 24 sessions، 90 minutes per session. The control group didn’t receive any intervention. Before and after training all participants were assessed with Tower of London Task. The data were analyzed using MANCOVA. The results demonstrated that The performance of the children of experimental group regarding planning and problem solving showed significant difference compared with the control group (P<0. 05). So، selected exercise program helps to improve planning and problem solving in children with ADHD.
    Keywords: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Selected training program, Planning, Problem solving