فهرست مطالب

Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine - Volume:6 Issue:2, 2016
  • Volume:6 Issue:2, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/12/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • Mohammad Reza Abedini, Nafiseh Erfanian, Habibollah Nazem, Sara Jamali, Reyhane Hoshyar Pages 142-148
    Objectives
    Ziziphus Jujube (Jujube) plant has exhibited numerous medicinal and pharmacological properties including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. This study was carried out to investigate its anti-cancer and pro-apoptotic abilities in human cervical and breast cancer cells in vitro.
    Materials And Methods
    The cervical OV2008 and breast MCF-7 cancer cells were incubated with different concentrations of Jujube aqueous extraction (0-3 mg/ml) for various times (0-72 h). Cell viability was assessed by Trypan Blue and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The expression of two apoptosis-related genes in treated cells evaluated by quantitative Real Time -PCR analysis.
    Results
    Jujube significantly inhibited cancer cell viability in a dose- and time- dependent manner. Herb-induced apoptosis was associated with enhanced expression of Bax and decreased Bcl2 gene leading eventually to a time-dependent six fold increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio.
    Conclusions
    These results indicated that Jujube may be a natural potential and promising agent to prevent or treat human cancers.
    Keywords: Ziziphus Jujube, Cervical cancer, Breast cancer, Apoptosis
  • Samira Ziaei, Reginald Halaby Pages 149-164
    Objective
    Triptolide, the active component of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F has been used to treat autoimmune and inflammatory conditions for over two hundred years in traditional Chinese medicine. However, the processes through which triptolide exerts immunosuppression and anti-inflammation are not understood well. In this review, we discuss the autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions that are currently treated with triptolide. Triptolide also possesses anti-tumorigenic effects. We discuss the toxicity of various triptolide derivatives and offer suggestions to improve its safety. This study also examines the clinical trials that have investigated the efficacy of triptolide. Our aim is to examine the mechanisms that are responsible for the immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects of triptolide.
    Materials And Methods
    The present review provides a comprehensive summary of the literature with respect to the immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties of triptolide.
    Results
    Triptolide possesses immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects.
    Conclusion
    Triptolide can be used alone or in combination with existing therapeutic modalities as novel treatments for autoimmune disorders, cancers, and for immunosuppression.
    Keywords: Triptolide, immunosuppression, Anti, inflammation, Autoimmune disorders, Cancer
  • Mehdi Pasalar, Majid Nimrouzi, Rasool Choopani, Mahmoud Mosaddegh, Mohammad Kamalinejad, Abolali Mohagheghzadeh, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani Pages 165-174
    Objective
    One of the most common global disorders is related to gastrointestinal system. Functional dyspepsia (FD) defined as upper abdominal pain and discomfort in the absence of organic ailments is a prevalent disease without any confirmed medication. The purpose of this study was to find gastric disorders which might be coincidental to FD based on traditional Persian medicine (TPM).
    Materials And Methods
    We searched the main textbooks of TPM including Al-Havi (by Rhazes), Canon of medicine (by Avicenna), ZakhireKhawrazmshahi (by Ismail Jorjani), Moalijat-e Aghili and Makhzan Al-adviya (by Mohammad Hosein AghiliShirazi), and ExirAzam (by Hakim Azam Khan). Also, we searched Pubmed, Scopus, Science Direct, Medline, scientific information database (SID), Iranmedex and Google Scholar from 1980 to 1 August 2014 for dyspepsia, gastrointestinal disease, traditional Persian medicine, and gastric dystemperaments.
    Results
    There is no equivalent term for FD in traditional Persian medicine although similar signs and symptoms are visible in terms like simple cold dystemperament of stomach, indigestion, and digestion debility in TPM sources. Some treatments mentioned in TPM have shown promising results in the current experimental tests.
    Conclusion
    Finding these similarities in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) textbooks may lead to discovering new remedies for this widespread disease.
    Keywords: Functional Dyspepsia, Traditional Persian Medicine, Stomach, Gastrointestinal, Temperament
  • Zahra Oskouei Shirvan, Leila Etemad, Reza Zafari, Seyed Adel Moallem, Naser Vahdati, Mashhadian, Hossein Hosseinzadeh Pages 175-180
    Objective
    Safety of Lippia citriodora, as a herbal remedy, in pregnancy has not yet been evaluated. This study aimed to identify the effect of L. citriodora aqueous extract on pregnancy outcome in mice.
    Materials And Methods
    Timed-pregnant mice received doses of 0.5 g/kg/day L. citriodora aqueous extract or the vehicle control during organogenesis, intraperitoneally. Maternal body weights were measured throughout the pregnancy. The litters were examined for external malformations and skeletal abnormalities. Fetuses were stained with Alizarin red S and Alcian blue.
    Results
    There were no significant differences in mean maternal weight gain during pregnancy between groups. Also, no significant differences were observed in mean number of implantation, live and resorbed fetuses between control and treated groups. The prevalence of all types of deformity was low and similar to control group (%1.11).
    Conclusion
    The results of this study show that moderate consumption of L. citriodora as an infusion or tea appears to be safe to be used during pregnancy and does not have toxic effects on development of mouse embryo.
    Keywords: Lippia citriodora, Teratogen, Toxicity, herbal medicine
  • Heibatollah Sadeghi, Abdol Saleh Hosseinzadeh, Mehdi Akbartabar Touri, Mehdi Ghavamzadeh, Mehrzad Jafari Barmak, Hossein Sadeghi, Moslem Sayahi Pages 181-188
    Objective
    The present study was conducted to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of hydro-ethanolic fruit extract of Rosa canina (R. canina) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
    Methods
    Male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into six groups of 8 animals of each, including control, toxic (CCl4), R. canina 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg + CCl4 and R. canina 750 mg/kg alone. R. canina (p.o., daily) and CCl4 (1 ml/kg twice a week, 50% v/v in olive oil, i.p.) were administered to animals for six weeks. Serum analysis was performed to assay the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine amino transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin (ALB), total protein (TP) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Biochemical observations were also supplemented with histopathological examination (haematoxylin and eosin staining) of liver section.
    Results
    Hepatotoxicity was evidenced by considerable increase in serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and lipid peroxidation (MDA) and decrease in levels of ALB and TP. Injection of CCL4 also induced congestion in central vein, and lymphocyte infiltration. Treatment with hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of R. canina at doses of 500 and 750 mg/kg significantly reduced CCl4-elevated levels of ALT, AST, ALP and MDA (p<01). The extract also increased the serum levels of ALB and TP compared to CCl4 group (p<01) at the indicated dose Histopathological studies supported the biochemical finding.
    Conclusion
    our finding indicated hepatoprotective effects of the hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of R. canina on CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats and suggested that theses effect may be produced through reducing oxidative stress.
    Keywords: Hepatoprotective, Tetrachloride, Rosa canina fruit, Rats
  • Mohammad Hosseini, Sharifabad, Razieh Kamali, Ardakani, Ali Hosseini, Sharifabad Pages 189-197
    Objective
    The hippocampal formation, particularly the dentate gyrus (DG), shows age-related morphological changes that could cause memory decline. It is indicated that Boswellia resins attenuates memory deficits and the major component of Boswellia serrata (Bs) gum resin, beta boswellic acid increased neurite outgrowth and branching in hippocampal neurons. This study was designed to investigate the effect of Boswellia treatment on spatial learning performance and the morphology of dentate granule cells in aged rats.
    Materials And Methods
    Sixteen male Wistar rats (24 months old) were divided into experimental and control groups. Experimental group was intragastrically administered with the aqueous extract of Bs (100 mg/kg/d for 8 weeks) and control group received a similar volume of water. Spatial learning performance of rats was tested using Morris water maze task. At the end of experiment, the brain was removed and the right hippocampus was serially sectioned for morphometric analysis. The Cavalieri principle was employed to estimate the volume of the DG. A quantitative Golgi study was used to analyze the dendritic trees of dentate granule cells.
    Results
    Chronic treatment with Bs improved spatial learning capability during the three acquisition days. Comparisons also revealed that Bs-treated aged rat had greater DG with increased dendritic complexity in the dentate granule cells than control rats. Hippocampal granule cells of Bs-treated aged rats had more dendritic segments, larger arbors, more numerical branching density and more dendritic spines in comparison to control animals.
    Conclusion
    This study provided a neuro-anatomical basis for memory improvement due to chronic treatment with Bs.
    Keywords: Aging, Boswellia serrata, Dendrite, Dentate gyrus, Spatial learning
  • Faezeh Vahdati Hassani, Mahmoud Hashemzaei, Edris Akbari, Mohsen Imenshahidi, Hossein Hosseinzadeh Pages 198-204
    Objective
    It has been shown that berberine, a major component of Berberis vulgaris extract, modulates the activity of several neurotransmitter systems including dopamine (Da) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) contributing to rewarding and reinforcing effects of morphine. Drug craving and relapsing even after a long time of abstinence therapy are the most important problems of addiction. In the present study, we investigated the alleviating effects of berberine on the acquisition and reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in mice.
    Materials And Methods
    In male NMRI mice, the acquisition of CPP was established by 40 mg/kg of morphine sulphate injection and extinguished after the extinction training and reinstated by a 10 mg/kg injection of morphine. The effects of different doses of berberine (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) on the acquisition and reinstatement induced by morphine were evaluated in a conditioned place preference test.
    Results
    The results showed that intraperitoneal administration of berberine (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) did not induce conditioned appetitive or aversive effects. Injection of berberine (10 and 20 mg/kg) 2 h before the morphine administration reduced acquisition of morphine-induced CPP. In addition, same doses of berberine significantly prevented the reinstatement of morphine-induced CPP.
    Conclusion
    These results suggest that berberine can reduce the acquisition and reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference and may be useful in treatment of morphine addiction.
    Keywords: Berberis vulgaris, Berberine, Conditioned place preference, Morphine, Mouse
  • Bahareh Heidari, Seyed Ebrahim Sajjadi, Mohsen Minaiyan Pages 205-214
    Objective
    The aim of this study was to determine the protective effects of Coriandrum sativum on acetic acid-inducedcolitis in rats. C. sativum (Coriander) has long been used in Iranian traditional medicine and its use as an anti-inflammatory agent is still common in some herbal formulations.
    Materials And Methods
    Colitis was induced by intra-rectal administration of 2ml acetic acid 4% in fasted male Wistar rats. Treatment was carried out using three increasing doses of extract (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg) and essential oil (0.25, 0.5, 1 ml/kg) of coriander started 2 h before colitis induction and continued for a five-day period. Colon biopsies were taken for weighting, macroscopic scoring of injured tissue, histopathological examination and measuring myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity.
    Results
    Colon weight was decreased in the groups treated with extract (500 and 1000 mg/kg) and essential oil (0.5 ml/kg) compared to the control group. Regarding MPO levels, ulcer severity and area as well as the total colitis index, same results indicating meaningful alleviation of colitis was achieved after treatment with oral extract and essential oil.
    Conclusion
    Since the present experiment was made by oral fractions of coriander thus the resulting effects could be due to both the absorption of the active ingredients and/or the effect of non-absorbable materials on colitis after reaching the colon. In this regard, we propose more toxicological and clinical experiments to warranty its beneficial application in human inflammatory bowel diseases.
    Keywords: Coriandrum sativum, Inflammation, Colitis, Animal model, Essential oil
  • Aghil Sharifzadeh, Hojjatollah Shokri Pages 215-222
    Objectives
    The purpose of this study was to assay the antifungal activity of selected essential oils obtained from plants against both fluconazole (FLU)-resistant and FLU-susceptible C. albicans strains isolated from HIV positive patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC).
    Materials And Methods
    The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation method from Myrtus communis (My. communis), Zingiber officinale roscoe (Z. officinale roscoe), Matricaria chamomilla (Ma. chamomilla), Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) and Origanum vulgare (O. vulgare). The susceptibility test was based on the M27-A2 methodology. The chemical compositions of the essential oils were obtained by gas chromatography- mass spectroscopy (GC-MS).
    Results
    In GC-MS analysis, thymol (63.40%), linalool (42%), α-pinene (27.87%), α-pinene (22.10%), and zingiberene (31.79%) were found to be the major components of T. ammi, O. vulgare, My. communis, Ma. chamomilla and Z. officinale roscoe, respectively. The results showed that essential oils have different levels of antifungal activity. O. vulgare and T. ammi essential oils were found to be the most efficient (P<0.05). The main finding was that the susceptibilities of FLU-resistant C. albicans to essential oils were higher than those of the FLU-susceptible yeasts.
    Conclusion
    Results of this study indicated that the oils from medicinal plants could be used as potential anti- FLU-resistant C. albicans agents.
    Keywords: Oral candidiasis, Candida albicans, Essential oils, Origanum vulgare, Fluconazole, resistant isolates
  • Akbar Anaeigoudari, Mahmoud Hosseini, Reza Karami, Farzaneh Vafaee, Toktam Mohammadpour, Ahmad Ghorbani, Hamid Reza Sadeghnia Pages 223-235
    Objective
    In the present work, the effects of different fractions of Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum), on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures and brain tissues oxidative damage were investigated in rats.
    Materials And Methods
    The rats were divided into the following groups: (1) vehicle, (2) PTZ (90 mg/kg), (3) water fraction (WF) of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg), (4) n-butanol fraction (NBF) of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg), and (5) ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of C. sativum (25 and 100 mg/kg).
    Results
    The first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) latency in groups treated with 100 mg /kg of WF or EAF was significantly higher than that of PTZ group (p<0.01). In contrast to WF, the EAF and NBF were not effective in increasing the first minimal clonic seizure (MCS) latency. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in both cortical and hippocampal tissues of PTZ group were significantly higher than those of control animals (p<0.001). Pretreatment with WF, NBF, or EAF resulted in a significant reduction in the MDA levels of hippocampi (p<0.01 - p<0.001). Following PTZ administration, a significant reduction in total thiol groups was observed in the brain tissues (p<0.05). Pretreatment with WF and NBF significantly elevated thiol concentrations in cortical and hippocampal tissues, respectively (p<0.05).
    Conclusion
    The present study showed that different fractions of C. sativum possess antioxidant activity in the brain and WF and EAF of this plant have anticonvulsant effects.
    Keywords: Coriandrum sativum, Frakshens, Seizures, Pentylenetetrazole, Oxidative stress
  • Ehimwenma Omoregie, Anirban Pal Pages 236-247
    Objective
    Vernonia amygdalina (V. amygdalina) leaf is locally employed in the Southern region of Nigeria in the treatment of malari a infection. This study evaluated the in vivo antiplasmodial, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effect of ethanol extract of V. amygdalina leaf.
    Materials And Methods
    The active principles of the dried leaf were extracted with ethanol. For quality validation, chemical finger-print of the extract was performed through high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). The extract was assessed for antiplasmodial activity by the standard four-day suppressive test on Plasmodium berghei (ANKA) infected male Swiss mice (six weeks old) placed into five groups of six animals each.
    Result
    The absorption spectra from the HPTLC revealed several peaks suggesting presence of some bioactive compounds. Results from the in vivo study showed that the ethanol extract of the plant leaf was significantly active against P. berghei in a dose-dependent manner with the minimum and maximum activity observed in the mice treated orally with 100mg/kg (% inhibition of 23.7%) and 1000 mg/kg (% inhibition of 82.3 %) of the extract, respectively, on day four of the study. There was also a dose-dependent decrease (p<0.05) in some oxidative stress indices including nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation levels in the extract treated groups as against the non-treated infected group which had high levels of these parameters. The pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IFN-ɣ) levels were also considerably low in the extract treated groups relative to the non-treated infected group.
    Conclusion
    The results suggest that ethanol extract of V. amygdalina leaf was active, with some immunomodulatory effect, against P. berghei infection.
    Keywords: Antiplasmodial, Immunomodulatory, Vernonia amygdalina, Plasmodium berghei, HPTLC
  • Jude Efiom Okokon, Michael Burata Bawo, Herbert Orji Mbagwu Pages 248-259
    Objective
    The stem bark of Mammea africana Sabine (Guttiferae), (M. africana) a common plant that has been traditionally used to treat various diseases and ailments was evaluated for hepatoprotective potentials against paracetamol-induced liver injury in rats.
    Materials And Methods
    The hepatoprotective effect of the stem bark extract (30-90 mg/kg) was evaluated by the assay of liver function parameters, namely total and direct bilirubin, serum protein and albumin, total cholesterol, alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase activities (ALP), antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) and histopathological study of the liver.
    Results
    Administration of the stem bark extract caused a significant (p<0.05 – 0.001) dose-dependent reduction of high levels of liver enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP), total cholesterol, direct and total bilirubin as well as elevation of serum levels of total protein, albumin and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH). Histology of the liver sections of extract and silymarin-treated animals showed reductions in the pathological features compared to the paracetamol-treated animals. The chemical pathological changes were consistent with histopathological observations suggesting marked hepatoprotective effect of the stem bark extract of M. africana.
    Conclusion
    The results show that the stem bark extract of M. africana has hepatoprotective potential which may be due to its antioxidant activity.
    Keywords: Medicinal plant, Mammea africana, liver, protective, Antioxidant