فهرست مطالب

  • سال هشتم شماره 3 (پاییز 1390)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1390/09/13
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • S. A. Entezari*, S. Y. Zeraat Kish, D. Seidi, S. Mashayekhi Page 181
    The aim of this study was to investigate the factors affecting production, productivity, elasticity of production inputs of honey in the Tehran and Alborz provinces is 1389. Data required to complete 80 questionnaires in the survey by the bee keepers and honey producers in the 1389-90 crop year has been collected. Explanatory variables of the hive, workforce, sugar, migration and levels of literacy are significant and positive relationship with the production of honey. Elasticity of production inputs of the hive, human resources, the amount of sugar, the number of migration and literacy, respectively, equal to 0.612, 0.495, 0.709, 0.473, 0.750 which indicates that these inputs have a significant effect on honey production. All of these inputs in making the show a second area production function and their use is economical. The results show that the average productivity and ultimate productivity of the hive is, 5.14 and 3.15 and the average productivity and ultimate productivity of human resources is, 5.74 and 2.84 and the average productivity and ultimate productivity of sugar consumption is 0.73 and 0.51. The results show that returns to scale in samples of about 2.364, which indicates that returns to scale farms are being bullish. This means that if production of 100 units will increase the production rate increased to 236.4 units.
    Keywords: productivity, efficiency, elasticity, honey, Tehran Province, Alborz Province
  • R. Jafari Rastegar*, S. N. Mousavi, A. Afsar Page 191
    The current study investigated the effect of the Guanidino acetate instead of creatine capacity of muscles in the male and female broiler chicks performance for total 1120 pieces of sexed Ross 308 broilers in block completely random design method with 4 treatments and 4 repeats. The treatments are 1- male chick without GAA supplement diet 2- male chick with GAA supplement diet 3- female chick without GAA supplement diet 4- female chicks with GAA supplement diet. Finally the feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion rate was measured periodically with in periods of (0 to 10), (11 to 24) and (25 to 42) days old. In the age of 42 day old, 3 pieces was selected from each pen, and was analyzed. Characteristics investigated was carcass percent, breast and femur meat, ventral fat, back, small intestine, liver, gizzard, heart, spleen and bursa weight. For Weight gain had effect in ages 11 to 24, 25 to 42 and in total period (p<0.05) that in male chicks is better than females. and in ages 11 to 24 and in total period Adding GAA had effect (p<0.05) that WG in diets without supplement is higher than other diets. For Feed intake had effect in 11 to 24 and 25 to 42 and in total period (p<0.05) that in male chicks is better than female chicks, and also except age (0 to 10), using GAA had significant effect in other ages (p<0.05) and with GAA, chicks had less feed intake. in FCR, for male chicks in total period it had a significant effect (p<0.05) and it was better than femal chicks. Adding GAA in (11 to 24 and for 24 to 42) ages had less FCR. For carcass traits, it just had a effect on heart percentage and in males was higher than females and with using GAA it was high.
    Keywords: Guanidino acetic acid, creatine, muscle, male, female, broilers
  • A. Jahan Bakhshi*, A. Nejati Javaremi Page 201
    Development of genotyping technology is leading to detect more major genes affecting quantitave traits. A dairy cattle population of 10000 commercial dams and 200 active sires, involving an open nucleus 4-pathways breeding scheme was simulated for twenty years of selection. Four major genes and remaining polygenic effect were simulated to meke phenotypes of milk yield trait. Population average, heritability and phenotypic standard devation of milk yield were assumed as 6500, 0.27 and 1100 respectively. Phenotypes affected by parity, season and herd fixed effects. BLUP animal model was used for proofing young bulls via progeny testing. No major gene effect involved in evaluation procedure for the conventional but for the second starategy genotypes of major genes were used to preselect within full sib families prior to progeny test. The present study showed that such preselection can improve genetic gain significantly (P<0.05).
    Keywords: Progeny test, Major genes, Preselection
  • R. Salimi*, N. Teymour Nezhad, H. Fazaeli, F. Foroudi Page 213
    Fruit and vegetable wastes collected from central terminal of Karaj. Silage characteristics of those wastes were studied in a 3x4 factorial completely randomized experiment. Treatments were 25, 30, 35 and 40 percent of DM (a mixture of FVW and wheat straw) each with 0, 2 and 4 percent of molasses respectively. After two months of ensiling, the silages were opened and sampled for evaluation. Results showed that there were significant differences (p<0.05) between treatments for dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), score values, pH, total volatile fatty acids, total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (AN) and AN/TN ratio. Increasing of DM resulted a better fermentation pattern of silage and lower AN content (p<0.05). Apart from the DM, molasses significantly (p<0.05) reduced the pH value when it was increased from 2 to 4 percent. There were an interaction effect (p<0.05) between DM and molasses levels where the pH and AN reduced in silages contained 2 or 4 percent molasses with increasing the DM content as well. In conclusion, the silage contained 4 percent molasses with 35 percent DM and 4. 98 pH was considered to be the superior treatment.
    Keywords: fruit, vegetable residues, silage characteristics
  • E. Sangin*, N. Karimi, A. Alizadeh Page 223
    This experiment assessed to determine the best doses of fatty acids Omega 3 and 9 in food sources for milk calves, to have the maximum growth and immunity. In this experiment, employed a higher dosage of fatty acid Omega 3 and 9, as proposed by NRC 2001. So, a predetermined amount of Omega 3 and 9 added to the milk replacement for calves in the nursing period. This was done in a stochastic manner for three groups of seven calves. There were 3 treatments. Treat 1: Control, were fed only milk replacement, Treat 2: were fed fish oil, after an adaptation period for each calf, 35 g/d fish oil was added to the milk replacement, treat 3: were fed Canola Oil, after an adaptation period for each calf, 35g/d Canola oil was added to the milk replacement. In the course of experiment, bleeding was implemented four times: On birth, at the onset of oil addition, on ablactation, and two weeks after ablactation. More over, height, weight and length of Calves bodies were measured along with bleeding, DMI were measured daily too. The results indicate that, only the effect of fish oil on the increased numbers of white cells in the blood of calves at the end of the experiment was significant (P<0.05), while increasing the number of lymphocytes and neutrophils was not significant as well as the addition of fish oil (Omega 3) leads to an increase of average food consumption, and significant daily weight-gaining (P<0.05).
    Keywords: essential fatty acid, immune system, calf, weight gain, feed intake
  • D. Seidi*, S. Mashayekhi, S. N. Mousavi Page 235
    This study was carried out to investigate on marketing of turkey meatand economic evaluationofturkey production farms in Tehran province. For this purpose, marketing channels were identified and the contribution of marketing factors, marketing margins, marketing cost coefficient and marketing efficiency were determined.Net benefit-cost ratio (NBCR) analysis method was applied for economic evaluation of turkey farms. Data from this study was collected through questionnaires filled in interviews of four levels of turkey producers, slaughterhouses, wholesalers and retailers in Tehran province.in format combinational of random sampling for wholesalers and retailers and census sampling for producers and slaughterhouse were selected for the year 2010. There for totalslaughterhouseand producers that were 1and 4 units, respectively and also 10 wholesalers and 30 retailers were interviewed as personal samples.The results showed that turkey meat in Tehran province in format 6 marketing channel supply to market that in this between producer-wholesaler-retailer-consumer were main marketing channel with contribution of 58 percent. The results also showed that contribution of wholesaler and retailer from total marketing margin in this channel was 56 and 44 percent, respectively. while,the contribution of producer, wholesaler and retailer from final price paid by consumer were 55.3, 25.1 and 19.6 percent, respectively. On the other hand, computation marketing cost coefficient showed that 81 percent of final consumer price belongs to marketing cost. while, marketing efficiency of turkey meat in Tehran province is 61.3 percent, Moreoverrevealed inefficiency of existing marketing system was for turkey meat in Tehran province. Cost-benefit analysis also showed +1.38 economic justification turkey production in Tehran province turkey farms. Hence, this indicates appropriate economic justification for turkey breeding in Tehran province.
    Keywords: Turkey meat, Economic performance, Management marketing, Tehran province
  • M. Abbasi*, M. R. Abedini, S. N. Mousavi Page 249
    To evaluate the effects of stocking density and litter material on carcass characteristics, immune response, and litter microbial load of broiler chickens, 2016 day-old broilers (Ross 308, as-hatched) in a period of 45 days by using a factorial experiment (3×2) in the randomized complete block design were assigned to three levels of stocking densities, including 10, 14, and 18 birds/m2 (equivalent 25, 35, and 45 kg/m2 live weight, respectively) and two types of litter materials, comprising wood shaving and paper roll. Immune responses were evaluated against phytohemagglutinin injection at day 43 of age and antibody titer against Newcastle disease at the days 10, 22, and 45 of the research. Carcass yield and cuts at day 44 and litter total bacterial count at day 45 of experiment were measured. Results showed that there were no significant differences on experimental days in immune Responses, and litter microbial load among treatments in interactions and main effects (P < 0.05). Microbial load of litter, numerically in 10 birds was lower as compared to others. The relative weight of gizzard was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the birds were raised on wood shaving than that of birds raised on paper roll. In conclusion, stocking densities and litter materials used in this research had no significant effect on litter microbial load and immune responses of broilers.
    Keywords: broiler chicken, bird density, litter material, gizzard, phytohemagglutinin
  • H. Mansouri Khah*, N. Karimi*, H. A. Sheibani Page 263
    Information on animal requirements for rangeland grazing capacity is essential. Therefor, animal unit equivalent (AUE) of each breed should be determined independently. In this study, at first, 3 flocks were selected in Lar region (Down Alarm) which were Zandi breed, and 70 head of animal were chosen from every flock, including, 20 head of 3-year-old ewes, 20 head of 4-year-old ewes, 5 head of 3-year-old rams, 5 head of 4-year-old rams, 10 head of 3-mounth-old lambs, 10 head of 6-mounth lambs. Then during 2 stages, beging and end of grazing season of rangeland they were weighted. By using of average weight of 3 and4-year-old ewes, the animal unit's weight of this spieces was estimated about 54.28kg. In this study, animal unit of ram, 3 and 6-mouth-old lambs, related to determinated weight, was assigned 1.23, 0.68, 0.86, of animal unit respectively. The results showed that in beging and end of grazing season as well as the mean of the three flocks weight at the beging and end of grazing season are significantly (P< 5%) different.
    Keywords: animal unit, Down Elarm, Zandi sheep breed, Lar area, grazing season