فهرست مطالب

Plant Physiology - Volume:4 Issue: 3, 2013
  • Volume:4 Issue: 3, 2013
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/09/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Mozhgan Farzamisepehr, Azade Reza, Bahram Tafag Page 1029
    This study was conducted to determine the effect of compost and compost tea on growth and physiological parameters of Lepidium sativum L. 30-day-old Cress plants treated with compost and compost tea were harvested and different growth and physiological parameters were measured. Compost tea application increased RGR, SLA, ULR and RLAGR. The contents of Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b in the plants significantly increased at the media supplemented with compost 25% and compost tea 75%. While total soluble sugars in leaves of the treated cress plants decreased total non-soluble sugars, proline and total protein contents increased with an increase in compost and compost tea contents in culture medium.. From among different measured macro elements, K was further observed as compost levels rose in the growing media Finally, the highest contents of micro-elements were measured at medium supplemented with 75% compost and compost tea.
    Keywords: Lepidium sativum, compost, compost tea, growth, chlorophylls, proline, sugars, macro, micro elements
  • Fatemeh Gholizadeh, Saeed Navabpour Page 1039
    In order to study the genetic diversity in rice (Oryza sativa L.), 29 genotypes consis􀀓ng land races, pure and improved lines were evaluated using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 30 SSR primers were used to amplify some part of rice genome in germplasms, the PIC values ranged from 0.07 (RM 340) to 0.71 (RM 7426) with an average of 0.45. The results showed a total number of 106 amplified bands. Among them, the primer RM7426 showed the highest number alleles while the lowest was observed for RM340 primer. Average number of observed alleles in total genotypes was 3.53. The lowest PIC value was observed in RM445, RM466, RM3345, and RM7424 primers and the highest PIC value was observed in RM7426, RM1337, RM47, and RM5430 primers. PCA components explained 84.40% of variation. The clustering patterns of the genotypes were assigned into three clusters based on their response to salinity and morpho-physiological characteristics. Cluster analysis grouped the genotypes in salt tolerant, intermediate tolerant and sensitive classes. The results showed that information from SSR data can complement information obtained from quantitative methods.
    Keywords: rice (Oryza sativa), salinity stress, SSR markers, cluster analysis
  • Homa Mahmoodzadeh, Mitra Mahmoodzadeh Page 1047
    Allelopathic effects of aqueous extract of rhizomes of Cynodon dactylon L. were studied on seed germination and seedling growth of three legume crops (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Pisum sativum L., and Vicia faba L.), three Labiatae species (Thymus vulgaris L., Melissa officinalis L., and Mentha spicata L.), and two species of Poaceae (Avena fatua L., Sorghum halepense L.). Seed germination of all Labiatae species was completely inhibited at treatments more than 2% rhizome extract of Cynodon dactylon but in other species, except Phaseolus vulgaris, complete failure of seed germination was recorded only at treatments more than 6% in Vicia faba and Sorghum halepense and 10% in Pisum sativum and Avena fatua. Seed germination of Phaseolus vulgaris was not completely inhibited but it was low at high concentration of the extract. The extract had strong inhibitory effect on root elongation of seedling in legums and Labiatae to shoot elongation in Poacae. Rhizomes of Cynodon dactylon may be a source of natural herbicide against Sorghum halepense which will help to control invasive plants.
    Keywords: Cynodon dactylon, Graminae, Legume crops, Labiatae, Bermudagrass, Growth
  • Mehran Alavi, Mozafar Sharifi, Naser Karimi Page 1055
    In arid and semi-arid areas of the world, excessive mineral aerosol carried by air parcels is a common climatic incident with well-known environmental side effects. In this study, the role of sand-dust accumulation was investigated on various aspects of photosynthetic yield of Plantago lanceolata including chlorophyll (Chl) a, b, effective quantum yield of PSII photosystem (ФPSII), maximal quantum yield of PSII photosystem (Fv/Fm), electron transport rate (ETR), and biomass. P. lanceolata was exposed to a gradient of dust concentrations (0.5 (T1), 1 (T2), and 1.5 g/m3 (T3)) in a dust chamber for a period of 60 days. Results of this experiment indicated that chlorophyll content of shoot is negatively correlated with the intensity of the dust exposure. Exposure of plant in T1, T2 and T3 treatments of dust caused a reduction in ΔF/Fm´ at 4%, 21%, and 26%, respectively. At the same time a reduction of 19%, 22%, and 46% in three treatments was observed for ETR. However, dust accumulation on the plant had not a significant reduction in Fv/Fm. Chlorophyll content had a significant reduction in the chlorophyll b. Also, the amounts of reduction in shoot dry mass of T1, T2, and T3 treatments were 26%, 29%, and 32%, respectively, as compared with their respective control.
    Keywords: sand, dust storm, Plantago lanceolata, dust chamber, ΔF, Fm´, ETR, Fv, Fm, biomass
  • Niranjan Bala, Anindita Dey, Sukhen Das, Ruma Basu, Papiya Nandy Page 1061
    Engineered nano particles may have a variety of effects on plant systems which is not well studied as yet. We have studied for the first time the beneficial effect of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanorod on seed germination and growth of chickpea plant. HAP nanorods have been synthesized by sol gel technique and then characterized. Chickpea plants have been allowed to germinate and grow in sterile sand containing HAP nanorod and this resulted in enhancement of both germination rate and plant growth radically. The maximum increase was observed in the presence of 1 mg/ml Hap-nanorod where the plant growth rate was more than two times over the control. Electron microscopic study provided the evidence of accumulation of nanoparticles within the plant tissue. These nanoparticles have great potential to be used as nano-fertilizer.
    Keywords: Hydroxyapatite nanorod, electron microscopy, nano, fertilizer, plant biomass production, α amylase activity, nanoparticles accumulation
  • Behzad Kaviani Page 1071
    Matthiola incana (Brassicaceae) is an important ornamental plant, which is used as cut flower, pot plant, and landscape. Traditionally, it is propagated via seeds, but interest is given in vegetative propagation of parental lines as well as superior single plants. Micropropagation by organogenesis is an efficient in vitro propagation method for Matthiola incana. Starting from seeds, apical bud is produced and propagated in MS medium containing benzyladenine (BA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Seeds from mother plants were germinated on MS medium without growth regulators. Apical buds from in vitro germinated seedlings were subcultured on solid MS medium supplemented with BA and IBA, both with concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1 and 5 mg L-1. Four-week-old in vitro plants obtained from apical buds showed successful shooting and rooting. MS medium supplemented with 5 mg L-1 BA + 1 mg L-1 IBA resulted in the highest shoot length (2.90 cm/plant). Largest number of node (5.72/plant) was obtained in MS medium containing 1 mg L-1 BA + 1 mg L-1 IBA. When the shoot tips were inoculated in the medium containing 0.5 mg L-1 IBA without BA, the best result was observed for root number (5.95/plant). Shoot tips cultivated in media containing 0.5 mg L-1 IBA without BA showed maximum root length (15.36 cm/plant). Also, the content of fresh weight and dry weight were obtained. About 85% of the micropropagated plantlets were established successfully in acclimatization medium. Regenerated plantlets were morphologically identical with mother plants. This protocol has proven useful for tissue culture propagation of Matthiola incana.
    Keywords: Brassicacea, micropropagation, organogenesis, ornamental plants, plant growth regulators
  • Nasim Akhshi, Kianoush Cheghamirza, Farhad Nazarian, Firouzabadi, Hadi Ahmadi Page 1079
    In order to choose an efficient breeding procedure, it is necessary to have knowledge of the genetic system controlling agronomically important traits. Common bean is one of the major legumes containing large amount of proteins and other valuable nutrients. The aim of this study was to determine genetic parameters for yield and yield components, using six generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1, and BC2) derived from DERAKHSHAN × AND1007 and GOLI × D81083 crosses of common bean. A field experiment for these six generations was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The measurements included seed yield, pod weight, pod number per plant, seed number per pod, seed number per plant, and 100 seed weight. Generation mean analysis with three-parameter genetic model showed inadequacy of additive-dominance simple model to illustrate the genetic mechanism of the evaluated traits. Significant differences for two or more individual scaling tests (A, B, C, and D) in both crosses were recorded. Hayman six parameters genetic model suggested that both dominance and epistasis effects were important for most of the evaluated traits. Furthermore, expression of some traits in both crosses was affected by additive gene effects. Broad sense heritability was high for all traits except 100 SW in DER × A1007 cross. Estimation of narrow sense heritability range was moderate for most traits. For SY and traits where portion of non-additive gene effect was higher, it is possible to exploit heterosis using the plant materials in this study.
    Keywords: generation mean analysis, heritability, yield, common bean
  • Zohrab Adavi, Mahmoud Reza Tadayoun Page 1087
    The effect of mycorrhiza fungi was studied on growth and yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Fereidoonshahr, Esfahan, Iran during 2013 growing season. The experiment treatments were arranged in a factorial design based on a complete randomized block design with three replications. Four phosphorus fertilizer levels of 25%, 50% 75% and 100% P recommended with two levels of Mycorrhiza: with and without Mycorrhiza (control) were assigned in a factorial combination. Results showed that tuber size, number of tuber per plant, tuber yield, and starch yield were significantly higher in inoculated plants than in non-inoculated plants. Tuber size, number of tuber per plant, tuber weight per plant, number of tuber in m2, tuber yield, and starch yield increased with increasing P level above 75% P recommended in non-inoculated plants, whereas no significant difference was observed between 75% and 100% P recommended. The positive effect of mycorrhizal inoculation decreased with increasing P levels due to decreased percentage of root colonization at higher P levels. According to the results of this experiment, application of mycorrhiza in the presence of 50% P recommended had a favorable result and could increase tuber yield and starch production to an acceptable level. Therefore, mycorrhiza could be considered as a suitable substitute for chemical phosphorus fertilizer in organic agricultural systems.
    Keywords: phosphorus fertilizer, tuber yield, potato, mycorrhiza