فهرست مطالب

Jundishapur Journal of Health Sciences - Volume:8 Issue: 1, 2016
  • Volume:8 Issue: 1, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/12/06
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Mansooreh Dehghani *, Mehdi Hoseini, Mohammad, Kazem Fathi Fath, Aabaadi, Zahra Elhamiyan, Narges Shamsedini, Masoud Ghanbarian, Samaneh Shahsavani, Abbas Nourozi Page 1
    Background
    High levels of nitrate anion are frequently detected in many groundwater resources in Fars province.
    Objectives
    The present study aimed to determine the removal efficiency of nitrate from aqueous solutions by electrocoagulation process using aluminum and iron electrodes.
    Materials And Methods
    A laboratory-scale batch reactor was conducted to determine nitrate removal efficiency using the electrocoagulation method. The removal of nitrate was determined at pH levels of 3, 7, and 11, different voltages (15, 20, and 30 V), and operation times of 30, 60, and 75 min, respectively. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 16 (Chicago, Illinois, USA) and Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to analyze the relationship between the parameters.
    Results
    Results of the present study showed that the removal efficiency was increased from 27% to 86% as pH increased from 3 to 11 at the optimal condition of 30 V and 75 min operation time. Moreover, by increasing the reaction time from 30 V to 75 min the removal efficiency was increased from 63% to 86%, respectively (30 V and pH = 11). Pearson’s correlation analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between removal efficiency and voltage and reaction time as well (P < 0.01).
    Conclusions
    In conclusion, the electrocoagulation process can be used for removing nitrate from water resources because of high efficiency, simplicity, and relatively low cost.
    Keywords: Nitrates, Electrocoagulation, Water
  • Farid Gharibi*, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi, Kamal Gholipour, Mohammad Naghavi, Behzad Page 2
    Background
    Oral health is an important healthcare aspect and one of the main challenges in many societies, for its extensive and profound implications.
    Objectives
    This study aimed to investigate the effects of demographic and background variables on decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) and gingivitis indicators, among primary school male students.
    Materials And Methods
    This is a cross-sectional study, which was conducted with the participation of 1104 primary school male students, using census method, in Paveh city, Iran, in 2014. The data were collected via students’ examination and interview, using a structured questionnaire. Two hierarchical linear and logistic regression analyses were applied in two steps, using the Enter method. Variables found to be associated with DMFT and gingivitis, in the univariate analysis, were included in multivariate regression model. The P values for entry and removal variables, in the stepwise regression model, were 0.05 and 0.15, respectively. Data were analysed using the SPSS 17.0 software and all P ≤ 0.05 were considered significant.
    Results
    The obtained results showed that the average DMFT was 7.91 ± 3.78 and one third of the students had symptoms of gingival inflammation, whereas only five percent of them did not have any symptoms of decaying. The survey of demographic and background variables on DMFT and gingivitis indicators, in adjusted form, indicated that educational grade, parents’ educational level, birth rank, father’s job, daily brushing and dentistry periodic examination have a significant relationship with the assessed indicators (P < 0.05).
    Conclusions
    This study indicated that there are major indicators affecting oral health status and it was believed that current study results and suggestions can pave the way for health care planners and policymakers.
    Keywords: Oral Health, DMFT Index, Gingivitis
  • Ali Akbar Alizadeh*, Farhad Rahmani, Nia, Hamid Mohebbi, Mehrnoosh Zakerkish Page 3
    Background
    The endocrine system disruptions are the main factors in metabolic disorders which are due to lifestyle changes, obesity, and aging. Insulin resistance is impaired glucose homeostasis in the presence of insulin and is related to many diseases such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes.
    Objectives
    This study aimed to investigate the effect of acute aerobic exercise on plasma levels of orexin A, insulin, glucose, and insulin resistance in males with type 2 diabetes.Patients and
    Methods
    Twenty subjects (mean age = 45.40 ± 5.42 years, mean weight = 80.91 ± 6.35 kg, body mass index = 25.41 ± 2.76 kg/m2) were randomly assigned into control and experimental groups, involving 10 people in each group. The exercise protocol consisted of one session of acute aerobic exercise on a treadmill at 60% maximal oxygen uptake and the same energy expenditure (300 kcal), which were determined by gas analyzers. Subjects were subjected to samplings before, immediately after, and 24 hours after the acute aerobic exercise.
    Results
    The analysis of findings in P ≤ 0.05 indicated that acute aerobic exercise caused a significant increase in plasma levels of orexin A and a significant decrease in plasma levels of glucose immediately after the aerobic activity, but insignificantly affected the plasma levels of insulin and insulin resistance.
    Conclusions
    It seems that in people with type 2 diabetes, acute aerobic exercise can decrease the plasma levels of glucose, possibly through increasing orexin A. In addition, negative energy balance is necessary to decrease the levels of insulin and insulin resistance during acute aerobic exercise.
    Keywords: Aerobic activity_Orexin A_Insulin_Insulin Resistance_Type 2 Diabetes
  • Siavash Maktabi*, Mehdi Zarei, Hooriyeh Mohammadpour Page 4
    Background
    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) has been traditionally associated with foodborne infections from consumption of foods with animal origin such as ground beef and burgers.
    Objectives
    The objective of this study was to investigate the contamination of fresh ground beef with non-sorbitol fermenting Escherichia coli and presence of virulence genes in isolates obtained from butchers located in Ahvaz, Iran.
    Materials And Methods
    A total of 200 fresh ground beef were sampled during a six-month period. All samples were enriched in Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB) with novobiocin and plating on Cefixime Telluride-Sorbitol MacConkey (CT-SMAC). The suspected colonies were subjected to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) analysis to identify virulence genes containing rfbE O157, flic H7, stx1 and stx2 genes.
    Results
    Overall, 1.5% of ground beef samples were contaminated with the O157 E. coli strain meanwhile 1% of samples contained the O157:H7 strain and 0.5% of samples had the O157:H7 with virulent stx1 and stx2 genes.
    Conclusions
    The observed results indicated the necessity of good care in abattoir, butcheries and during food distribution, mainly ground beef. Also, a zero tolerance policy could be useful to control E. coli O157 in meat products nationwide.
    Keywords: Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Isolation, Meat Products, Molecular Characterization, Escherichia coli
  • Amin Torabipour, Rezvan Sayaf*, Reza Salehi, Roya Ghasemzadeh Page 5
    Background
    The SERVQUAL (service quality) technique is one of the best techniques to evaluate customers’ expectations and perceptions of the quality of the services they have received.
    Objectives
    This study aimed to assess the quality gap in the services provided by rehabilitation centers in Iran using the SERVQUAL technique.Patients and
    Methods
    This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Ahvaz, Iran. The study sample was composed of 255 patients randomly selected from 5 rehabilitation centers. The research data was collected using a valid questionnaire, consisting of 22 items and 5 dimensions of service quality.
    Results
    Most of the patients included in this study were female (72.9%), and the mean age of the patients was 40 ± 13.2 years. The total mean scores of the patients’ expectations and perceptions were 3.73 (SD = 0.3) and 3.56 (SD = 0.5), respectively. According to the gap analysis, there was a negative quality gap in each of the five SERVQUAL dimensions, but in the assurance dimension, this gap was very low, and not found to be significant. The quality gap was more negative in the tangiblesfactor (-0.33) and reliability (-0.30) than in the other factors.
    Conclusions
    There was a negative gap between the patients’ expectations and what they actually perceived in the studied rehabilitation centers (with the exception of one public clinic); therefore, improvements are needed across all five dimensions.
    Keywords: Quality of Helth Care, Rehabilitation Centers, Patient Satisfaction
  • Behzad Fouladi Dehaghi*, Alireza Ghamar, Seyed Mahmood Latifi Page 6
    Background
    Exposure to the electric and magnetic fields resulting from liquid crystaldisplays may cause adverse effects on users.
    Objectives
    This study aimed to assess the electromagnetic field intensities of liquid crystal displays and their impacts on the users’ general health.
    Materials And Methods
    Electric and magnetic field intensities were measured at 30, 50, and 60 cm around the screens using anHI-3603 device. Also, to investigate the probable relationship between exposure to electromagnetic fields and the users’ general health, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was used. The questionnaires were completed by 69 employees, both in the study and control groups. Data from the questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS software.
    Results
    The magnetic field intensities were less than commonly accepted standards such as The Swedish confederation of professional employers (TCO) for both laptop and desktop displays. Also, the electric field intensities in laptop displays were all within the allowable range in this study. However, values in the desktop displays were higher than 1 v/m (based on TCO standard) in 15%, 4% and 2% of the cases involving the distances of 30, 50, and 60 cm in one or more directions, respectively. There is a significant relationship between the general health of the people exposed to electromagnetic radiation and that of the control group (P = 0.0001).
    Conclusions
    The study results are indicative of the impact of electromagnetic fields on computer users’ health, and it is thus advisable to avoid leaving computers switched on unnecessarily in addition to observing the minimum distance of 60 cm from computer monitors to control the adverse effects of electromagnetic fields.
    Keywords: Electromagnetic fields, Video Displays, Health
  • Mohammad Ali Behnajady*, Behrouz Vahid Page 7
    Background
    Sonolysis a method that uses advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), which remove organic contaminants without producing secondary waste.
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to develop an empirical kinetics model to predict apseudo-first order rate constant (kap) of sonochemical degradation of malachite green (MG). Then, this model was used to estimate the required electrical energy per order (EEO) at various operational conditions.
    Materials And Methods
    An ultrasonic bath with the operating frequency of 35 kHz and an output power of 170 W was used for sonochemical degradation of MG. The MG concentration was determined using a spectrophotometer at 617 nm.
    Results
    The experimental data showed that the degradation of MG in this process obeyed pseudo-first order kinetics. Using nonlinear regression analysis a model was developed for apseudo-first order constant (kap) of the MG sono-degradation as a function of operational parameters, including initial concentration of MG (5 - 10 m gL-1), temperature (294 - 307 K), power density (0.049 - 0.163 W mL-1) and mechanical agitation (75 - 400 rpm), as shown in the Equation 3.
    Conclusions
    The present research demonstrated that the ultrasonic (US) process can be utilized as an effective and simple method for treatment of MG dye in an aqueous solution. Moreover, the EEO is directly proportional to the MG concentration and power density and inversely proportional to temperature and mechanical agitation, which can be predicted by the obtained empirical kinetics model. Consequently, EEO is very sensitive to the mentioned operational parameters.
    Keywords: Kinetics, Nonlinear Regression, Sonochemical Degradation, Electrical Energy Per Order, Malachite Green
  • Farshid Kafilzadeh*, Shima Saberifard Page 9
    Background
    Chromium (Cr) is an important heavy metal widely used in industries. It is one of the seventeen chemicals with the highest danger to human health according to the United States environmental protection agency (USEPA).
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to isolate and identify Cr (VI)-resistant bacteria from Soltan Abad River sediments (Shiraz-Iran) and evaluate their potential for the detoxification of Cr (VI) to Cr (III) under environmental conditions.
    Materials And Methods
    Bacterial isolates were identified on the basis of colony morphology, Gram staining, and biochemical tests using standard microbiological methods. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of chromium were determined by the broth agar dilution method. Cr (VI) reduction assay was determined by measuring the absorbance of the purple complex of Cr (VI) with 1,5-diphenylcarbazide. The growth of Cr (VI)-resistant bacteria was determined at different concentrations of Cr (VI). Finally, the effects of temperature and pH on the growth of selected bacteria and Cr (VI) reduction were investigated using an Luria-Bertani (LB) medium containing 50 mg/L Cr (VI).
    Results
    The results indicated that Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens were the most resistant bacteria with MICs of 200 and 150 mg/L, respectively. Both bacteria completely reduced 25 and 50 mg/L of Cr (VI) in 36 hours and 48 hours, respectively. The growth rate of both bacteria decreased with increases in the Cr (VI) concentration, and the chromate reduction was directly correlated with the growth of the bacteria. These bacteria were capable of reducing Cr (VI) at a wide range of temperatures (25 to 45°C) and pH levels (5 to 9). The optimum medium conditions for Cr (VI) reduction and the growth of the isolates were temperatures between 30 and 40°C and a pH of 7.0 to 8.0.
    Conclusions
    P. aeruginosa and S. marcescens can be good candidates for the detoxification of Cr (VI) in Soltan Abad River.
    Keywords: Chromium (VI), Resistant Bacteria, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens