فهرست مطالب

Orthodontics - Volume:10 Issue: 3, 2016
  • Volume:10 Issue: 3, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/11/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Elahe Soltanmohamadi Borujeni, Homa Farhadifard Page 1
    Context: The use of skeletal anchorage not only changed how far teeth can be moved, but also offered more treatment options to patients and clinicians. So many orthodontists use them in severe malocclusions to save patient from orthognatic surgery and the other invasive treatment plans. So our information about them must increase to use them in a right way. Evidence Acquisition: To know recent findings about miniscrews and their use in orthodontic treatments
    Results
    In this review article, by focusing on the newest papers published in Pubmed (from 2010 - 2015) we want to survey the most common applications of miniscrews in today orthodontics. To ease reading this paper, applications where divided into 7 groups. Almost all of papers used in this article had a common conclusion about safety and effectiveness of miniscrews in treatment of patients.
    Conclusions
    miniscrews are helpful in increasing treatment options for various malocclusions and they make treatment simpler, shorter and more comfortable for patients and clinicians.
    Keywords: Orthodontic Anchorage Procedure, Molar, Dental Arch
  • Shabnam Ajami, Hooman Zarif Najafi, Sareh Mahdavi Page 2
    Background
    The evaluation of the soft tissue facial profile is essential to achieve facial harmony in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning.
    Objectives
    This study aimed to develop soft tissue angular photogrammetric norms for a sample of Iranian population. Patients and
    Methods
    Standardized profile photographic records were taken from 34 men and 37 women. Twelve measurements were analyzed on each photograph by AutoCad software. For statistical evaluation a Student’s t-test was used and the reliability of the method was assessed by using Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) within a four week interval.
    Results
    Three of the angles showed sexual differences: nasofrontal (G-N-Prn, P = 0.009), nasal (Cm-Sn/N-Prn, P = 0.012) and vertical nasal (N-Prn/Tv, P = 0.029). Other nine angles showed statistically insignificant gender differences (P > 0.05). Two of the angles that suggested gender differences were wider in females: nasofrontal and nasal angle while the third angle was wider in males. Other angles such as nasolabial (Cm-Sn-Ls), mentolabial (Li-Sm-Pg), nasal dorsum (N-Mn-Prn) and angle of the total convexity (G-Prn-Pg) were also found wider in females. The inferior third was larger than the middle third. Mentolabial angle (Li-Sm-Pg), which had the highest standard deviation, showed the greatest variability.
    Conclusions
    The results showed gender dimorphism in three of the measurements: the nasofrontal, the nasal and the vertical nasal angles. Another significant finding was the large variability for the mentolabial angle. The result of this measurement should be assessed with caution.
    Keywords: Angular Photogrammetry, Orthodontics, Facial Profile, Soft Tissue Analysis
  • Fatemeh Gorjizadeh, Maryam Javaheri Mahd, Abdo Rahim Maktabi Page 3
    Background
    Prediction of the mesio-distal width of the unerupted premolars and canine is an important point to the practitioner.
    Objectives
    The main goal of this study was to find the relationship of the teeth size to be used when needed in treatments planning.
    Materials And Methods
    200 plaster casts including 5600 teeth were measured and studies. A caliper with accuracy of 0.1 mm was used for measuring teeth and most teeth were measured twice and the average value was considered as the teeth size. In all cases, the vernier calipers jaws were moved along the teeth longitudinal axis and the biggest width was measured in the contact point area.
    Results
    Tables of mesiodistal widths of the permanent teeth and some equations were prepared. The measurement difference varied from 0 to 0.04 mm. the average value of difference was 0.016 mm with SD of 0.02 mm. All teeth in male are bigger than those in female and this different is most evident in canine teeth, especially the lower jaw canine teeth.
    Conclusions
    At the end of this study an equation was found which was used to measure the total value of mesiodistal width of canine and premolar teeth of upper and lower jaws in a simple and exact way.
    Keywords: Mesiodistal Widths, Tooth Size Discrepancy, Malocclusion, Bolton Analysis
  • Jean Marc Retrouvey, Allahyar Geramy Page 4
    Background
    Occlusal loads are always present though not widely considered in orthodontic treatments. Applied force systems are analyzed in detail and taught but their interaction with occlusal force is oftentimes ignored. Numeric evaluation of this combination by finite element method is the main goal of this research.
    Objectives
    The present study has implemented FEA to investigate the effect of orthodontic force application on the tooth-periodontium-alveolar bone system.
    Materials And Methods
    A 3D model of a lower premolar was designed. The model contained cortical and spongy bone, PDL, and tooth. A 1.73 N force decomposed to 1 N in each plane axis was applied as a random levelling and aligning force to assess the von Mises stress produced at the mesial aspect of the PDL from cervical down to the apical area. At the second phase a 200-Newton intruding force vector was applied simulating the occlusal force. The effects of the combination force system were evaluated in the same area of the PDL.
    Results
    The maximum finding of von Mises for both stages were in found in the cervical area. This was almost 0.267 MPa for the first stage and 2.27 MPa for the second stage.
    Conclusions
    Our findings show that the co-existence of heavy occlusal forces due to clenching or bruxism in our tooth-periodontium-orthodontic force system has a significant influence on the magnitude and location of the high stress areas.
    Keywords: Occlusal Force, Orthodontic Force, Von Mises Stress, Finite Element Method
  • Hasan Salehi, Sepide Arab Page 5
    Background
    Alignment of the teeth as the first stage of comprehensive orthodontic treatment has widely been addressed. Several methods such as using super elastic arch wires, multi-strand wires and incorporation of various loops into the round stainless steel wires have been suggested in this stage.
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the horizontal forces produced by six various loop designs in different amounts of activation using the finite element method.
    Materials And Methods
    The Finite Element Model (FEM) was used to design and compare the horizontal forces of round 0.014 inches stainless steel vertical open loop, vertical closed loop, vertical helical open loop, vertical helical closed loop, plain vertical loop and the squash loop. The forces were measured at 0.1, 0.4, 0.8 and 1mm activations.
    Results
    For all activations, vertical open loop had the highest horizontal force; while vertical helical closed loop showed the lowest force.
    Conclusions
    The design of vertical loops influences the horizontal force in all activations, immensely.
    Keywords: Loop Design, Force, Finite Element Method
  • Mohammad R. Jamalpour, Mohammad Moslem Imani, Atefe Saffar Shahroudi, Sina Oladzadeh Page 6
    Background
    Facial trauma is a common sport-related injury and risk of this injury in contact sports is greater than non-contact sports. Facial trauma has been suggested as a possible etiologic factor of temporomandibular disorder (TMD).
    Objectives
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of TMD and its clinical manifestation in boxers of Islamic Republic of Iran national team.
    Materials And Methods
    In this study, thirty-two male players with average age of 23.75 ± 2.21 who were playing boxing more than 6 years were evaluated regarding TMD. After taking the history, a clinical examination was performed for each athlete. The presence of at least a sign or symptom was considered as TMD diagnosis. Data were collected and presented as descriptive findings.
    Results
    Of 32 boxers, 28.1% (9 cases) had TMD and 71.9% (23 cases) were healthy. The most common symptom was ante-auricular pain (25%) followed by neck pain (21.87%) right ante-auricular tenderness (9.37%) muscle tenderness (9.37%), neck tenderness (9.37%) and headache (3.12%). The uppermost sign was right joint click (25%) followed by left joint click (12.5%) and jaw deviation during mouth opening (12.5%).average age of (25 ± 2 years) and boxing record (10.44 ± 2.29 years) of athletes with TMD were higher than average age of (23.26 ± 2.4 years) and boxing record (7.26 ± 1.76 years) of athletes without TMD.
    Conclusions
    This study showed that the prevalence of various sign and symptoms of TMD is relatively high in boxers which could result from boxing-related facial trauma.
    Keywords: Facial Trauma, Sports Injury, Temporomandibular Disorder, Temporomandibular Joint
  • Mohsen Shirazi, Homa Farhadifard, Meisam Moradi, Hamid Golshahi Page 7
    Introduction
    Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is the most common congenital facial anomaly. Its incidence varies according to epidemiologic studies but is usually between 1 and 1.82 for each 1000 births. The etiology of this malformation is complex and includes both genetic and environmental factors.
    Case Presentation
    In this article a 13-year-old girl with CLP is presented. She was treated with expansion of maxillary arch form, bone grafting, pre surgical orthodontics, orthognathic surgery and minor esthetic surgical procedure.
    Conclusions
    Satisfactory results regarding functional occlusion, dental esthetics, and facial esthetics were achieved in the patient.
    Keywords: Cleft Lip, Palate, Multidisciplinary Treatment