فهرست مطالب

Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences - Volume:13 Issue:3, 2015
  • Volume:13 Issue:3, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/06/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • S. Saeidi Mehrvarz*, M. Ashouri Nodehi Pages 183-196
    Sorkhankol Wildlife Refuge with an area of 1209 ha is located in the central part of Anzali Wetland. In total, 81 species belonging to 35 families and 68 genera were surveyed and identified on the basis of a floristic study from July 2013 through June 2014. The largest families are Poaceae (11 taxa), Asteraceae (8 taxa) Apiaceae, Brassicaceae and Cyperacae (5 taxa). The dominant life forms were cryptophyte (43.21 %), followed by the therophytes (39.51 %), hemicryptophytes (13.58 %) and phanerophytes (3.7 %). From the chorological point of view, the largest proportion of the flora belongs to the pluriregional elements (44.44 %). A comparison between our study and other parts of the Anzali Wetland showed that Sorkhankol was not particularly species-rich. Currently, the major threats to the research area include eutrophication, pressure from boating and fishing activities, invasion of exotic species and other human induced disturbances.
    Keywords: Anzali Wetland, Chorology, Floristic richness, Life form, North of Iran, Sorkhankol
  • A. Reihanian*, T.W. Hin, E. Kahrom, N.Z. Binti Mahmood, A. Bagherpour Porshokouh Pages 197-206
    This article analyses the push and pull factors that bring visitors to the Iranian national parks. The study used a structured questionnaire to collect data on these factors and the socio-demographic profile of the visitors. Survey conducted in Boujagh National Park, an area of 3177 hectares located in the north of the Iran, produced 400 questionnaires. The factor analysis identified four push and six pull factors underlying visitors’ motives to visit the park. Difference in the push and pull factors in different socio-demographic groups were investigated. It was found that visitors are pushed to the park for relaxing, and pulled by nature as a product. It was also clear that gender, marital status and province of the residence had not a significant influence on the push and pull factors. With the current number of other type of tourism competing for nature based tourism, this kind of information can imply that the management of national parks should not only focus on the identified travel motives, but also focus on other push and pull factors, in order to contribute to the sustainability of parks’ development.
    Keywords: Motivation, Satisfaction, Push, pull factors, Boujagh National Park, Iran
  • S.H. Hasanpour, S. Eagderi*, B. Mojazi Amiri Pages 207-219
    Study of the osteological development in fishes is important from fisheries, biology and aquaculture points of views. It can be used as an early bio-indicator of non-optimal rearing conditions. The Caspian roach, Rutilus caspicus is a native cyprinid fish of the Caspian Sea that its artificial propagation has fulfilled in hatcheries to recruit its natural stocks. Hence, this study was conducted to provide early development of its vertebral column, paired and median fins from hatching up to 90-dph as basic biological information. For osteological examinations, the specimens were cleared and stained and a detailed description of the ontogeny of the post-cranial skeleton provided. The results showed that no osteological structure present at hatching. The first observed skeletal structure was the vertebral column followed by the pectoral fins, caudal fins and almost simultaneously dorsal, anal and pelvic fins
    Keywords: Ontogeny, Osteology, Pectoral girdle, Pelvic girdle, Vertebral column
  • A. Mahdavi*, M. Niknejad, O. Karami Pages 221-236
    The County of Khorram-Abad enjoys a high potential for ecotourism because of its mountains, forests, natural mineral springs, natural waterfalls and diversity in folks and cultures. But, un-planned and uncontrolled ecotourism can have negative effects on environment, economy, culture and even the security of eco-tourists. The main purpose of this study is to present a fuzzy multi-criteria decision making (FMCDM) method for ecotourism development location selection. In this study we created 5 main criteria and 14 sub-criteria for locating the suitable areas for ecotourism development from literature reviews and experts opinions. Delphi method was used to obtain the significant criteria and sub-criteria for ecotourism development by interviewing the foregoing experts and related managers. Then, the methods of fuzzy set theory, linguistic value, hierarchical structure analysis, and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) were applied to find the relative weights or importance degree of each criterion and rank the overall criteria as the measurable indices for ecotourism development. Different layers were prepared and were combined using weighted linear combination (WLC) method in GIS environment. The results showed that 6.57 and 38.65 percentages of the area have an excellent and good potential for the ecotourism development, respectively. In addition, the study confirm that the combination of FAHP with GIS could be a powerful combination to apply for different land use planning.
    Keywords: Ecotourism, Fuzzy AHP, GIS, Delphi, Iran
  • A. Heidari Safari Kouchi, T. Rostami Shahraji*, Y. Iranmanesh Pages 237-246
    Carbon sequestration into plants biomass, especially in fast growing trees is an easier and economically way for dropping off CO2 from atmosphere. This study was carried out in order to investigate above-ground biomass of white poplar (populous alba, L.) plantations that was planted in fourdifferent plant spacing (0.5 × 0.5, 1×1, 2×2 and 4×4 m.) in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province in west of Iran. Selecting the trees was according to diameter classes. After inventory, 10 trees were selected from each density at one hectare area. The tree’s characteristics including diameter at breast height (DBH), total height, and crown diameter measured. Then measured trees felled down in order to measure the wet and dry weight of different organs including (whole tree, trunk, main branches, twigs and leaf).The regression analysis was applied to find out a relationship between mass production and poplar characteristics and to develop different allometry models between different organs and their carbon sequestration ability. The results showed that the independent DBH factor in populous alba, demonstrated high correlation against all the dependent variables. Height of trees also creates the allometric equations with average accuracy (0.30-0.81) against all the dependent variables. The crown diameter in dependent variable almost creates weakest equations. The result also indicated that there is no significant difference among equations of different planting spaces.
    Keywords: Allometric equation, Populus Alba, non, linear regression, CO2, Greenhouse gases
  • E. Ehsanpour, M. R. Abdi*, M. Mostajaboddavati, H. Bagheri Pages 247-257
    This study was conducted to determine the radioactivity concentration in soil samples of Anarak-Khour district located at central Iran. 48 soil samples from a depth of 10-15 cm were taken from seven different sites for monitoring. The radioactivity concentration of 238U, 232Th, 137Cs and 40K in soil samples was determined, using a high resolution (HPGe detector, p-type) γ-spectrometry by detectors with 55% and 38.5% relative efficiencies. The results showed that the radioactivity concentration ranged from 9.91 ± 0.11 to 4479.95 ± 0.15 Bq.kg-1 for 238U, from 5.95 ± 0.14 to 389.72 ± 0.10 Bq.kg-1 for 232Th, ≤MDA to 8.89 ± 0.13 Bq.kg-1 for 137Cs and from 123.18 ± 0.27 to 5201.42 ± 0.27 Bq.kg-1 for 40K in soil samples. The calculated internal and external hazard indices were more than 1 in some sites which showed a high dose for this area. These results could be used as a database of this area because it might be used as a nuclear waste site in the future.
    Keywords: Radioactivity concentration, Gamma spectrometry, Soil, Anarak, khour
  • M. Amiri*, R. Rahmani, Kh. Sagheb, Talebi Pages 259-274
    Canopy gaps are one of the most important structural features of forest ecosystems, and studying of them can have useful results and implications for forest management. The aim of this study is investigation of characteristics and regeneration within canopy gaps in an intact beech stand in the Shastkalateh Experimental Forest of Hyrcanian region, north of Iran. All canopy gaps and related forest parameters were measured within a permanent plot 16ha. Considering the composition of the forest, the dominant tree species was oriental beech with 36.3% of the stem number and 56.6% of the stand volume. In total 54 canopy gaps were identified which covered about 5% of the forest area. An average of 4.32 gaps.ha-1 existed in the permanent plot and gap sizes varied from 48.3 to 622.7m2. More than three-quarters (77.7%) of canopy gaps were smaller than ≤200m2. Also more than half of the gaps (53%) were formed by a single tree-fall event and beech made up 52% of gap makers and 23.4% of gap fillers. Beech had the second largest proportion on standing deadwood of gap maker in the study area, while velvet maple was the most frequent gap filler in approximately 30% of the gaps. Despite the high frequency of small gaps 100m2, their proportion of the overall gap area reached only 25% that suggests the important role of intermediate and large gaps in the gap dynamics. Considering the recent occurring disturbances in the Hyrcanian Forests, the study analyzed the main characteristics of disturbance regime with the emphasis on the role of wind and longevity of trees. In general, findings of this study showed that the creating small and average gaps in intact beech forests could be based on natural disturbance regimes, And suitable conditions provides for successful regeneration of beech forests in close to nature silviculture.
    Keywords: Canopy gap, Oriental beech, Permanent Plot, Hyrcanain forests
  • R. Safari, M. Adel*, M. Ghiasi, M. R. Saeidi Asl, E. Khalili Pages 275-281
    By decreasing of sturgeon stocks in the Caspian Sea, the culture of different sturgeon species especially Huso huso was increased in Iran. Under stress conditions sturgeon can easily be infected by several opportunistic pathogens. In June 2011, mortality happened in 25-28°C water temperature, in one of the most important cultured sturgeon farms in Mazandaran province in the north of Iran. The mortality rate was 15%. The first clinical signs in moribund fish were lethargy and anorexia. A total of 20 moribund fish was transferred to a central laboratory for more bacteriological examination. Clinical signs including several deep ulcers on body surface, around the head, under operculum and the base of the pectoral fins, hemorrhage around of the anus, operculum, necrosis of the base of the pectoral fin and paleness gill was observed in moribund fish. The main internal signs were hepatomegally and spleenomegally, liquid accumulation in the intestine and diffuse visceral hemorrhage. The results of morphology and microscopic characterizations and also biochemical tests indicated that Vibrio vulnificus (biotype 2) was the etiological agent of mortality in infected fish. This study was the first report of V. vulnificus in cultured Huso huso in Iran.
    Keywords: Vibrio vulnificus, first report, Huso huso, Iran
  • F. Jafari*, Z. Ramezanpour, M. Sattari Pages 283-288
    Ebria tripartita (Schumann) Lemmermann, 1899, a non-photosynthetic flagellate was identified from the southern coast of the Caspian Sea in December 2012. Water temperature at the sampling time was 10 ºC. The abundance of total phytoplankton cells was 3 × 106 Cells.l-1, while E. tripartita with 2 × 10 3 Cells. l-1 included 0.75% of phytoplankton community. Water quality parameters were recorded when species was observed. The average concentration of nitrate, phosphate and silicate were 0.7, 0.1 and 1.8 mg.l-1 respectively.
    Keywords: Ebria tripartita, Caspian Sea, Eutrophication, flagellate