فهرست مطالب

هنرهای نمایشی و موسیقی - پیاپی 52 (پاییز و زمستان 1394)
  • پیاپی 52 (پاییز و زمستان 1394)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/12/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • عرفان ناظر *، فریندخت زاهدی صفحات 5-16
    ارسطو در کتاب فن شعر، با نگاهی ساختاری به تراژدی، آن را داستانی تراژیک مبتنی بر خطا یا هامارتیا می داند. در این نگره، رابطه محتوای تراژدی با زمان هاش تشریح نشده است. از آن رو که خاستگاه تراژدی نه صرفا آیینی بلکه سیاسی و ملازم با تحولات ساختاری و اجتماعی آتن نیز هست، این ضرورت پیش می آید که محتوای تراژدی را از منظر سیاسی نیز مورد بررسی قرار داد. از این رو مقاله حاضر در نظر دارد با امعان نظر به مفاهیم سیاسی چون قانون و عدالت، تراژدی های آیسخولوس را – به عنوان کهن ترین نوع تراژدی که تا کنون به دست ما رسیده- مورد بررسی قرار دهد و جایگاه و کارکرد سیاسی کنش تراژیک و هامارتیا را در آن زمینه و زمانه بسنجد تا فهم آیسخولوس از کارکرد و هدف تراژدی، که مبتنی بر صلح و قانون گرایی است، آشکار شود و بدینوسیله تقابل قانون و کنش تراژیک نیز مورد مداقه قرار گیرد. برای این هدف، لازم آمد که به متون و زبان اصلی تراژدی ها مراجعه شده، و مفاهیم مورد نظر در متن تاریخی و سیاسی شان بررسی شوند. حاصل پژوهش آشکارمی کند که تراژدی های آیسخولوس با اتکا به مفهوم قانون، هدفی ضد تراژیک دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: آیسخولوس، قانون، کنش تراژیک، هامارتیا، عدالت
  • حمید دهقانپور، مهسا مصلی* صفحات 17-26
    آماری که از کشورهای دارای صنعت سینما در خصوص آثار اقتصادی این صنعت منتشر می شود، تاثیر رشد تولیدات سینمایی بر اقتصاد ملی را به خوبی نشان می دهد. توسعه این صنعت از یک سو موجب فراهم آوردن اشتغال مولد و رشد تولید ناخالص داخلی شده و از سوی دیگر به طور غیر مستقیم به توسعه صنایع مرتبط مانند رسانه ها و تلویزیون، تبلیغات و غیره کمک می کند. زنجیره ارزش شرکت، کلیه فعالیت هایی که با اجرای آنها مزیت رقابتی با هزینه پایین تر یا با کیفیت بهتر، ایجاد می گردد را، شناسایی می کند. معمولا، هر حوزه کسب و کاری می بایست یک زنجیره ارزش داشته باشد. هدف از پژوهش حاضر نیز شناسایی زنجیره ارزش صنعت سینمای ایران و تاثیر هر یک از متغیرهای شناسایی شده در میزان فروش فیلم است. نمونه آماری تحقیق، صاحب نظران صنعت سینما در سطح شهر تهران بوده و در بازه زمانی نیمه نخست سال1392 اقدام به جمع آوری نظرات این افراد گردید. جهت تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها، تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی، تحلیل عاملی تاییدی و مدلسازی معادلات ساختاری در نرم افزار لیزرل مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که از میان فعالیت های اصلی، آماده ورودی و از میان فعالیت های پشتیبانی، تهیه تامین مواد و امکانات بیشترین تاثیر را بر فروش فیلم دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: زنجیره ارزش، صنعت سینما، تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی، تحلیل عاملی تاییدی، مدلسازی معادلات ساختاری
  • محسن نورانی*، اشکان پویانیا صفحات 27-34
    سرناد Op. 24، از مجموعه کارهای آرنولد شوئنبرگ در هفت موومان برای آنسامبل هفت نفره شامل کلارینت، کلارینت باس، ماندولین، گیتار، ویولن، ویولن آلتو و ویولنسل در سال های 1921-1923 نوشته شده است. موومان های این اثر به صورت قرینه ای توسط آهنگساز تنظیم شده است که موومان چهارم این مجموعه به نام Sonnet، دارای ویژگی هایی همچون همراهی خواننده سولو با ارکستر، استفاده از منظومه شعری فرانچسکو پترارک شاعر بزرگ دوره رنسانس، بکارگیری سیستم دوازده نتی و تکنیک ریتروگراد سری برای خواننده (از بدو ورود در تقابل با ارکستر) است. هدف از این مقاله، شناسایی عوامل موثر بر زایش دوده کافونیک در موومان چهارم این مجموعه، با نگاهی به سیر تحول آهنگساز در دوره های کاری و زندگانی است که منجر به دگرگونی نظام موسیقی قبل از خود و شروع مدرنیته در موسیقی به معنای واقعی گردید. منتقدان، این مکتب را پس از مکتب اول با حضور بزرگانی همچون هایدن، موتزارت و بتهوون، مکتب دوم وین نام نهادند. روش بررسی این موضوع نیز آنالیز و تحلیل ساختاری قطعه از روی پارتیتور اثر بوده و نتایج آن شامل، شناسایی موومان چهارم مجموعه به عنوان قطعه دوازده نتی است که می توان آن را مقدمه ای در دستیابی آهنگساز به این تکنیک و خلق سوئیت برای پیانو Op. 25 دانست.
    کلیدواژگان: آرنولد شوئنبرگ، سرناد، دوده کافونیک، سونت، ریتروگراد
  • علی خاکسار صفحات 35-48
    هدف نهایی از پژوهش حاضر آن است که به منظور تبیین نحوه مواجهه فرهنگ موسیقایی ایران و غرب از نظر اخذ تفکر ارکسترال، با ترسیم مدل هایی مبتنی بر صورت های بالقوه ارکستر در ایران و مصداق یابی تعینی آنها، امکان تحقق الیناسیون در هر یک از مواجهات آزموده شود. لذا فرضیه این پژوهش، بدین نظریه منتج شده است که بر خلاف رهیافت های سنت گرایانه، که تمامی مواجهات با فرهنگ موسیقایی غرب مطرود پنداشته می شود، پاره ای از مواجهات، نظر به رهیافت تاویلی و آگاهانه آن، نه تنها به الیناسیون در موسیقی ایرانی نینجامیده، بلکه به تکامل و غنای قالب های اجرایی موسیقی ایرانی منتهی شده است. از سویی دیگر، بخش دیگر این نظریه بر آن اذعان دارد که به خلاف رهیافت های غرب گرایانه که هرگونه تکوین و تکامل موسیقی ایرانی مستلزم اخذ تام و تمام بنیان های موسیقایی غرب انگاشته می شود؛ بخش قابل ملاحظه ای از مواجهات میان فرهنگ موسیقایی ایران و غرب جهت اخذ تفکر ارکسترال، نه تنها تکوین و تکامل موسیقی ایرانی را در پی نداشته، بلکه به تضعیف، تنزل و حتی حذف برخی خصوصیات بنیادین موسیقی ایرانی انجامیده است. بر این اساس می توان چنین اذعان نمود که مواجهه موسیقی ایرانی و غربی در دوره معاصر از نقطه نظر اخذ تفکر ارکسترال، دارای روندی دو قطبی (سازنده و غیر سازنده) بوده است.
    کلیدواژگان: الیناسیون، الیناسیون موسیقایی، فرهنگ موسیقایی، موسیقی ایرانی، ارکستر، مدل سازی
  • محمد باقر قهرمانی*، مرضیه پیراوی ونک، حامد مظاهریان، علیرضا صیاد صفحات 49-60
    بسیاری از نظریه پردازان سینمای اولیه (تام گونینگ، میریام هانسن، آن فرایدبرگ، جیمز دونالد و جولیانا برونو و...)، بر همزمانی اختراع سینما و شکل گیری و گسترش فضاهای شهرهای مدرن تاکید داشته اند. میریام هانسن اظهار می کند که با جریان یافتن تصاویر متحرک فیلم در شبکه نوظهور شهر مدرن، سینما به عنوان رابطه ای میان شهروندان و تجربه شهری عمل می کرد و بدین واسطه، در شکل دادن به «سیمای شهر» نزد شهروندان، سهم شایانی ایفا نمود. این تعامل فیلمسازان با فضاهای شهری در دهه های بعد، به ویژه در سینمای اکسپرسیونیسم آلمان، نئورئالیسم ایتالیا، سینمای نوآر و موج نوی فرانسه ادامه یافت. سینما در بستر شهر مدرن رشد یافت و در سیر تکاملی اش، در حرکت از سینمای تک فضایی ابتدایی به سوی سینمای دینامیک چند فضایی معاصر، متاثر از پویایی شهری بوده است. این پژوهش که از نوع نظری، با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و با استفاده از منابع کتابخانه ای صورت گرفته است، می کوشد این نکته را آشکار سازد که در دهه های اخیر گونه ای ارتباط پویای تعاملی میان شهر و سینما پدید آمده است و نمی توان از تاثیر شهرهای سینمایی بر شهرهای واقعی غافل شد. در شهرهای معاصر، گونه ای از درهم آمیختگی میان پلان های سینمایی و پلان های شهری پدید آمده است که به ادراک مخاطبان از مفهوم شهر شکل می دهند.
    کلیدواژگان: شهر مدرن، فضای شهری، تصاویر متحرک، فضای سینماتیک، شهر سینماتیک
  • اسماعیل شفیعی*، مهدی اعتماد سعید صفحات 61-72
    ولادزمیر استانیه فسکی، یکی از شناخته شده ترین کارگردانان اخیر تئاتر می باشد. وی بعنوان موسس و کارگردان هنری گروه تئاتر گارژنیتزه، دستاوردهای بسیاری را در زمینه های فرآیند تولید و اجرای تئاتر کسب نموده و این دستاوردها مورد توجه بسیاری از گروه های اجرایی و نظریه پردازان قرار گرفته است. بنابر اعتقاد بسیاری از منتقدان و نظریه پردازان عرصه ی تئاتر از جمله پال آلین محقق انگلیسی، مهم ترین علل کسب دستاوردهای کم نظیر در تئاتر گارژنیتزه، نهفته در ریشه ها و بنیان های نظری بکار گرفته شده در فرآیند تولید و اجرای تئاتر توسط استانیه فسکی است. شناخت بنیان های مورد اشاره، در وهله ی نخست می تواند پاسخگوی چرایی تاثیرگذاری و جذابیت آثار استانیه فسکی و در وهله ی بعد می تواند کمکی شایان به گروه های اجرایی ای باشد که تلاش می کنند با بکارگیری این متد، آثار ارزشمندی را در حوزه ی تئاتر ارائه نمایند. در مواجهه با فرآیند تولید و اجرای آثار استانیه فسکی، نمود آراء و نظریات باختین مشاهده می شود. از همین رو، این پژوهش تلاش می نماید با بررسی دقیق تر فرآیند تولید و اجرای آثار استانیه فسکی، جایگاه آرای باختین در این آثار را مشخص نماید. مهم ترین دستاوردهای این تحقیق توصیفی- تحلیلی که با استفاده از منابع کتابخانه ای به انجام رسیده، شامل: تشخیص ارتباط مستقیم ایده های اولیه ی اکسپدیشن/ گدرینگ تئاتر استانیه فسکی با نظریه «کارناوال»، و ارتباط اکسپدیشن/ گدرینگ و تمرینات گروه با نظریات باختین در باب «منطق گفتگویی»،«فلسفه کنشی» و «دیگربودگی» می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: استانیه فسکی، گارژنیتزه، باختین، تئاتر لهستان، منطق گفتگویی، نظریه کارناوال
  • مریم بختیاریان*، مجید اکبری صفحات 73-82
    نیکلاس لومان، در مسیر روشن تر ساختن کارکرد سیستم هنر، با تحلیل روابط پیچیده ی مشاهده، تمایز و فرم، بر نقش تعیین کننده مشاهده در هنر تاکید کرده است. با سه مشاهده گر فعال، یعنی سیستم هنر، هنرمند و مخاطب، کار تولید اثر هنری، تا ادراک آن ادامه می یابد. نزدیکی تولید و ادراک به معنای متفاوت مشاهده و فرم بازمی گردد که شرط تحقق آنها، وجود تمایزات است. در هنگام مشاهده هر فرم، تنها یک سوی تمایز آشکار و سویه ی دیگر که غیابش شرط مشاهده است، از نظر پنهان است. در هنر معاصر، در آثار کسانی مانند مارسل دوشان، جان کیج و دیگران، هنر به مثابه بازی زیباشناختی فرم ها در همین معنا جلوه گری می کند. علاوه بر این، در سینما نیز برای پذیرش جهان ساختگی روی پرده به عنوان واقعیت از جانب مخاطبان، مشاهده در این معنا ضروری است. وقتی مشاهده فراتر از ادراک حسی صرف و قابلیت نشان گذاری و تمایزگذاری تعریف شود، آنگاه سیستم هنر قادر به مشاهده و مدیریت آن است. در این نظریه، ضمن کنار گذاشتن بحث شانس و اتفاق، نقش و اهمیت نام هنرمند در مقبول واقع شدن اثر هنری تحدید شده است. با خوانش و ارائه ی شرح مبسوط تری از این نظریه، توفیق آن را در زمینه ی تشخیص هنر دشوار فهم معاصر ارزیابی می کنیم.
    کلیدواژگان: نیکلاس لومان، سیستم اجتماعی، مشاهده، فرم، هنر
  • شهاب الدین عادل *، سپیده توحیدی صفحات 83-92
    تحقیق پیش رو به بررسی ویژگی ها و خاستگاه های سینمای تکنوآر می پردازد. این ژانر فرعی، از ادغام فیلم نوآر با گونه ی علمی تخیلی در دهه ی 80، همزمان با رواج خصوصیات پست مدرنیستی در هنرها، شکل گرفت. سینمای تکنوآر، علاوه بر این که مصداق خوبی برای ترکیب ژانرها و سبک هاست، برخی از مفاهیم کلیدی پست مدرنیسم را نیز به خوبی بازتاب می دهد. بر همین اساس این تحقیق سینمای تکنوآر را، با هدف شناخت برخی خاستگاه های گونه های جدید و درک بهتر شکل های متفاوت سینمایی برگزیده است. در این تحقیق همچنین معرفی مسائل نظری و سبک های هنری که نقش منبع الهام فیلمسازان این گونه را یافته اند، مدنظر بوده است. برای دستیابی به اهداف فوق، ابتدا توضیحاتی درباره ی فیلم نوآر و سپس احیای آن که نئونوآر نام یافته، آورده شده است. سپس سایر ریشه های سینمای تکنوآر شامل گونه ی علمی تخیلی، ادبیات سایبرپانک، ادبیات گوتیک و داستان های اساطیری معرفی شده اند. در ادامه عناصری همچون دیستوپیا، بحران های محیط زیست، سایبرگ و نوستالژی با تکیه بر آرای اندیشمندانی همچون لیوتار، دریدا، جیمسون و بودریار مورد بررسی قرار گرفته اند. در انتها موارد فوق بر یک نمونه فیلم انطباق داده شده اند. روش اجرا در این پژوهش توصیفی- تحلیلی و روش جمع آوری اطلاعات کتابخانه ای (واقعی و مجازی) است. همچنین از نمونه های شاخص سینمای تکنوآر برای بازیابی ویژگی های نامبرده استفاده شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: فیلم نوآر، علمی تخیلی، سینمای تکنوآر، عناصر تکرار شونده، نظریات پست مدرن
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  • Erfan Nazer*, Farindokht Zahedi Pages 5-16
    In his Poetics, Aristotle, from a structural perspective, assumes tragedy to be a tragic story based on hamartia. In this theory, the interrelation of the content of tragedy and its era has been delineated. Since the origin of tragedy is not merely ritual but also political and affected by social and structural developments in Athens, the content of tragedy needs to be examined from a political viewpoint as well. In tragedies of Aeschylus, tragedy and politics have been merged, thus, his tragedies are no longer mere religious or devotional poems associated with myths and rituals. However, these works are still tragic, but tragedies formed in a new social context known as a polis (the city, the state) and have adapted to the political requirements of living in such new social order. In Aeschylus tragedies, due to his reliance on the standards of the new political rule of law in Athens, this balance changed in favor of human interest and will in the new social order of the polis. Aeschylus is in search of justice whose fulfillment most deities do not welcome. Therefore, the suffering is imposed by deities on the man living in the sphere of the polis. In the polis the individual takes the responsibility of his life and intends to disseminate a new foundation for justice with recourse to his own rationality, obedience and will to resist the illegitimate demands of gods or other mythical figures. Therefore, Aeschylus’ works indicate a shift away from a tragic and mythical vision to the sphere of history and politics. That being so, Aeschylus’ application of tragic action is ruled out and the tragic action obtains a negative connotation. In these works, divinity and gods are not the exclusive source of validity and justice but rationality and man are also the standards based on which justice is evaluated. Accordingly, understanding Aeschylus’ tragedies without considering them in the context of history and politics will not be clarifying and thus acquiring this clarifying understanding involves the examination of political history of Athens and its evolutions. It suffices to ponder over this fact that Aeschylus’ tragedies were written concomitant with the domination of democracy. They affected and were affected by the new rule of law prevailing in the polis. As a result, the present article is aimed at examining Aeschylus’ tragedies as the oldest kind of tragedies handed down to us through delving into concepts such as the rule of law and justice. It is also to assess the political status and function of tragic action and hamartia in that particular context to elucidate Aeschylus’ understanding of the function and aim of tragedy, which is predicated upon peace and the rule of law. Thereby, the opposition between the rule of law and tragic action can also be investigated. To this end, it is required to refer to the original texts of the tragedies and to consider the concepts in their historical and political context. The result of this research reveals that having relied on the concept of law, Aeschylus’ tragedies have an anti-tragic aim.
    Keywords: Aeschylus, Law, Tragic Action, Hamartia, Justice
  • Hamid Dehghanpour, Mahsa Mosalla* Pages 17-26
    Statistics and reports from the countries have strong film industry shows the Impact of film industry growth, activities and services on national economics. Development of this industry on the one hand providing dynamic employment and GDP growth and on the other hand influence indirectly on related industries such as the media and television, advertising, hardware and software industries, tourism and so on. Development of information technology, digital products and internet has had a significant role in the film Trade growth in the last two decades. The company's value chain, identify all the activities conducted by the company and related to strategic issues, in other words The activities performed by them competitive advantage with lower costs or improve quality, is provided. Usually, each of the business must be having a value chain. value chain analysis describes the activities within and around an organization, and relates them to an analysis of the competitive strength of the organization. therefore, it which value each particular activity adds to the organizations products or services. this idea was built upon the insight that an organization is more than a random completion of machinery, equipment, people, and money. only if this things are arranged into systems and systematic activities it will become possible to produce something for which customers are willing to pay price. porter argues that the ability to perform particular activities and to manage linkages between these activities a source of competitive advantage, porter distinguishes between primary activities and support activities, the primary activities are: Inbound Logistics: relationships with suppliers and include all the activities required to receive, store, and disseminate inputs. Operations: are all the activities required to transform inputs into outputs, Outbound Logistics: all the activities required to collect, store, and distribute the output. Marketing and Sales: activities inform buyers about products and services, induce buyers to purchase them, and facilitate their purchase. Service: all the activities required to keep the product or service working effectively for the buyer after it is sold and delivered. Secondary activities are: Procurement: is the acquisition of inputs, or resources, for the firm. Human Resource management: all activities involved in recruiting, hiring, training, developing, compensating and dismissing or laying off personnel. Technological Development: pertains to the equipment, hardware, software, procedures and technical knowledge brought to bear in the firm's transformation of inputs into outputs. Infrastructure: serves the company's needs and ties its various parts together, it consists of functions or departments such as accounting, legal, finance, planning, public affairs, government relations, quality assurance and general management The aim of this study identifies film value chain in Iran and its impact on sales growth. The sample of the study, film Industry experts in Tehran was a good experience in this field, and in the first half of the period 1392 to collect opinions of the people. For data analysis, expletory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM) in Lisrel software was used. The results showed that among main activities, input logistic and Supplies Materials in main activities have most impact on sales growth.
    Keywords: Value Chain, Cinema Industry, Expletory Factor Analysis, Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)
  • Mohsen Nourani*, Ashkan Pouyania Pages 27-34
    Serenade op. 24 from Arnold Schoenberg has been written in 7 movements for 7- person ensemble between 1921-1923 including Clarinet and Bass Clarinet (woodwinds), Mandolin, Guitar, Violin, Alto and Cello(stringed instrument). Movements of this work have some been arranged symmetrically by composer. The 4th movement of this collection named sonnet has features such as singer accompanied with orchestra, usage of Francesco Petrarch’s, great poet of renaissance, poet collection, usage of 12-note system, and 12-note retrograde system for singer.(who is in contrast with orchestra from the beginning) The purpose of writing this essay is recognizing effective factors on birth of Dodecaphonic in 4th movement of this collection and regarding the process of composer’s changing in life and career, that ends in changing the music system before and beginning of modernization in music by all means. Critics named this school (Second Vein School) after the first school with attendance Hayden, Mozart, Beethoven. In this analysis authors try to understand complex thoughts of the composer and unveil hidden aspects of the work in order to enable readers to comprehend some charts of the work such as recognizing texture of the orchestral, some perception of the serial, their overlapping and counterpoint moving which is one the Dodecaphonic music features and in this way get to know them. On the other hand, in the fourth movement with the function of sonnet no. 217, we see a complex connection of the combination of music with the poem that is interesting enough to be paid attention. That is, poem, in close connection with texture of the piece, that tries to repeat the 12-note serial and in order to avoid repetition and make new ones in music; the composer symmetries its beginning with a new note in the serial. Throughout this trend we can see the advent of the Retrograde or turning of the music in contrast with the music in the beginning of each hemistich. But it is worth reminding that the mentioned symmetry occurs from the second hemistich (because of reading the serial by the reader for the first time in the first hemistich). In this view maybe we could say that exercising formal change of poem is possible by a composer like Schoenberg, because through looking at the primary form of poem and presenting it by the reader in an analytical view we will see that poem also underwent some changes along with the music. Schoenberg has used some methods such as exchanging serial notes in different octaves, using different rhythmic figures for coordination and better presenting the meaning of the poem in orchestra in order to create diversity in solo line as same as other instruments. Finally, we can say that the general result of this analysis is identifying 4th movement of the collections 12-note part that can be accepted as a preface for enhancing the technique by composer and creating suite for piano op. 25.
    Keywords: Arnold Schoenberg, Serenade, Dodecaphonic, Sonnet, Retrograde
  • Ali Khaksar Pages 35-48
    The Confrontation between Iranian and Western musical cultures and especially taking the idea of Western Orchestra is a topic that had incongruous dimensions in Iranian music. Therefore, this process leads up to some questions: what is the relationship between the multiplicity of musical performance and identity of Iranian music? And the other question: did such a process in its different dimensions result in alienation in Iranian music? On this basis, the present article tries to shed light on this confrontation and through analysis of the material culture of music, musical system and musical products examines the possibility of alienation in Orchestra in contemporary Iranian music. This research applies a synthetic approach, through deductive and inductive methods to construct 12 models in terms of confrontational as well as intercultural musical alienation. Each of these 12 confrontational/intercultural models expresses a potential form. These forms must be examined in terms of three identity-making components, i.e. the musical material culture, musical system and musical products. The ultimate purpose of this research is to investigate the confrontation between Iranian and Western musical cultures by means of explicating the state of this confrontation with standpoint of taking the idea of Western Orchestra and shaping its different amenabilities in musical culture of Iran. In this way, with drawing potential models of Orchestra in Iranian music and finding some applications for each probability, we first genealogies the history of Orchestra in contemporary musical culture of Iran, and in the second step investigate the possibility of musical alienation. The results of this research, through a series of models, show that there have been occurred some confrontations between musical culture of Iran and of Western in recent decades, that resulted in dipolar process in Iranian music. Some of the Confrontations occurred in some of identity-making components of Iranian musical culture. In some of the other confrontations the musical alienation did not occur in any of the musical material culture, musical system and musical products. In the other state, the performance of Orchestra in Iranian music had an interpretational and conscious type to imitative and conscious adaption of Orchestra. The hypothesis of this research leads up to this thesis that against the approaches of traditionalism in Iranian music that reject all of the confrontations between musical culture of Iran and of Western, some of confrontations with interpretational approach that intermix with adaptational method, not only do not lead up to musical alienation in Iranian Music, but result in evolution and creation of Iranian Music. In the other hand, against the Occidentalized approaches in Iranian music that insist on taking all of the culture of western music for evolution and creation of Iranian music, this thesis emphasis on this fact that the considerable part of confrontation between musical culture of Iran and of Western in taking the idea of western Orchestra not only does not make evolution and creation in Iranian music, but weaken, demote and even delete some fundamental characteristics of Iranian music.
    Keywords: Alienation, Musical Alienation, Musical Culture, Iranian Music, Orchestra, Modeling
  • Mohammad Bagher Ghahramani*, Marzieh Piravi Vanak, Hamed Mazaherian, Alireza Sayyad Pages 49-60
    Film theoreticians such as Tom Gunning, Miriam Hansen, Anne Friedberg, Leo Charney, James Donald and Giuliana Bruno emphasize on the simultaneity of the invention of the cinema and the formation of modern cities in the world. Cinema, in effect, seems to have grown up in the context of modern cities. Film’s evolution, stirring away from theatrical static space and the single boundary of primitive filmmaking (fixed camera, moving actor) towards the spatial fluidity and complexity of contemporary cinema, has been concurs with the city dynamics. Scholars like Simmel, Benjamin and Kracauer, referring to cinematographic qualities of the images such as sequential and superimposing movements in large cities, emphasized the significance of cinema in perceiving the environment of modern cities, and believed multilayer film by its nature, more than any other media, has the capacity to represent the complex characteristics of a metropolis. The early filmmakers not only depicted urban spaces, but also screened these images to their audiences as the collective masses. With the circulation of motion pictures through the labyrinthian network of metropolis, as Miriam Hansen points out, cinema had acted as a bridge between people and the city and also helped to shape the image of the city in their minds. In this way, cinema had provided a horizon for experiencing modernity for urban dwellers. The interaction between filmmakers and the urban space continued through the subsequent decades, especially in German expressionism, Italian neorealism, American noir and the French new wave films. In many examples from these cinematic genres, the context of urban space plays significantly in the demonstration of the emotional texture of film's characters. Moreover, directors also by projecting psychological moods of characters on urban spaces endow different and distinctive emotional dimensions to cities. Any cinematic sType text or a website address or translate a document. space may be connected to another by non-linear and complex methods. In film, due to a myriad of variables relationships, every space might be connected to any other space and every relation can produce unpredictable meanings. The spatial relationship in the film is not a kind of continuous and closed system. Filmic techniques have facilitated open systems and structures that know no boundaries. In many films, filmmakers not only represent the cityscapes but also invent their own cinematic city by using spatial combination among disparate parts of the city with the help of cinematic techniques like montage. The influence of reel landscapes in the filmic cities on real cities should not be ignored. thesedaystxxNo nNowadays, cinema has moved beyond serving as a mere representation of urban spaces to challenging the traditional limitations of urban planning. In the same way that movies have borrowed from the dynamics of modern cities, urban spaces have reciprocally been developed in close interaction with cinematic spaces. This interaction has intensified in the past decades more than ever. It might be argued that in contemporary cities, a kind of intertwining relationship between urban plans and cinematic plans has been forming our perception of urbanity.
    Keywords: Modern City, Urban Space, Moving Pictures, Cinematic Space, Cinematic City
  • Esmaeel Shafiee*, Mahdi Etemadsaeed Pages 61-72
    Wlodzimierz Staniewski is one of the best-known theatre directors of three recent decades. From 1976, as the founder and artistic director of the Gardzienice theatre group, he gained various achievements in the procedure of production and performing of theatre. During more than 35 years of working, these achievements have been source of influence for many experimental groups and theorists of the theatre world. Many critics and theorists of the theatre world believe that one of the main causes of unique achievements in Gardzienice theatre was rooted in the theoretical foundations used by Staniewski, which were the base of production of Gardzienice performances. Understanding the above-mentioned fundamentals can contribute in two dimensions; first it can explain the reasons of the attraction and influence of Staniewski’s work, and secondly it can help theatre groups that are attempting to perform based on this method, yet don’t have sufficient theoretical sources. The authors believe that studying the procedure of production and performing of theatre by Gardzienice leads to observation of the ideas and opinions of Micheal Bakhtin. Therefore the present research tries to study the procedure of production and performing of theatre by Gardzienice deep enough in order to clarify the role of Bakhtin ideas and opinions. The main focus of the present study is on the first work period of Gardzienice Company, which is from the foundation of the company until “Metamorphosis” performance of the group. All the resources used in the study are related to the same work period. The research is descriptive-analytical and uses library Sources, and the main results include: explaining the direct relation between primary ideas of expedition/gathering in Staniewski theatre and the “Carnival theory” of Bakhtin, explaining the roots and influences of expedition/gathering in Staniewski theatre by using Bakhtin theories about "dialogism", "philosophy of the act" and "otherness"; and finding the bases of Staniewski theatre practices utilizing Bakhtin theories about “dialogism”, “philosophy of the act” and “otherness”. According to the results of the present research, some activities of the Gardzienice Theater Company are directly influenced by Bakhtin ideas, and other activities can be explained based on Bakhtin theories and ideas. The main results of the present article can be categorized as followed: ●The initial ideas of expedition/gathering are directly influenced by Bakhtin’s ideas regarding “Carnival”. ● The roots of expedition/gathering can be found in Bakhtin theories of “dialogism” and “philosophy of act”. ●In addition to what mentioned above, Gardzienice special theater practices can be explained by “dialogism”, “philosophy of act”, and “otherness”. In rare cases, Staniewski referred to Bakhtin’s theories and ideas in his writings or sayings – for instance he mentioned the relation between “carnival theory” and the gatherings’ structures. Yet, beyond these direct inconspicuous documents, authors believe that Bakhtin’s phenomenological system can explain Gardzienice activities in a very solid way -activities such as passionate performances, expeditions to marginal cultures and gatherings as natural meetings. The above results help groups and individuals that are interested in Staniewski works to understand the theoretical bases of Gardzienice works, rather than mere imitation of its form.
    Keywords: Staniewski, Gardzienice, Bakhtin, Polish Theatre, Dialogism, Carnival Theory
  • Maryam Bakhtiarian*, Majid Akbari Pages 73-82
    Niklas Luhmann has introduced art as a social system, a kind of communication and a process of observation. Using his famous systems approach for clarifying the functions of the art system, he further studied the conceptually complex communications among observation, distinction and form in the system of art. Trying to determine the function of observation in the process of production and perception of art, Luhmann analyzed the function of three active observers in art, namely system of art, artist and audience. Since distinction is what makes the form possible, it is the necessary condition for any observation. Therefore, observation is possible only as long as there is a distinction. But since it is impossible to observe this distinction per se, we come to observe the only side that is present to us and hence fail to see the absent side. This absence is the necessary condition for any observation. In traditional art and criticism, this absence was not considered as important. But avant-garde art concentrated on it to further strengthen the human vision and widen the eyesight to the forms and invisible aspects of the world. For instance, when we want to observe a beautiful thing, the ugliness must be absent. It is important to distinguish between fictional and real aspect of things in art, because this distinction makes a recognizable form. This led him to focus on distinctions and offer a completely new definition of form in the realm of art. Accordingly, he does not consider form as the opposite of content, because form and content can be the same. Avant-garde art very well exemplifies this type of observation which is called second-order observation or the observation of observations. Form is absent in some of the works in modern art, for example, the empty exhibitions or John Cage’s work of 4'33". In some works, form is repeated, as we find examples among others in some of the works of Andy Warhol. Luhamnn wanted to know why these works are regarded as art and found the answer in their participation in second-order observation. According to Luhmann, the common feature of avant-garde artworks is the observation. In addition, the observation of artist and audience is directed by the art system, like camera movements that guide the viewer’s eyes. Art, as an aesthetic play of forms, manages observations and makes novel formal combinations in modern art, and this is in turn the result of the observations of system of art. This theory reduces both the issue of luck and chance and the function of the name of artists as a kind of brand in the acceptance of the artwork. Thus, an artwork, regardless of type or genre, is a kind of observation. This observation is realized by a communication with other artworks and styles in the history of art. The history of art is the memory of this system. Undoubtedly, these communications are indicated in literary criticism and philosophy under the title of intertextuality. Therefore, a work of art is the field of observational encounters and communications. If there’s no communication, no artwork whatsoever will be there. As a result, the second-order observation expands the realm of art and provides people with new aesthetic and artistic experiences.
    Keywords: Niklas Luhmann, social system, observation, form, Avant, garde art
  • Shahabeddin Adel*, Sepideh Tohidi Pages 83-92
    Tech-noir cinema emerged as the combination of Noir film and science-fiction genre in 1980s. Noir film, which was one of the main currents of American cinema in 1940s, was influenced by detective fiction of American literature and expressionist cinema of Germany in plot and form respectively. In 1970S and 1980s, because of artistic and social currents, there was a ground to return to Noir; so Neo-noir developed with some nuances than noir. The prevalence of postmodernism and postmodern characteristics in art such as referring to past which was common during those years in American cinema, were of those factors that helped the advent of Neo-noir. From the late 70s, concerns and skepticisms towards technology and media as facilities to improve human’s life increased. On the other hand, consequences such as destroying the ecosystem and dominating role of media in people’s life regarding economy and politics emphasized. These opinions also found their way to cinema, which in synchrony with dark and dim world of Noir film resulted in the new generation of Neo-noir called Tech-noir. Tech-noir cinema also is one of the best instances to represent the formal features of postmodern art such as simulation, bricolage, and intersexuality; a cinema in which combination of genres and styles, and merging other arts and media with cinema are common properties. Tech-noir film, in addition to Noir film and science-fiction cinema, has great citations to Cyberpunk literature, Gothic literature, and ancient Greek myths which filmmakers of this subgenre create a new world and a different cinema by combining them. Not only the Tech-noir cinema is a proper example of a combination of genres and styles, but also reflects some of postmodernism key concepts very well. The frequent elements in this sub-genre includes dystopia- the world that is changed into ruins due to fearless advances of science and technology, environmental crisis and vital space, cyborg and concerns for human’s future regarding to increasing developments in genetic engineering, and finally, fragmented identity of human who is surrounded in picture, in the nostalgia for past and future. Accordingly, this study focusing on tech-noir cinema, considers how to reflect the sophisticated theoretical concerns of a society in terms of dramatic films such as fantasy and science-fiction. Specially, because this representation utilizing various artistic styles and forms of the past and present, in order to revive and maintain them along with today’s art currents of that society. To achieve these goals, some explanation about noir film and then its revival which is called neo-noir is given at first. Afterwards, tech-noir cinema and other roots of it including science-fiction genre, gothic literature, and mythological stories, are expressed. In addition, some elements like dystopia, environmental crisis, cyborg and nostalgia, are considered based on the viewpoints of theoreticians like Derrida, Lyotard, Baudrillard and Jameson. The accomplishment method in this research is descriptive-analytical and library data collection. Also, in retrieval of tech-noir cinema characteristics, in addition to refer to books and articles, the films which are named in books and websites are referred.
    Keywords: Film Noir, Science, fiction, Tech, noir, Common elements, Postmodern Theories