فهرست مطالب

High Risk Behaviors & Addiction - Volume:5 Issue: 1, 2016
  • Volume:5 Issue: 1, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/12/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 15
|
  • Marjan Anvar Abnavi, Jamshid Ahmadi, Sajedeh Hamidian*, Sara Ghaffarpour Page 1
    Background
    Opiate abuse in males has significant effects on their sexual functions. In contrast, sexuality in females is a multidimensional issue that can strongly be affected by several factors in their partners. However, only a limited number of studies have assessed the role of males’ opioid dependency in their female partners’ sexual function..
    Objectives
    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of males’ opioid dependency on their wives’ sexual function compared to the sexual function of the females whose husbands were not opioid dependent..
    Materials And Methods
    This study included 340 women who were selected through convenience sampling and divided into a control (females whose husbands were not opioid dependent) and a case group (women whose husbands were opioid dependent). The data were collected through an interview according to the DSM-IV-R criteria for female sexual dysfunctions by a senior female medical student who was one of the researchers. Finally, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 15) and analyzed using the t-test and chi-square test..
    Results
    According to the results, the frequency of hypoactive sexual desire disorder and sexual aversion disorder in the control group was significantly higher than that of the case group (P < 0.05)..
    Conclusions
    The results showed that having an addicted husband could strongly affect some sexual domains in women. It could change the pattern of desire and motivation for sexual contact in females and alter their attitude toward the sexual relationship, thereby causing disturbances in the females’ normal sexual function..
    Keywords: Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological, Aversion Disorders, Sexual, Opioid, Related Disorders
  • Alireza Didarloo*, Reza Pourali Page 2
  • Marjan Alemikhah, Farhad Faridhosseini*, Hassan Kordi, Morad Rasouli, Azad, Najmeh Shahini Page 3
    Background
    Substance dependency is a major problem for the general health of a society. Different approaches have investigated the substance dependency in order to explain it. Gray’s reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) is an advanced and important neuropsychological theory in this area..
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to compare three systems of the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory the behavioral activation system (r-BAS), the revised behavioral inhibition system (r-BIS), and the revised fight/flight/freezing system (r-FFFS) between patients dependent on methamphetamine and opiates, and a group of controls..Patients and
    Methods
    This research was a causal-comparative study that was conducted in the first six months of 2012. The population of the study was males of Mashhad city, who were dependent on methamphetamine or opiates, and ruling out psychotic disorders and prominent Axis II. Twenty-five people were selected by the convenient sampling method. Also, 25 non-dependent people from the patients’ relatives were selected and matched for the variables of age, gender, and education to participate in this study. Participants were evaluated using a structured clinical interview (SCID) for DSM-IV, demographic questionnaire information, and a Jackson-5 questionnaire (2009). Data were analyzed by Chi-square, K-S, and independent t-test..
    Results
    The methamphetamine dependent group had a higher sensitivity in the r-BAS, r-BIS, and the r-Fight and r-Freezing systems compared to the control group (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in r-Flight between the two groups (P > 0.05). “The scores of r-BIS were also significantly higher in the methamphetamine-dependent group than the opioid-dependent and control groups. For the r-Fight variable, the methamphetamine-dependent group was higher than the opioid-dependent group”..
    Conclusions
    The personality patterns of patients dependent on methamphetamines were different from the controls. These people have a high sensitivity to punishment cues, such as being compared in social conditions and a tendency for reinforcement and reward, because of their higher sensitivity in the behavioral inhibition and activation systems..
    Keywords: Methamphetamine, Inhibition (Psychology), Reinforcement
  • Reza Assadi, Reza Afshari* Page 4
    Background
    In measuring health utilities, the primary reason for selecting patients as a source for valuations is that they directly experience the impact of the disease..
    Objectives
    Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the variation in generic utility measures with respect to acute poisonings by including a comparison between those subjects who had high intention and low intention to commit suicide..Patients and
    Methods
    We evaluated the responses of patients who had attempted suicide and were admitted to a toxicology ward. We used multiple methods, including TTO, VAS, and EQ-5D..
    Results
    We reviewed the collected questionnaires of one hundred patients admitted to the medical toxicology ward of Emam Reza teaching hospital in Mashhad, Iran. Our results show that the mental state after an incomplete suicide attempt can present either a real desire for suicide or a desire for attention from relatives and rejection of life problems..
    Conclusions
    This study demonstrates that the mental states associated with specific diseases should not be ignored in evaluating health states. Although there are benefits to relying on expert panels and the general population in evaluating various health states, attention to the particular health states of the patients (taking into account their associated mental well-being) should also be utilized..
    Keywords: Acute Disease, Attempted, Illness Burdens, Global Health, Life Tables, Life Expectancy, Models, Statistical, Mortality, Poisoning, Suicide
  • Azam Rahmani, Effat Merghati, Khoei, Lida Moghaddam, Banaem*, Ebrahim Hajizadeh, Ali Montazeri Page 5
    Background
    Premarital sexual relationships could harm youth’s health in terms of sexually transmitted infections or increased risk of unprotected sexual behaviors. Sexual abstinence has been recommended to prevent young adolescents from adverse outcomes of premarital sexual relationships..
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to explore the viewpoints of sexually active single women about premarital sexual relationships in the Iranian context..Patients and
    Methods
    In this qualitative study, we recruited 41 young women aged 18 to 35 years. Data were collected using focus group discussions and individual interviews. We employed conventional content analysis to analyze the data. Multiple data collection methods, maximum variation sampling, and peer checks were applied to enhance the reliability of the findings..
    Results
    Eight themes emerged from the data analysis: ‘acceptance of sexual contact in the context of opposite-sex relationships, ‘sexual activity as a guarantee for keeping the boyfriend in the relationship’, ‘premarital sexual relationship as an undeniable personal right’, ‘having successful marriage in spite of premarital sexual relationships’, ‘virginity as an old fashioned phenomenon’, ‘love as a license for premarital sexual behaviors’, ‘goal-oriented relationship as a license for premarital sexual behaviors’, and ‘experiencing premarital sexual relationships in order to gain perfection’..
    Conclusions
    Results of this study could be applied to designing interventions, such as promotion of preventive beliefs or educational programs regarding premarital sexual relationships in conservative societies. These interventions could start within families and continue at schools and universities..
    Keywords: Premarital Sex Behavior, Qualitative Research, Iran
  • Safdar Karimi, Asghar Jaafari, Mohammad Ghamari, Maryam Esfandiary, Foroozan Salehi Mazandarani, Sahar Daneshvar, Marjan Ajami* Page 6
    Background
    Due to the epidemiologic transition and a rise in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases different coping strategies have been studied and developed. These strategies may help the affected people to conduct a normal life style..
    Objectives
    This research was conducted in Qazvin, Iran to determine the relationship between coping strategies, hardiness, and occupational life quality in Type II diabetic patients and healthy people..Patients and
    Methods
    Questionnaires such as Valton’s on “occupational life quality,” Billings and Moos’ examination of “Coping strategies,” and Kobasa’s investigation of “hardiness” were applied to collect the data needed for the present study. In this regard, 80 people were randomly selected from employees of offices in Qazvin, Iran..
    Results
    The results of this research indicated that there is a significant relationship between problem-focused strategies, emotion-focused strategies, hardiness, and occupational life quality in people suffering from Type II diabetes and healthy people (P ≤ 0.05). These results also indicated that hardiness does not predict occupational life quality of people suffering from Type II diabetes..
    Conclusions
    The results of the present study give some evidence that allows us to conclude that hardiness and coping strategies affect occupational life quality for both people suffering from Type II diabetes and healthy people. Therefore, it is proposed that people strengthen their hardiness and coping strategies, in order to improve their occupational life quality..
    Keywords: Coping Skills, Occupational, Quality of Life, Diabetes Mellitus
  • Rahim Habibi, Alireza Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Maryam Shabany Hamedan*, Amirreza Saleh Moqadam Page 7
    Background
    The success of drug abuse treatment and relapse prevention methods depends widely on not only pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical therapies but also self efficacy and self esteem promotion..
    Objectives
    The current study attempted to clarify the effects of Problem Solving Education (PSE) on relapse rate, self efficacy and self esteem among drug abusers..Patients and
    Methods
    This non-controlled clinical trial (quasi-experimental) assessed 60 opium and heroin abusers who were willing to quit and were referred to the Mehr Center of Addiction Treatment and Rehabilitation Facility. The patients were allocated to two groups of 30 (intervention and control groups). While both groups received the routine care of the clinic, the intervention group also attended eight 45-minute family-centered PSE sessions. The Coopersmith Self esteem Inventory and Quit Addiction Self efficacy Questionnaire were filled out for all subjects before and after the intervention. Drug relapse was investigated four times with two-week intervals. The two groups were compared using chi-square and Student’s-t tests. Logistic regression analysis was applied to determine factors affecting drug relapse..
    Results
    A total of 45 individuals (21 and 24 in the intervention and control groups, respectively) completed the study. At baseline, the two groups had no significant difference regarding their mean scores of self esteem and self efficacy (P = 0.692 and 0.329, respectively). After the intervention, however, the mean changes of self esteem scores were 20.10 ± 3.75 for the intervention group and 4.50 for the control group (P < 0.001). The mean changes of self efficacy scores in the mentioned groups were 34 34.17 ± 5.19 and 9.03± 2.04, respectively (P < 0.001). Drug relapse after two weeks was correlated with age (OR = 1.216; P = 0.026; 95% CI: 1.024-1.445) and implementation of the intervention (OR = 0.036; P = 0.003; 95% CI: 0.004-0.322)..
    Conclusions
    According to our findings, supplementing drug abuse treatment with cognitive behavior therapy, particularly PSE, can reduce relapse rate and enhance self efficacy and self esteem among patients..
    Keywords: Drug Users, Problem Solving, Self Efficacy, Self Esteem
  • Hossein Norouzian, Mohammadreza Gholami, Pegah Shakib, Gholamreza Goudarzi*, Hamze Ghobadian Diali, Azam Rezvani Page 8
    Background
    Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by blood-borne pathogen, hepatitis C virus (HCV)..
    Objectives
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HCV infection and associated risk factors among addicts in drug treatment centers in Lorestan Province, Iran..Patients and
    Methods
    A cross-sectional sero-behavioral survey was given to drug addicts in the drug treatment centers of Khorramabad, Lorestan province, Iran during June 2012 - March 2013. Drug addicts were interviewed using a standard questionnaire including demographic, imprisonment history, and HCV-related risk behavior items. Thereafter, the sera drawn from the participants were tested for anti-HCV antibody (Ab), anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Ab, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)..
    Results
    The mean age of the cohorts was 31.7. Up to 60.2% of drug users had educational levels less than high school, 67.5% were self-employed, and 32.5% were office workers. The mean duration of drug injection was 6.8 years. Statistical analyses indicated that the prevalence of HCV among drug addicts was positively associated with age, past incarceration, drug injection history, the duration of drug use, and tattooing. In addition, 16.23% of volunteers were HCV-positive. Of those infected with HCV, 1.10% was co-infected with HBV, 2.95% were positive for HIV, and 0.36% of HCV-positive cases were infected with all three viruses..
    Conclusions
    The high prevalence of HCV infection among this group implies a high rate of transmission and exposure to the risk of serious diseases. It is important that the high prevalence of HCV infection be taken into consideration to control further transmission of this infection..
    Keywords: Hepatitis C Virus_Prevalence_Risk Factors_Substance Abuse Treatment Centers
  • Gamal E. Sadek, Simon Chiu, Zack Z. Cernovsky* Page 9
    Background
    Methadone is associated with a statistically significant increase in BMI in the first 2 years of treatment..
    Objectives
    To evaluate the changes of body composition (bone mass, % fat, % muscle mass, % water, and basal metabolic rate) related to this increase..Patients and
    Methods
    Changes in body composition were monitored, via bioelectrical impedance, in 29 patients in methadone treatment for opiate dependency (age 18 to 44, mean = 29.3, SD = 7.0, 13 men, 16 women)..
    Results
    Within one year from admission to treatment, a statistically significant (t-tests, P < 0.05) increase was noted in their body mass index (BMI), % of body fat, average body mass, and average basal metabolic rate, and relative decrease in their % of muscle mass and % of bone mass. Neither absolute bone mass nor muscle mass changed significantly..
    Conclusions
    Physicians involved in care of methadone patients should recommend dietary and lifestyle changes to improve their overall health..
    Keywords: Methadone, Body Mass Index, Obesity
  • Reza Bidaki, Seyed Mahdi Mousavi, Nasrollah Bashardoust, Masoud Sabouri Ghannad*, Naser Dashti Page 10
    Background
    A considerable number of patients infected with HIV also have mental health problems. Individual psychotherapy is an effective way to treat these issues. Lack of social acceptance is a barrier to patients receiving proper medication and emotional/psychological support..
    Objectives
    The purpose of this study was to examine the individual factors of social acceptance in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus..Patients and
    Methods
    Fifty HIV-infected patients who were registered in the Behavioral Consultation Center entered the study. Each of them filled out a questionnaire based on the Crown-Marlow social acceptance scale. Their answers were evaluated according to the questionnaire key..
    Results
    Forty-five patients (90%) were male and five (10%) were female. Their ages ranged between 28 and 52 years old. Other variables researched in this study include patients’ age, sex, education, occupation, place of living, marital status, family history of HIV, and family history of psychological disorders. Employed patients experienced more social acceptance than housewives and people who were unemployed or retired..
    Conclusions
    This study showed that HIV-infected patients with jobs enjoy a great deal of acceptance from the people around them and a higher quality of life in general. It also led to suggestions for further study with the purpose of finding more effective solutions for HIV prevention and better strategies for dealing with psychological disorders. Such research could also help in providing an enhanced understanding of the potential psychological impact that AIDS has on patients in Iran..
    Keywords: HIV, Social Support, Social Values, Social Distance
  • Mojtaba Salmabadi *, Mohammad Faroogh Sadeghbojd, Mohammad Reza Farshad, Shadi Zolfaghari Page 12
  • Omid Massah, Faramarz Sohrabi, Yousef Aazami *, Younes Doostian, Ali Farhoudian, Reza Daneshmand Page 13
  • Fariba Arabghol, Firooze Derakhshanpour *, Rozita Davari Ashtiyani, Narges Chimeh, Layli Panaghi Page 14
  • Mohsen Mesgarani, Mohsen Hosseinbor, Shahla Shafiee, Roghayeh Sarkoubi Page 15