فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:19 Issue: 2, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/12/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 15
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  • Masoud Mobini, Maryam Mortazavi, Somayeh Nadi, Mohammad Zare, Bidaki, Somayeh Pourtalebi, Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi Pages 119-124
    Imbalanced immune responses against fetus alloantigens can lead to abnormality in pregnancy. Interleukin-10(IL-10) plays key roles in regulation of immune responses against self and foreign antigens to induce tolerance to these antigens. Therefore, alteration in expression of IL-10 during pregnancy may result in several pathologic conditions such as preterm labor. IL-10 leads to a normal pregnancy via several molecular mechanisms including development of tolerogenic dendritic cells, T regulatory lymphocytes and activation of the JAK1/STAT3 pathway in the target cells. This review has collected recent data regarding the status of IL-10 expression during term and preterm deliveries and also its molecular mechanisms that lead to a normal pregnancy.
    Keywords: IL, 10, Preterm delivery, Term delivery
  • Naghmeh Ahmadiankia, Hamid Kalalian Moghaddam, Mohammad Amir Mishan, Ahmad Reza Bahrami, Hojjat Naderi, Meshkin, Hamid Reza Bidkhori, Maryam Moghaddam, Seyed Jamal Aldin Mirfeyzi Pages 125-131
    Objective(s)
    Berberine is one of the main alkaloids and it has been proven to have different pharmacological effects including inhibition of cell cycle and progression of apoptosis in various cancerous cells; however, its effects on cancer metastasis are not well known. Cancer cells obtain the ability to change their chemokine system and convert into metastatic cells. In this study, we examined the effect of berberine on breast cancer cell migration and its probable interaction with the chemokine system in cancer cells.
    Materials And Methods
    The MCF-7 breast cancer cell line was cultured, and then, treated with berberine (10, 20, 40 and 80 μg/ml) for 24 hr. MTT assay was used in order to determine the cytotoxic effect of berberine on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Wound healing assay was applied to determine the inhibitory effect of berberine on cell migration. Moreover, real-time quantitative PCR analysis of selected chemokine receptors was performed to determine the probable molecular mechanism underlying the effect of berberine on breast cancer cell migration.
    Results
    The results of wound healing assay revealed that berberine decreases cell migration. Moreover, we found that the mRNA levels of some chemokine receptors were reduced after berberine treatment, and this may be the underlying mechanism for decreased cell migration.
    Conclusion
    Our results indicate that berberine might be a potential preventive biofactor for human breast cancer metastasis by targeting chemokine receptor genes.
    Keywords: Anticancer agents, Breast cancer, Berberine, Chemokine receptors, Metastasis
  • Azizeh Asadzadeh, Hajar Sirous, Morteza Pourfarzam, Parichehreh Yaghmaei, Afshin Fassihi Pages 132-144
    Objective(s)
    Tyrosinase is a key enzyme in pigment synthesis. Overproduction of melanin in parts of the skin results in hyperpigmentation diseases. This enzyme is also responsible for the enzymatic browning in fruits and vegetables. Thus, its inhibitors are of great importance in the medical, cosmetic and agricultural fields.
    Materials And Methods
    A series of twelve kojic acid derivatives were designed to be evaluated as tyrosinase activity inhibitors. The potential inhibitory activity of these compounds was investigated in silico using molecular docking simulation method. Four compounds with a range of predicted tyrosinase inhibitory activities were prepared and their inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity was evaluated. The antioxidant properties of these compounds were also investigated by in vitro DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assays.
    Results
    Compound IIId exhibited the highest tyrosinase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 0.216 ± 0.009 mM which was in accordance with the in silico ΔGbind results (-13.24 Kcal/mol).
    Conclusion
    Based on the docking studies, from the twelve compounds studied, one (IIId) appeared to have the highest inhibition on tyrosinase activity. This was confirmed by enzyme activity measurements. Compound IIId has an NO2 group which binds to both of Cu2 ions located inside the active site of the enzyme. This compound appeared to be even stronger than kojic acid in inhibiting tyrosinase activity. The DPPH free radical scavenging ability of all the studied compounds was more than that of BHT. However, they were not as strong as BHT or gallic acid in scavenging hydrogen peroxide.
    Keywords: Antioxidant activity, In silico studies, Kojic acid, Tyrosinase
  • Maryam Ayatollahi, Tahereh Talaei, Khozani, Mahboobeh Razmkhah Pages 145-153
    Objective(s)
    Immunosuppressive property of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has great attraction in regenerative medicine especially when dealing with tissue damage involving immune reactions. The most attractive tissue sources of human MSCs used in clinical applications are bone marrow (BM), adipose tissue (AT), and Wharton's jelly (WJ) of human umbilical cord. The current study has compared immunomodulatory properties of human BM, AT, and WJ-MSCs.
    Materials And Methods
    Three different types of human MSCs were isolated, cultured, and characterized by flow cytometry and differentiation potentials. The MSCs were co-cultured with allogeneic phytohemagglutinin (PHA) activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The proliferation of PBMCs was assessed by flow cytometry of carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) stained cells and compared to each other and to the growth of PBMCs in the absence of MSCs, 3 days post co-culture. Additionally, the growth suppression was indirectly assessed by using the transwell culture system.
    Results
    the proliferation of PBMCs reduced to 6.2, 7 and 15.4- fold in cultures with AT-MSCs, WJ-MSCs, and BM-MSCs, respectively, compared to the PHA-activated cells. When the growth suppression was indirectly assessed by using the transwell culture system, it was revealed that AT-MSCs, WJ-MSCs, and BM-MSCs caused growth reduction in PBMCs to 3, 8, and 8 -fold, respectively, compared to the PHA-activated cells.
    Conclusion
    These data collectively conclude that the immunomodulatory effects of MSCs, which may mostly carry out through direct cell to cell contact, are different between various sources. Accordingly results of this study may contribute to the application of these cells in cell therapy and regenerative medicine.
    Keywords: Adipose tissue, Bone marrow, Immunosuppression, Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC), Regenerative medicine, Wharton's jelly
  • Zeynep Coskun, Sema Bolkent Pages 154-158
    Objective(s)
    The object of the study is to examine the effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) against oxidative stress in the blood and excretion of THC metabolites in urine of type 2 diabetic rats.
    Materials And Methods
    The control (n=8), THC control (n=6), diabetes (n=8) and diabetes THC (n=7) groups were created. Type 2 diabetes was induced by nicotinamide (NA, 85 mg/kg) streptozotocin (STZ, 65 mg/kg). THC was administered intraperitoneally for seven days. The glutathione (GSH) level in erythrocytes and malondialdehyde (MDA) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzyme activities in plasma were measured. THC metabolites were analyzed in urine.
    Results
    The results showed that the erythrocyte GSH levels were significantly increased (P
    Conclusion
    These findings highlight that THC treatment may attenuate slightly the oxidative stress in diabetic rats. The excretion rate of THC may vary in the type 2 diabetes mellitus status.
    Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Metabolite, Oxidative stress, Type 2, Urine, Δ9, tetrahydrocannabinol
  • Saeid Goodarzi, Abbas Hadjiakhoondi, Narguess Yassa, Mahnaz Khanavi, Zahra Tofighi Pages 159-165
    Objective(s)
    Astrodaucus persicus, Apiaceae, is used as vegetable or food additive in some parts of Iran. The essential oils of different parts of Astrodaucus persicus from Kordestan province were analyzed for the first time and compared with other regions. In this study, antioxidant activities and total phenols determination of aerial parts essential oils and root fractions of A. persicus were investigated.
    Materials And Methods
    The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation from flowers/fruits, leaves/stems, ripe fruits and roots of plant and analyzed by GC-MS. Crude root extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antioxidant activities by DPPH and FRAP methods and total phenols by Folin-ciocalteu assay were measured.
    Results
    The abundant compounds of flowers/fruits blue essential oil were α-thujene, β-pinene and α-pinene. The predominant components of blue leaves/stems essential oil were α-thujene, α-pinene and α-fenchene. The major volatiles of ripe fruits blue essential oil were β-pinene, α-thujene and α-pinene. The chief compounds of root yellow essential oil were trans-caryophyllene, bicycogermacrene and germacrene-D. Total root extract and ethyl acetate fraction showed potent antioxidant activities and high amount of total phenols in comparison to other samples. Among volatile oils, the flowers/fruits essential oil showed potent reducing capacity.
    Conclusion
    The major compounds of aerial parts essential oils were hydrocarbon monoterpenes while the chief percentage of roots essential oil constituents were hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes. α-Eudesmol and β-eudesmol were identified as responsible for creation of blue color in aerial parts essential oils. A. persicus was known as a potent antioxidant among Apiaceae.
    Keywords: Apiaceae, Blue volatile, Free radical scavenger, Oxidation, reduction, Root fractions
  • Farzaneh Hajesmaeelzadeh, Saeed Shanehsazzadeh, Cordula GrÜttner, Fariba Johari Daha, Mohammad Ali Oghabian Pages 166-171
    Objective(s)
    Iron oxide nanoparticles have found prevalent applications in various fields including drug delivery, cell separation and as contrast agents. Super paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles allow researchers and clinicians to enhance the tissue contrast of an area of interest by increasing the relaxation rate of water. In this study, we evaluate the dependency of hydrodynamic size of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with Polyethylene glycol (PEG) on their relativities with 3 Tesla clinical MRI.
    Materials And Methods
    We used three groups of nanoparticles with nominal sizes 20, 50 and 100 nm with a core size of 8.86 nm, 8.69 nm and 10.4 nm that they were covered with PEG 300 and 600 Da. A clinical magnetic resonance scanner determines the T1 and T2 relaxation times for various concentrations of PEG-coated nanoparticles.
    Results
    The size measurement by photon correlation spectroscopy showed the hydrodynamic sizes of MNPs with nominal 20, 50 and 100 nm with 70, 82 and 116 nm for particles with PEG 600 coating and 74, 93 and 100 nm for particles with PEG 300 coating, respectively. We foud that the relaxivity decreased with increasing overall particle size (via coating thickness). Magnetic resonance imaging showed that by increasing the size of the nanoparticles, r2/r1 increases linearly.
    Conclusion
    According to the data obtained from this study it can be concluded that increments in coating thickness have more influence on relaxivities compared to the changes in core size of magnetic nanoparticles.
    Keywords: Coating thickness Hydrodynamic size, Nanoparticles, Relaxivity
  • Seyyed Ali Mard, Ali Veisi, Akram Ahangarpour, Mohammad Kazem Gharib, Naseri Pages 172-177
    Objective(s)
    This study was performed to investigate the effects of mucosal acidification on mRNA expression and protein synthesis of cystathionine gamma lyase (CSE), cystathionine beta synthase (CBS), and mucosal release of H2S in gastric mucosa in rats.
    Materials And Methods
    Thirty-two rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups (8 in each), including: the control group, HCl (10 mM) treated group, HCl (100 mM) treated group, and one group to study the effect of Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME). Anesthetized rats underwent tracheostomy and midline laparotomy. Ninety min after the instillation of neutral or acidic solutions, animals were sacrificed and the gastric mucosa was collected to measure the H2S concentration by ELISA method and to quantify mRNA expression of CSE and CBS by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Protein synthesis was also detected by Western blot method.
    Results
    Mucosal acidification with 10 and 100 HCl, significantly increased mucosal levels of H2S (P
    Conclusion
    Our findings indicated that mucosal acidification with HCl increased mucosal release of H2S through upregulation of CSE gene and its protein expression. This effect is mainly mediated through the involvement of nitric oxide.
    Keywords: Cystathionine gamma lyase H2S, Mucosal acidification, Rat
  • Ahmad Mehravaran, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari, Seyed Amir Jalali, Ali Khamesipour, Reza Ranjbar, Mansure Hojatizade, Ali Badiee Pages 178-186
    Objective(s)
    Development of new generation of vaccines against leishmaniasis is possible because long-term protection is usually seen after recovery from cutaneous leishmaniasis. ISCOMATRIX is particulate antigen delivery system composed of antigen, cholesterol, phospholipid and saponin. In this study, the role of ISCOMATRIX bilayer composition made by different phase transition temperature (Tc) to induce a type of immune response and protection against leishmaniasis was assessed.
    Materials And Methods
    ISCOMATRIX formulations with different bilayer compositions consisting of EPC (Tc
    Results
    Although the groups of mice immunized with ISCOMATRIX DMPC or ISCOMATRIX DSPC showed the smallest footpad swelling and least parasite burden compared with the buffer group, the difference was not significant. Moreover, the highest level of IFN- γ and IL-4 was observed in the splenocytes of mice immunized with ISCOMATRIX DMPC or ISCOMATRIX DSPC, respectively. After challenge, the mice immunized with ISCOMATRIX DSPC showed the highest elevation of IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies (P
    Conclusion
    Our results showed that the adjuvanticity of prepared ISCOMATRIX doesn’t influence with different phospholipids at least in our mice model.
    Keywords: Immune response, ISCOMATRIX, Leishmania major, Transition temperature
  • Mohammad Reza Mirzaei, Malekhosein Asadi, Seyed Javad Mowla, Gholamhossin Hassanshahi, Zahra Ahmadi Pages 187-193
    Objective(s)
    The OCT4B1, as one of OCT4 variants, is expressed in cancer cell lines and tissues more than other variants and plays an important role in apoptosis and stress (heat shock protein) pathways. The present study was designed to determine the effects of OCT4B1 silencing on expressional profile of HSP40 gene family expression in three different human tumor cell lines.
    Materials And Methods
    The OCT4B1 expression was suppressed by specific siRNA transfection in AGS (gastric adenocarcinoma), 5637 (bladder tumor) and U-87MG (brain tumor) cell lines employing Lipofectamine reagent. Real-time PCR array technique was employed for RNA qualification. The fold changes were calculated using RT2 Profiler PCR array data analysis software version 3.5.
    Results
    Our results indicated that fifteen genes (from 36 studied genes) were down-regulated and two genes (DNAJC11 and DNAJC5B) were up-regulated in all three studied tumor cell lines by approximately more than two folds. The result of other studied genes (19 genes) showed different expressional pattern (up or down-expression) based on tumor cell lines.
    Conclusion
    According to the findings of the present study, we may suggest that there is a direct correlation between OCT4B1 expression in tumor cell lines (and tissues) and HSP40 family gene expressions to escape from apoptosis and cancer expansion.
    Keywords: HSP40 gene family, OCT4B1, siRNA, Tumor cell lines
  • Hasan Simsek, Seniz DemiryÜrek, Tuncer Demir, HÜsne Didem Atabay, Ali Osman Ceribasi, Recep Bayraktar, Davut Sinan Kaplan, Serdar Oztuzcu, Beyhan Cengiz Pages 194-200
    Objective(s)
    Ischemia is described as organs and tissues are destitute of oxygen due to decreased arterial or venous blood flow. Many mechanisms play role in cell death happened as a consequence of a new blood flow is needed for both cell regeneration and to clean toxic metabolites during ischemia and later. Lung damage induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is a frequent problem in lung transplantation. Apoptosis (programmed cell death) is known as cell suicide, and plays a key role in embryonic developmental and in maintain adult tissue’s life.
    Materials And Methods
    It is investigated expressions of Smad1, Bmp-2, Bcl-XL, b-FGF, Caspase-3, TGF-β1, PDGFR-α genes for molecular changes in lung tissues, after I/R is formed, in this study. For this, we included 40 Wistar albino rats to this study and divided 4 groups (n=10). The Groups were determined as Control (C), Group 1= 1 hr ischemia (I), Group 2= 1 hr ischemia hr reperfusion (I), Group 3= 1 hr ischemia hr reperfusion (I). Besides, molecular analysis and histopathologic examinations of tissues were performed, and the results were evaluated by normalization and statistics analysis.
    Results
    We have found a significant increase in expression of Bcl-XL (P=0.046) and Caspase-3 (P=0.026) genes of group 1, and it was not monitored any significant difference in Group 2 and Group 3. In all groups, the changes in b-FGF (P=0.087), Bmp-2 (P=0.457), TGF-β1 (P=0.201) and PDGFR-α (P=0.116) were not significant compared to control group. We did not see any mRNA expression of Smad1 gene in all groups include control.
    Conclusion
    These findings suggest that I/R injury may trigger apoptotic mechanism in lung.
    Keywords: Apoptosis, Growth factors, Ischemia, reperfusion, Lung
  • Siavash Parvardeh, Mahsa Moghimi, Pegah Eslami, Alireza Masoudi Pages 201-208
    Objective(s)
    Dependence and tolerance to opioid analgesics are major problems limiting their clinical application. a-Terpineol is a monoterpenoid alcohol with neuroprotective effects which is found in several medicinal plants such as Myrtus communis, Laurus nobilis, and Stachys byzantina. It has been shown that some of these medicinal plants such as S. byzantina attenuate dependence and tolerance to morphine. Since a-terpineol is one of the bioactive phytochemical constituent of these medicinal plants, the present study was conducted to investigate the effects of a-terpineol on morphine-induced dependence and tolerance in mice.
    Materials And Methods
    The mice were rendered dependent or tolerant to morphine by a 3-day administration schedule. The hot-plate test and naloxone-induced withdrawal syndrome were used to evaluate tolerance and dependence on morphine, respectively. To investigate a possible role for nitric oxide (NO) in the protective effect of a-terpineol, the NO synthase inhibitor, L-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and NO precursor, L-arginine, were used.
    Results
    Administration of a-terpineol (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, IP) significantly decreased the number of jumps in morphine dependent animals. Moreover, a-terpineol (20 and 40 mg/kg, IP) attenuated tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine. The inhibitory effects of a-terpineol on morphine-induced dependence and tolerance were enhanced by pretreatment with L-NAME (10 mg/kg, IP). However, L-arginine (300 mg/kg, IP) antagonized the protective effects of a-terpineol on dependence and tolerance to morphine.
    Conclusion
    These findings indicate that a-terpineol prevents the development of dependence and tolerance to morphine probably through the influence on NO production.
    Keywords: Terpineol, Dependence, Monoterpenoid, Morphine, Nitric Oxide, Tolerance
  • Hasan Simsek, Seniz DemiryÜrek, Tuncer Demir, HÜsne Didem Atabay, Ali Osman Ceribasi, Recep Bayraktar, Davut Sinan Kaplan, Serdar Oztuzcu, Beyhan Cengiz Pages 209-214
    Objective(s)
    Ischemia is described as organs and tissues are destitute of oxygen due to decreased arterial or venous blood flow. Many mechanisms play role in cell death happened as a consequence of a new blood flow is needed for both cell regeneration and to clean toxic metabolites during ischemia and later. Lung damage induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is a frequent problem in lung transplantation. Apoptosis (programmed cell death) is known as cell suicide, and plays a key role in embryonic developmental and in maintain adult tissue’s life.
    Materials And Methods
    It is investigated expressions of Smad1, Bmp-2, Bcl-XL, b-FGF, Caspase-3, TGF-β1, PDGFR-α genes for molecular changes in lung tissues, after I/R is formed, in this study. For this, we included 40 Wistar albino rats to this study and divided 4 groups (n=10). The Groups were determined as Control (C), Group 1= 1 hr ischemia (I), Group 2= 1 hr ischemia hr reperfusion (I), Group 3= 1 hr ischemia hr reperfusion (I). Besides, molecular analysis and histopathologic examinations of tissues were performed, and the results were evaluated by normalization and statistics analysis.
    Results
    We have found a significant increase in expression of Bcl-XL (P=0.046) and Caspase-3 (P=0.026) genes of group 1, and it was not monitored any significant difference in Group 2 and Group 3. In all groups, the changes in b-FGF (P=0.087), Bmp-2 (P=0.457), TGF-β1 (P=0.201) and PDGFR-α (P=0.116) were not significant compared to control group. We did not see any mRNA expression of Smad1 gene in all groups include control.
    Conclusion
    These findings suggest that I/R injury may trigger apoptotic mechanism in lung.
    Keywords: Apoptosis, Growth factors, Ischemia, reperfusion, Lung
  • Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi, Gholamreza Asadikaram Pages 215-220
    Objective(s)
    The aim of this study was to determine the important molecules involved in apoptosis induction by opium in Jurkat cell line.
    Materials And Methods
    Jurkat cells were incubated 48 hrs with2.86×10-5 g/ml concentration of opium and apoptosis as well as expression levels of related molecules weremeasured.
    Results
    Our results demonstrated that 50.3±0.2 percent of opium treated Jurkat cells were revealed apoptotic features. The levels of mRNA of several pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic molecules were increased and decreased, respectively, in the opium treated cells. The results also demonstrated that expression levels of BCL2, DFFA and NOL3 as anti-apoptotic molecules were increased in the opium treated cells.

    Conclusion
    It seems that opium induces apoptosis in Jurkat cells via both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Although opium induces apoptosis in the cells but increased expression of some anti-apoptotic molecules may be a normal resistance of the cell for death.
    Keywords: Apoptosis, Jurkat cells, PCR array
  • Hassan Malekinejad, Sima Ahsan, Fatemeh Delkhosh, Kasmaie, Hadi Cheraghi, Ali Rezaei, Golmisheh, Hamed Janbaz, Acyabar Pages 221-227
    Objective(s)
    Paclitaxel is a potent chemotherapy agent with severe side effects, including allergic reactions, cardiovascular problems, complete hair loss, joint and muscle pain, which may limit its use and lower its efficiency. The cardioprotective effect of royal jelly was investigated on paclitaxel-induced damages.
    Materials And Methods
    Adult male Wistar rats were divided into control and test groups (n=8). The test group was assigned into five subgroups; 4 groups, along with paclitaxel administration (7.5 mg/kg BW, weekly), received various doses of royal jelly (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg BW) for 28 consecutive days. The last group received only royal jelly at 100 mg/kg. In addition to oxidative and nitrosative stress biomarkers, the creatine kinase (CK-BM) level was also determined. To show the cardioprotective effect of royal jelly on paclitaxel-induced damages, histopathological examinations were conducted.
    Results
    Royal jelly lowered the paclitaxel-elevated malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels in the heart. Royal jelly could also remarkably reduce the paclitaxel-induced cardiac biomarker of creatine kinase (CK-BM) level and pathological injuries such as diffused edema, hemorrhage, congestion, hyaline exudates, and necrosis. Moreover, royal jelly administration in a dose-dependent manner resulted in a significant (P
    Conclusion
    Our data suggest that the paclitaxel-induced histopathological and biochemical alterations could be protected by the royal jelly administration. The cardioprotective effect of royal jelly may be related to the suppression of oxidative and nitrosative stress.
    Keywords: Antioxidant, Cardioprotective effect, Paclitaxel, Royal jelly