- سال چهل و هشتم شماره 2 (پیاپی 189، تابستان 1394)
- تاریخ انتشار: 1394/06/20
- تعداد عناوین: 6
صفحات 1-28این پژوهش با بررسی و تحلیل گربه و موش الماس خان کندولهای شاعر هورامی زبان در پی شناساندن یکی از سروده های ارزشمند ادبیات هورامی و در شمار آثار زیبای ادبیات ایرانی است که همه زبان های ایران زمین را در بر می گیرد. سروده داستانی گربه و موش در روزگار افشاریان و به زبان طنز اجتماعی و سیاسی سروده شده است. از این سروده سه دست نویس موجود است که هیچ کدام تا کنون به چاپ نرسیده است. این متن از نوع ادبی موش و گربه هاست که پیشینه ای کهن در ادبیات ایرانی و فارسی دارد. گربه و موش از دو سو با ادبیات فارسی گره خورده و نشان ادبیات ایرانی خود را هویدا کرده است: داستان پندآموز و نمادین از زبان جانوران و درونمایه بی وفایی این سپنجی سرای. در این مقاله به شیوه ای توصیفی به معرفی سراینده اثر، نسخه های خطی منظومه و نقد و تحلیل سازمایه های اثر (درونمایه، ساختار و روایت، شخصیت و شخصیت پردازی، صحنه پردازی و توصیف، گفتگو و زبان، نقد و طنز) پرداخته شده است.کلیدواژگان: موش و گربه، گربه و موش، ادبیات ایرانی، ادبیات هورامی، الماس خان کندوله ای
صفحات 29-51ترسل و نامه نگاری از مقوله های مهم و مورد توجه تیموریان بوده است. به خصوص کتاب مخزن الانشا واعظ کاشفی سبزواری که از حمایت امیر علی شیر نوایی، وزیر دانشمند تیموریان نیز برخوردار بوده در شمار مهم ترین کتاب های ترسل است که با تجزیه ارکان نامه های خطابی به دوازده رکن و نامه های جوابی به هفت رکن و آوردن مثال های متعدد در جداول منظم، ساختاری فرهنگ گونه پیدا کرده است. دیگر کتاب مهم ترسل در دوره تیموریان فراید غیاثی از یوسف اهل است که مشتمل بر بیش از 650 نامه از سلاطین و وزرا و نیز سایر طبقات و شخصیت هاست و در ده باب تالیف شده است. در این مقاله ارکان نامه ها در مخزن الانشا را با نامه های موجود در فراید غیاثی تطبیق داده و به میزان حضور آن ها در نامه های فراید غیاثی پرداخته ایم. همچنین با تعیین انواع مخاطب در این دو اثر، شباهت های موجود در نحوه کاربرد عبارات و جملات را نشان داده ایم و در نتیجه با توجه به مخزن الانشا و تطبیق ارکان نامه نگاری آن با فراید غیاثی و همسانی انواع مخاطب در این دو اثر توانسته ایم ساختار نامه های قرن 9 هجری و دوره های نزدیک به آن را نشان دهیم و مشخص کنیم که با این ساختار می توان ارکان نامه های ناقص بازمانده از این دوره ها را بازیابی کرد.کلیدواژگان: تیموریان، فراید غیاثی، مخزن الانشا، نامه نگاری
صفحات 53-80هدف از نوشتن این مقاله بررسی ساقی نامه های سروده شده تا پایان سده 12 است. در این راستا پس از طرح مساله، سابقه تحقیق، تعریف ژانر ساقی نامه و ملاحظات تاریخ ادبیاتی درباره آن در درآمد، به بررسی انتقادی فهرست های نسخ خطی و منابع تذکره ای و کتاب-شناسی پرداخته شده است. در بخش بررسی انتقادی فهرست های نسخ، روشن خواهد شد که برخی فهرست نویسان اشعاری را اشتباها به عنوان ساقی نامه به برخی از شاعران نسبت داده و یا ساقی نامه های واحدی را به چند شاعر منسوب کرده اند. سپس به ساقی-نامه های نویافته ای پرداخته شده که در دو تذکره میخانه و پیمانه به آن ها اشاره نشده است. در بخش بررسی انتقادی منابع تذکره ای و کتاب شناسی، به بررسی کامل تری از ساقی نامه-هایی پرداخته شده که گلچین معانی آن ها را در مقدمه پیمانه مختصرا معرفی کرده؛ همچنین در این بخش منابع تذکره ای و کتاب شناسی که به ساقی نامه پرداخته اند، بررسی شده است. بنابراین این مقاله دو هدف اصلی دارد: 1- تکمیل و اصلاح اطلاعات مربوط به برخی از ساقی نامه ها 2- معرفی و بررسی برخی از ساقی نامه های نویافته و نامذکور در دو تذکره میخانه و پیمانه.کلیدواژگان: ساقی نامه، میخانه، پیمانه، نسخ خطی، منابع تذکره ای و کتاب شناسی
صفحات 81-112از مسائل مهم فرایند تکرار در زبان فارسی، شناسایی و معرفی الگوهای متنوع آن است. در این مقاله با استخراج قریب به 1500 واژه مکرر از فرهنگ ها و بررسی ساخت واژه ای، دستوری و معنایی آن ها به دسته بندی آن ها پرداخته ایم. از نظر ساخت واژه ای، الگوهای مختلف تکرار کامل (اعم از افزوده و ناافزوده) و ناقص (اعم از پیشوندی و پسوندی) مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. بررسی های دستوری الگوها نشان می دهد پایه هایی که متعلق به طبقه های مختلف دستوری هستند، در فرایند تکرار می توانند دچار تغییرات دستوری شوند. از لحاظ معنایی، بررسی معانی مرکزی کلمات مکرر مشخص می سازد که الگوها از یک تا چندین معنای مرکزی در پایه های مختلف ایجاد می کنند. اما کانونی ترین و مرکزی ترین معنای واژه های مکرر در بیشتر موارد نوعی معنی ناپسند و تقلیل گرایانه و یا افزاینده است که در پس زمینه معنای ظاهری و مجازی تداعی می شود. از لحاظ سبکی بسیاری از الگوهای تکرار کامل، هم در زبان رسمی و هم در زبان عامیانه کاربرد دارند اما بیشتر الگوهای تکرار ناقص در زبان عامیانه رایج ترند.کلیدواژگان: ساخت واژه، معنا، فرایند تکرار، تکرار کامل، تکرار ناقص
صفحات 113-139حمله حیدری باذل مشهدی یکی از نخستین و مشهورترین حمله هایی است که در قرن دوازدهم سروده شده است. باذل این اثر را در بحر متقارب و قالب مثنوی به سبک و سیاق شاهنامه نوشته است، تعداد ابیات آن بین 20 تا 30 هزار بیت است و شاعر در آن پس از مناجات و نعت رسول (ص) و ولی (ع)، داستان تاریخ اسلام را از بعثت پیامبر (ص) تا کشته شدن عثمان به نظم می کشد و داستان در همین جا با مرگ او ناتمام می ماند. پس از باذل، چندین نفر کارش را ادامه دادند و تکمله هایی بر اثر او سرودند، شاعری به نام نجف در سال 1135ق. با سرودن ابیاتی ، از میان این تکمله ها منظومه میرابوطالب فندرسکی را به حمله حیدری باذل ملحق ساخت و آن را به شکل مجموعه ای واحد درآورد. این اثر همانند سایر حماسه های پس از شاهنامه بسیار متاثر از سبک و زبان فردوسی است و گاه این تاثیر در برخی داستان ها چنان پیش می رود که به مرحله تقلید می رسد. نویسنده قصد دارد در این مقاله با بررسی تطبیقی و جزء به جزء دو اثر، میزان تاثیرپذیری باذل از فردوسی را در بخش های مختلف حمله حیدری نشان دهد.کلیدواژگان: حمله حیدری، باذل مشهدی، شاهنامه، تاثیرپذیری
صفحات 141-166ادبیات کودک و نوجوان، دستاورد درک مفهوم کودکی در جهان مدرن است. التفات به این موضوع و باور سهیم بودن کودک و نوجوان در داشتن ادبیات مستقل، سبب پیدایش بابی تازه در دانش ادبی و تحقیقات و بررسی های علمی در این حوزه شده است؛ ادبیات تطبیقی کودک و نوجوان یکی از مقولات مورد توجه در این حیطه است. مطرح ساختن «جمهوری جهانی کودکی» در اواخر قرن بیستم میلادی در جهان، موجب پیدایش و التفات به ادبیات تطبیقی کودک و نوجوان شد و مقوله های متعددی همچون مطالعات میانجی، ژانرهای تطبیقی و بینامتنیت به این حوزه مطالعاتی راه یافت. در این مقاله با توجه به نظریه ویلکی نخست به بینامتنیت و ارتباط آن با ادبیات تطبیقی کودک و نوجوان پرداخته شده است، سپس عوامل موثر در پیدایش بینامتنیت از منظر تطبیق در حوزه کودک و نوجوان طبقه بندی شده و در ادامه، مولفه های بینامتنیت، معرفی شده و الگوی اصلاح شده آن بر اساس ادبیات تطبیقی کودک و نوجوان با توجه به یافته های مولف مقاله، ارائه شده است. به علاوه نویسنده مقاله در نظر داشته تا با توجه به مولفه های معرفی شده در ادبیات تطبیقی کودک و نوجوان، روش شناسی ای از واکاوی و تحلیل سازه های بینامتنیت با تکیه بر «نویسنده دوم»، «اثر جدید» و «خواننده دوم» در اختیار قرار دهد. حاصل آن که کیفیت پیدایش، مولفه ها و واکاوی بینامتنیت جزئیاتی دارد که مستقیما در نقد ادبیات تطبیقی کودکان و نوجوانان دخیل است.کلیدواژگان: کودک و نوجوان، ادبیات تطبیقی، بینامتنیت، مولفه ها، عوامل، روش شناسی
Pages 1-28IntroductionIran's culture should not be reduced in the context of modern political boundaries. Some researchers believe in a range called "Cultural Iran that has been widespread from the eastern Mediterranean coast to East China. Written works existing in two languages have to be accounted and researched in Iranian Literature: Iranian languages and the other languages such as Arabic that include many products of Iranian poets and writers. Just by understanding all aspects of Iranian culture, identification crisis would have reasonable representation. In this study, with the introduction of cat and mouse and Almas Khan Kandoolei, the researchers try to make the readers familiar with one of the branches of culture, the Hawrami literature.MethodologyThe analytical method is used in this paper and is based on library resources. First the manuscript are edited and translated and then the poet, manuscripts, poems, criticism and theme analysis (content, structure and narrative, characters, scenery and characterization, dialogue and language Review and humor) will be introduced and considered.Results And DiscussionAlmas Khan Kandoolei, Cat and Mouse's poet, is one of the greatest Hawrami poets that was born in Kermanshah, Kandoole. Cat and Mouse poem has three versions: 1. version of Berlin. 2. The first version of the House. 3. The second version of the House. Its a short description of the events that took place in a four-year-old Ashraf Afghan government in Iran, Nader manifestation, his Battle with Afghan and overthrowing their government. In this work the author seeks to describe Iranian wars, usurpations and destructions and then illustrates Nader and Ashraf battles. "Cat and Mouse" known as an allegorical and historical Hawrami poem, is in fact the story of a battle in the Afghan Period attack to Iran and Nader's manifestation. A series of events constructing the structure of Cat and Mouse is around the resentments and anger rising from the aggression of foreign people to Iran. In this story, the mouse is a symbol of an alien nation that unjustly attacked Iran and must be eliminated. By accepting the cats to support the diamond, the master node of the story opens and other obstacles in the way of the mice picks out of the way by Almaskhan leadership. In the story, the author faces all the characters, and he himself is as someone who is seen as much less in war; but is the commander of the war. That is why the historical context is notable and is very important for readers. In the story, characters and heroes are victorious or dead, like male mouse that died or cats king and Almas Khan which won. In the story, the events were described accurately and alive, and the combination of events is different. The narrator tells the story generally in first person, and because he himself plays a role in the story and in other words is a hero, admission of the events is easier for the reader.
Regarding social stratification of the characters of the story, we can say that the majority of people are from the top floor of community as the kings, princes and captains. The main characters of the story, the narrator (Almaskhan), King Cat (Nader) and King of mice (Ashraf Afghan) and male mouse, are of princes and captains. Almaskhan as the hero of his story is a resourceful, experienced and strong-willed character. In addition the scene element in the story of cat and mouse has a special place. The story takes place in two ways scenery. On the one hand, there is a narrator, who sometimes depicts scenes. On the other hand sometimes the narrator lets the characters portray the scenes. In the story of cat and mouse, the dialogue element is functional and is completely far from entertainment and makeup. So that in fact it can be considered as an integral part of g the story.ConclusionThe hawrami Cat and Mouse poem has political and social themes which portray humorously the course of events and the Afghan attack on Iran, the fall of the Safavids, the emergence of Nadir Shah and his conquers. In this poem, King Cat is the symbol of Nadir Shah Afshar, mice king is a symbol of Ashraf Afghan, male mouse is a symbol of Afghan army commander, Mullah Ibrahim is a symbol of Shah Sultan Hossein Safavi, Bayaz is a symbol of legacy of the Safavid period and at last Almaskhan, himself is a symbol of a real patriotic person who does anything to save Iran. Although Iranian Cat-and-Mouse story is of family of stories and tales which follow the symbolic language of animals like Panchatantra, Marzbannameh and thousand and one night, considered as representative of Hawrami literature that consists of valuable examples of the first to the thirteenth century of Persian literature .Besides the other similarities in poems like Persian and Arabic Mouse and Cat, this story has special features which separate it from its counterparts. Not only the mice are not representatives of the poor and oppressed people but also they are representative of looters who have attacked unjustly the other land and should be destroyed.Keywords: Cat, Mouse, “Mouse, Cat, Iranian literature, Almaskhan –e Konduoli, Hawrami literature
Pages 29-51IntroductionComposition and letter writing are some of the most important issues that have been addressed in the past. Especially at the ninth and tenth centuries hegira (Teimurian era), valuable works have been composed in this regard, as some have reviewed and attended to the structure, while others have collected the original and content of the letters by the past eminent scholars. These letters, typically classified in two forms of governmental and non-governmental (the Brotherhood), are significant in terms of stylistics and structure and can respond to many social and cultural questions of earlier periods. The collections of letters and writings composed in Teimurian include: Riyazol Insha, Homayoun Nameh, Nameye Namy, Manshaal Insha, Monsheate Jami, Monsheate Meybodi, Makhzan Al-Insha and Frayede Ghyathi.MethodThe focus of this article is on two of the above books: Makhzan Al-Insha and Frayede Ghyathi. Makhzan Al-Insha, written by Molla Hosein Vaez Kashefi, is a book that has discussed the structure of letters and described the components of address and response letters, by which it has determined the framework of letter writing in his time. Frayede Ghyathi is a collection of letters written by eminent scholars in the 10th century and before, which was edited by Yousef Ahl. In this research, the letters in the Frayede Ghyathi are compared against the format of the letter writing discussed by Kashefi in Makhzan Al-Insha, are studied. The study aimed at determining whether the format of letter writing of that period has been observed in most of such letters?
Discussion of the Findings : Frayede Ghyathi consists of ten chapters, the first five of which include 318 letters, in two volumes. The second and third chapters discuss the foundations of address and response letters. According to this book, there are twelve components of address letters by considering the approach of past scholars and regardless of the expression of the necessary conditions including: first, opening, second characteristics, third titles, fourth prayers, fifth mention of the scribe, sixth greetings, seventh expressing sincerity, eight description of zeal, ninth mention of the time of letter writing, tenth mention of the place of letter writing, eleventh closing, and twelfth name. Chapter three of Makhzan Al-Insha describes the seven components of response letters including: 1. opening 2. introduction including the sub-components such as beginning, description and the supplements 3. written description 4. written appreciation 5. conclusion 6. contrast 7. thanking. Therefore, the said following chapters of Frayede Ghyathi were compared against the in the format and components discussed in Makhzan Al-Insha. The five chapters include: a) Letters of royalty (121 address letters and 23 response letters)
b) Letters of royal hands and deputy (69 address letters and 12 response letters)
c) Letters of masters (2 address letters and 9 response letters)
d) Letters of judges and rulers (15 address letters and 1 response letter)
e) Letters of men of eminence (44 address letters and 23 response letter)
The results of the examinations presented in descriptive statistics in tables show that most of the letters fit the format of the book and the few deviations observed are related to the title and the opening and the like which typically belong to the margins of letters. Also one of the main reasons for the statistical difference between the numbers of components of letters is the absence of some letter in their entirety when included in Frayede Ghyathi. For example, the there is a letter which only contains description of zeal while is missing the other components such opening and closing. It is clearly an incomplete letter, which the author has included in the collection in consideration of other characteristics, such as including a letter from a well-known and distinguished individual in his book. Completeness of the letters has not been a major requisite conditions of their inclusion in the collection of Frayede Ghyathi. At the end, in consideration of the presented components in Makhzan Al-Insha, it is found that a few letters, such as letter number 260 in Frayede Ghyathi, have the structure of the response letters although they have been classified under the category of address letters. Also in term of audience study, in Frayede Ghyathi the addressees of the letters are generally introduced in ten chapters, to only five of which we have access, as thus are studied and compare with Makhzan Al-Insha which has discussed the variety of audiences. Makhzan Al-Insha has considered the details of its audience, and for the need of each of which, has mentioned relevant examples regarding the various components of the letter. In Makhzan Al-Insha, the audience is divided into three levels of top, high and middle. The class of the top includes kings, rulers, ministers and statesmen. The class of the high includes judges, scholars, scientists, and the middle class includes chiefs of the tribes, celebrities, merchants, and lords, and the like. In the introduction of the book Frayede Ghyathi, Yousef Ahl, the author, mentiones 188 addresses which are mainly the main figures in politics, literature and mysticism like Ibrahim Adham, Ahmad Jami, Mohammed and Ahmad Ghazali, Shah Shoja, Goorkhan and Ibn Yamin, Faryomadi, among others.
The first and second chapters of Frayede Ghyathi correspond to the class of the top discussed in Makhzan Al-Insha, because in this section contains the letters of the authorities of the state. Thus some of the examples which Kashefi has set in Makhzan Al-Insha are similar to the letters contained the first and second chapters of Frayede Ghyathi. Even the existing poems, characteristics, titles, and prayers in both books are similar. For example, the characteristics such as Zelle-Zalile-Atefat, Khosro-Saheb-Gharan, Kholasata-ul-Salatine-Al-Arab-va-Al Ajam, Soltan-Al-Salatin and titles such as Moezzo al Hagh va al Donya va al Din, Ghiaso al Hagh va al Donya va al Din, Jalal al Saltanat al Donya va al Din in both books are frequently mentioned. The third and fourth chapters of Frayede Ghyathi correspond to the high class discussed in Makhzan Al-Insha. In this chapter like Makhzan Al-Insha, the letters are related to the judges and elders. It can be noted that titles such as the Soltan-Al-Nogaba, Nasayeh-Al-Moluk and the like have been repeated in both books. Also the fifth chapter of Frayede Ghyathi corresponds to the middle class presented in Makhzan Al-Insha. Similar expressions in this section are also abundant.
In fact, the addressee of the letters in both books are the same and based on their ranking and position range from kings to ordinary people in various walks of life, the arrangement in different classes have come up despite specific terms of each class. Despite the specific characteristics of the various walks of life, the sectioning of the two books are different.ConclusionThe structure of letters presented in Makhzan Al-Insha, is descriptive of the letters of the time of and prior to Kashefi era. In addition, the classification of Kashefi can show the shortage of the available letters in Frayede Ghyathi and other remaining writings from the past. On the other hand, due to the similarities of the samples in Makhzan Al-Insha with the letter contained in Frayede Ghyathi and exact repetition of some of the expressions in both books as well as similar audiences and social classes contained in the two books, and by considering the eighty years advancement of Frayede Ghyathi, it can perhaps be one of the major sources of Kashefi in authoring of Makhzan Al-Insha eventhough Kashefi has not referred to in his book. Dastur Al-Kateb by Nakhijevan (8th Century) is the only source to which Makhzan Al-Insha has made referenced. In his encyclopedia-like book, in some ways, Kashefi has described the structure and the components of letters in the past eras and has paved the way for writing letters in the future by presenting varied samples from past sources. In addition, he has helped us to find out the shortcomings of the available letters remained from the pastKeywords: Timuri, Frayede Ghyathi, Makhzan Al Insha, Letter writing
Critical Analysis of Saghi-Nameh in Catalogues of Manuscripts and Biographical and Bibliographical SourcesPages 53-80Introductionone of the genres of lyrical literature that has attracted the attention of many poets. It is In fact, a poem often written in couplet-poem format in Motaghareb meter which the poet addresses the tapster and expresses his ideas about issues such as the instability of the world and time, reprimanding sanctimonious ascetics, hypocrisy of the people, inviting to debauchery and expressing words of wisdom. Codicology studies about this genre is one the first steps that could pave the way for further studies. In two biographies Meykhaneh and Peymaneh many Saghi-Namehes have been introduced and their texts have been recorded. However, with the discovery of newly-found manuscripts, as well as the development of new catalogues based on them, it is essential to find other examples.MethodIn this study, various catalogues of manuscripts written in Iran and abroad, Bibliographies and Biographies have been carefully examined to find Saghi-Namehes. In the first phase, the exact details of the poems which in those sources had been recorded as Saghi-Nameh were written. Then, as much as possible, the texts of the Saghi-Namehes were read and their version photos were studied and examined based on the criteria of this genre. Eventually, the findings of the study were organized in three sections; in the first part, incorrect attributions of Saghi-Nameh in catalogues of manuscripts were mentioned. In the second part, newly-found Saghi-Namehes were introduced and described which have only been mentioned in catalogues of manuscripts, the third part consists of a critical review of Saghi-Namehes which could be found in the said biographical and bibliographical sources.Results And DiscussionA careful and critical examination of the catalogues of manuscripts shows that some cataloguers have attributed to some poem as Saghi-Nameh to some poets by mistake, or they have attributed one Saghi-Nameh to a few poets. Among the available handwritten Saghi-Namehes in Islamic Parliament Library of Tehran are the following: 1. Saghi-Nameh attributed to Anwari Abiwerdi, which belongs to Omidi Tehrani 2. The first ten verses of Saghi-Nameh attributed to Ghatran Tabrizi, belongs to Ghasemi Gonabadi and the other verses is the same as one of the odes of Khaghani Sharwani 3. Saghi-Nameh attributed to Shani Tekeloo is not compatible with the criteria of a Saghi-Nameh 4. All the ten pages of the Saghi-Nameh attributed to Emad Faghih Kermani are in fact the first verses of Emads Tarighat-Nameh, only 38 verses are compatible with the criteria and principles of a Saghi-Nameh 5. Saghi-Nameh attributed to Wahshi Bafghi is in fact a story from Wahshi only the last two verses address the butler 6. The poets of two Saghi-Namehes attributed to Mola Partowi and Morshed are in fact Partowi Shirazi and Morshed Boroojerdi the text of their Saghi-Namehes has been recorded in Meykhane biography 7. The poets of two Handwritten Saghi-Namehes T-770/5 and 14199/10 is unknown, whereas, the poet of the first Saghi-Nameh is Sharafzard Tabrizi and the poet of the second one is a poet named Farahi.
There are other newly-found Saghi-Namehes. After studying and examining them, it was found that their texts are compatible with the criteria of a Saghi-Nameh and in two Peymaneh and Meykhaneh biographies do not refer to them. Handwritten Saghi-Namehes of Rooh-ol-Amin Esfahani, Badi, Wali, Naghi Boroojerdi, Sharif Tabrizi are among these Saghi-Namehes which are all kept in the Islamic Parliament Library. Furthermore, Saghi-Namehes of Ghane Tatewi, Eshragh Maraghi, Hazin Lahiji and Hatef Esfahani are among other newly-found Saghi-Namehes, which most of them have been printed.
There are other newly-found Saghi-Namehes which are not in two Peymaneh and Meykhaneh biographies, but the number of the verses, the first verse and their contents are compatible with the criteria of a Saghi-Namehe: five Saghi-Namehes of Nezan-o-Din Ahmad Agah, Nashmi and Mir Asgari Aghel Khan in the Oxford Bodleian library; three Saghi-Namehes Ahli Torshizi, Safi and an unknown poet in the Malek library of Tehran; two Saghi-Namehes Ayani and Wazeh Savoji in the India Office of England; Saghi-Nameh of Wala Badakhshi in the Bangal library; Saghi-Nameh of Fotovat in the Anjoman Taraghi of Karachi; Saghi-Nameh of Mohammad-Rafi Bazel Mashhadi in the Lahore University Library; Saghi-Nameh of Tasali in the National Museum of Karachi; Saghi-Nameh of Fadawi in the Ami-al-momenin library of Najaf; Saghi-Nameh of unknown poet in the Marashi ghom.
There are other newly-found Saghi-Namehes which are not in two biographies Meykhaneh and Peymaneh and only cataloguers have called them Saghi-Nameh, without giving complete information: nine Saghi-Namehes of Salek Yazdi, Kashef Esfahani, Mohammad-Bagher Khalil Kashi, poet with Pseudonym Salek, Naser Bokhari, Shah Nemat-ol-Lah Wali and unknown poets, all in the Central Library of Tehran University; Saghi-Nameh of Shoeyb Joshaghani and two Saghi-Namehes unknown in the Malek library of Tehran; three Saghi-Namehes unknown in the Islamic Parliament Library; two Saghi-Namehes of Amir Ali-Shir Nawai and Sanai Ghaznawi in the library of Tashkent; two Saghi-Namehes of Monshi Jesowant-Ray and Dai Shirazi in the India Office of England; two Saghi-Namehes Khaje Basir and Helali Joghatai in the National library of Iran; Saghi-Nameh of Hashem Naghshbandi in the India Office of England and Oudh King; Saghi-Nameh of Ozlati Khalkhali in the Shah-cheragh library of Shiraz; Saghi-Nameh of Mokhles Boroojerdi in the Marashi library of Ghom; Saghi-Nameh of Fayez Kermani in the Theology Faculty of Tehran University; Saghi-Nameh of Nafi in the National library of Paris; Saghi-Nameh of Seyyed Ashraf in the Royal library of Tehran.
Too, In other Bibliographies and Biographies, except two biographies Meykhaneh and Peymaneh there is some information about Saghi-Namehes as follows: mentioning some verses of the two Saghi-Namehes of Taleb Tabrizi and Mayel Dehlawi in the nasrabadis Tazkereh; referring to two Saghi-Namehes Mir Masoom Nami Termazi Behkari in the Kholast-ol-Ash and Maghalat-ol-Shoa; mentioning verses of the Saghi-Nameh of Sarkhosh Lahoori in the Kalamat-ol-Shoara; mentioning verses of the Saghi-Nameh of Monshi Bamroodi in the Baharestan (in men history and biographies Ghaenat and Ghohestan); Saghi-Namehes attributed to Azhari, Khaje Nasir Toosi, Asheghi and Mohammad-reza Mashhadi in the Kashf-ol-zonoon; two Saghi-Namehes attributed to Mola Ahmad Astarabadi and Gharibi Balayani Kazerooni in the history prose and poetry in the Iran and Persian language and Saghi-Nameh attributed to Abolghasem Fendereski Asterabadi in the Al-zarie.ConclusionSaghi-Nameh is one of the major topics covered In Persian poetry which many poets have written poems in this genre, especially in Safavid era. Fakhr-o-Din Asad Gorgani is the first Persian-speaking poet who has a couplet-poem in Motaghareb meter which includes Saghi-Nameh themes and Nezami Ganjawi followed him and wrote some verses at the end of Eskandar-Nameh stories which included Saghi-Nameh themes and was addressed to the tapster. Later, a group of poets continued to write Saghi-Nameh in that format and meter and other groups used Hazaj meter in Saghi-Nameh or they used Return-tie and Composite-tie format. Writing Saghi-Nameh became common from tenth to fourteenth century. At the beginning, the verses were no more than 200 but later, is reported increased to 20000.
The first step to investigate the Saghi-Nameh genre was examining its codicology. Correcting and evaluating it in great series could be the next step. Besides the two biographies Meykhaneh and Peymaneh, some information has been mentioned in catalogues of manuscripts and biographical and bibliographical sources. Some of the information of these sources is incorrect and some is vague and suspicious. In this article, many newly-found Saghi-Namehes have been introduced and some information about a number of Saghi-Namehes has been completed or corrected. The findings of this, study showed that a number of Saghi-Namehes are only recorded in catalogues of manuscript's pages and are not well-known. Many Saghi-Namehes which have been attributed to some poets by cataloguers are in fact not Saghi-Namehes at all. The writers of some Saghi-Namehes remain unknown and there is doubt and suspicion about some Saghi-Namehes being attributed to some poets. Also, some Saghi-Namehes have been lost.Keywords: Saghi, Nameh, Meykhaneh, Peymaneh, Catalogues of manuscripts, Biographical, bibliographical sources
A Study on the Reduplication Process in Persian Language from Vocabulary Building, Grammar and Semantics Points of ViewPages 81-112The most frequent word-formation patterns are derivation and compounding processes in Persian language and other processes such as reduplication, conversion, truncation, backformation, clipping, blending, metaphoric extension, and coinage have less contributed to word formation. These processes have often been less investigated compared to derivation and compounding.
Reduplication is one of the most significant processes of word formation in Persian. In this way, all or part of the root is repeated on its left or right side, sometimes associated with added parts. From this point of view, it is divided into two types: full and partial. The full reduplication has two models: non-added and added and the partial reduplication is divided into two groups: prefix and suffix. In the full non-added reduplication, the most quantitative frequency is related to phonetic and nominal basic forms.
The definition of the "basic form" is ignored in reduplication process or it is often so denied which is not expressed. In such compounds, the context or compounds conjugating the words give the whole combination a metaphoric and figurative meaning. For those basic forms in which the basic meaning is maintained, the frequent element attaches a new concept to the main meaning of the basic form. Diversity and frequency of frequent patterns and thereby the variety of meanings and concepts which can be expressed in this way are an indication of its productivity and extension for conjugating words in different languages.
Frequent words have not been independently collected in Persian language. Developing a specialized dictionary of such words facilitates their language description. The first step in this research was the preparation of the list of frequent words. The corpus was obtained from "Sokhan" comprehensive dictionary; however, to complete the corpus, "Dehkhoda" Dictionary, "Moein" Persian language dictionary, "Amid" Dictionary, "Name Avaei" Persian Dictionary, "Atbaa va Mohmalaat" Dictionary in Persian language were also used. After extracting the frequent words, based on common nominal features, they were described and classified based on their word-formation, grammar, and semantic. In this study, it is supposed that each of the frequent process patterns are composed of at least two units or structures and the way of the combination of these patterns cause structural, grammatical, and semantic differences in the frequent word-formation process.
Several studies in Persian and English have reviewed and investigated word-formation processes such as reduplication. In spite of their benefits, there are also some gaps. Some researchers have not paid attention to reduplication as a word-formation process and some others have had a selective review of its rules. They have not been able to show the position of the part and whole in comparison to each other in the reduplication process. Some others have also been attracted by the syntactic and semantic features of this process to the extent that they have ignored the relationship between the structure of these rules and meaning. Other studies have focused on this process based on certain linguistic theories, and less attention has been paid to the adaptation and localization of the theory. This is obvious in the limited and frequent selection of samples in the investigation and possibly known rules. Therefore, it was necessary to study frequent reduplication patterns of Persian language and systematically review the rules and the created meanings within the linguistic system, especially, partial reduplications of Persian language which have been ignored due to rare samples and some special considerations.
To review the reduplication process, the authors initially explains the nominal structures and the changes which in the frequent words and then describes the relevant grammatical and semantic issues.
The grammatical outcomes of the full non-added reduplication are adverbs, adjectives, nouns (sometimes in the form of onomatopoeia and sound) with a grammatical category usually different from the basic grammatical category and their core meaning implies the severity, intensity, speed, quantization, simplification, laxation, stress, mood, quality, frequency, continuity, succession, and alternation. The full non-added reduplication has metaphoric and virtual meanings in the linguistic context. Stylistically, its patterns are used in official and literary language.
In full reduplication which consists of adding at the middle of the word, the most quantitative variety is respectively observed in the constructions: "noun / adjective / adverb be noun / adjective / adverb", "noun / adjective / present verb root e noun / adjective / present verb root"," noun dar / andar noun "and" noun / adverb / phoneme va noun / adverb / phoneme". In the full reduplication which consists in adding at the end of the word, the most quantitative variety is respectively observed in "noun / adjective noun / adjective " and "Noun Noun E / e".
The grammatical outcomes of the full non-added reduplication are adverbs, adjectives, nouns (sometimes in the form of onomatopoeia and sound). The meaning created is fully influenced by the grammatical morpheme (added element). The core meaning of this kind of reduplication is very wide and the most important ones include: frequency, intensity, diversity, continuity, sequence, quantization, repetition, mode, minimizing, humiliation, endearment, inclusion, force, confrontation, exchange, connection, cooperation, equality, conflict, confrontation, agitation, confusion, similarity, congestion, transcendence, inclusion, directionality, etc. most of the full-added reduplications have idiomatic, metaphorical, and figurative meanings and are used in the official and literary language. Some are also seen in the slang (childish and maternal) language.
Evidence of partially-added reduplication collected from the study show that a variety of prefixes and suffixes in this process almost follow the same pattern. Most of the partial reduplication patterns are common in the slang, childish and maternal languages and are accompanied with specific purposes such as endearment, humiliation, insult, humor, and stress.
In partial reduplication, the first basic phoneme bears a vital role in the formation of the frequent element, as the first basic phoneme is removed or preceded by an added phoneme. Sometimes, with the exception of the first phoneme, the basic form is associated with the removal and essential changes.
Regarding the structure, the partial-prefix reduplication is more extensive and diversified comparing to partial-suffix reduplication. The outcomes of the partial reduplication are nouns, adjectives, and possibly onomatopoeia and its core meanings are indicative of plurality, stress, and intensity in adjectives and they imply the proportional, adjacent, and similar things of the basic form. However, some negative and unfavorable senses are evident in some of these compounds.Keywords: Vocabulary building, Semantics, Reduplication process, Full reduplication, Partial reduplication
Pages 113-139Bazel Mashadi′s Heydary Attack is one of the earliest and most famous Attack epics written in the twelfth century. Bazel exploits the style and format of Shahname in his masnavi, composed in twenty to thirty thousand verses. The poet, after chanting the praise of God, prophet and his successor (Vali), verses the history of Islam beginning from the prophets mission (Besat) to the order of killing Usman. However, the story of his death remains unfinished. After him, several people continue his work, but among these notes, just Fendereski's epopee is joined to Bazel's masnavi, by the poet Najaf in 1135 AH. Najaf, by composing some more verses, blends the two into a single set. This work, like other epics following Shahnameh, is highly influenced by Ferdowsis style and language; sometimes, even, this effect on some stories of Heydary Attack appears to be on an imitation stage. In this paper, the authors try, by a comparative analysis of the two epics, to show how Bazel uses Shahnameh as a model.IntroductionBazel Mashadi′s Heydary Attack is one of the earliest and most famous Attack epics written in the twelfth century. Bazel exploits the style and format of Shahname in his masnavi, composed in twenty to thirty thousand verses. The poet, after chanting the praise of God, prophet and his successor (Vali), verses the history of Islam beginning from the prophets mission (Besat) to the order of killing Usman. However, the story of his death remains unfinished. After him, several people continue his work, but among these notes, just Fendereski's epopee is joined to Bazel's masnavi, by the poet Najaf in 1135 AH. Najaf, by composing some more verses, blends the two into a single set. This work, like other epics following Shahnameh, is highly influenced by Ferdowsis style and language; sometimes, even, this effect on some stories of Heydary Attack appears to be on an imitation stage.MethodThe authors intend to compare different parts of the two works and show that whether the author of Heydary Attack is affected by Shahnameh, and if yes, how and in what parts of his work.Results And DiscussionThe comparison of different sections of the two books shows that Shahnameh has influenced Bazel Mashadi′s Heydary Attack in the following parts: 1. Story: Sometimes, Bazel takes advantage of a complete story, some of the scenes and events of the story or heroes dialogues of Shahnameh.
2. Compound structures: Ferdowsi uses a variety of additional, attributed and verbal compounds in Shahnameh. The beauty, well-combination and innovation of Ferdowsi's epic poetic compounds lead the next epic poets like Bazel to copy them in their works.
3. Verse: Sometimes Bazel Mashadi imitates a poetic style of Shahnameh. Even, one can say that he is unconsciously influenced by Ferdowsi′s epic poems due to lots of times he reads it, and as a result, his versification becomes like Ferdowsis.
4. Praising God: It seems that Bazel, in his praise of God, in some cases, is also influenced by Ferdowsi′s God praising; sometimes, he repeats some words of Shahnameh, and sometimes, he gets the essence of Ferdowsi′s way of praising God.
5. Rhyme pattern: In respect to the use of words, especially rhyme words of verses, Bazel even adopts Ferdowsis rhyme patterns or applies those patterns in his poesy. Sometimes, such rhymes are accompanied by row lyrics employed in Shahnameh.
6. Type of narration: Ferdowsi gets the prose stories from other people, such as the peasants of the feudal class, some writings well-known as Daftare Bastan the ancient pamphlet and others whom he called sage and honest individuals, besides Magh, Azadsarv, Bahram, Shadan Borzin and Old Shahoo as specific persons mentioned by Ferdowsi. Bazel, too, versified the prose book Meraj Alnabovvah & Madarej Alfotovvah written by Farahie into Heidari Attack, besides the narrative of the stories from the point of view of the wise and the honest.
7. Image: Ferdowsi creates various descriptions and images in accordance with themes and scenes. In this regard, exaggeration is one of the images that Ferdowsi benefits professionally and abundantly. These exaggerations and hyperboles have influenced Bazel Mashadi and other epic poets after Ferdowsi, and they use such images with no change in their books. Simile and epanados??? are other Ferdowsi′s images imitated in Heydary Attack.
8. Proverb: One can find proverbs in Bazels book similar to Shahnamehs proverbs in terms of content and vocabulary, most probably gotten from Shahnameh.
9. Allegory: Bazel uses Shahnamehs allegories; however, sometimes he expandes the concise allegories of Shahnameh into details.
10. Slandering women: Sometimes Shahnamehs heroes insult women through stories. This theme is seen in Heydary Attack too. For example, in the dialogue of Amr and Sufyan, Amr says men are truthful, while women are cunning and deceitful.
11. Sunrise and sunset: Ferdowsi in Shahnameh describes very beautiful sunrises and sunsets. Bazel and other epic poets following Ferdowsi, also, pay attention to these descriptions and use them in their writings.
12. Destiny: Ferdowsi attributes various traits to time and fate including instability, whims, unkindness and ignorance. The same attributes can also be seen in Bazel′s Heydary Attack.ConclusionIn the present study, some aspects of Shahnames influence on Bazel′s Heydary Attack were examined. However, considering the size of the two books and broad area of investigation, the authors believe that more research is needed in regard to the influence of Shahname on Persian literature in general and on religious and oral literature in particular.Keywords: Heydari Attack, Shahnameh, Comparative, Imitation, Epic poetry
Pages 141-166Understanding children, leads to achievement of children's literature, in the modern world. Consideration of the issues of children's participation and beliefs is important. An independent literature for them, has led to the emergence of new knowledge of the literature, research and scientific studies in this matter. Comparative literature for children and adolescents is one of the issues addressed in this area. Posing the "universal republic of childhood" in the late twentieth century and the rise of the comparative literature for children and adolescents have caused several categories to come into this field of study such as mediation studies, comparative study of genres and intertextuality. At first, in this paper,Wilkie's theory of intertextuality has been observed in the texts that are written in children's literature and then the relationship of this theory in children's comparative literaturehas been studies. The factors are classified based on the rise of intertextuality from the perspective of implementation in the field of child and adolescent.Next, according to the findings of the authors, elements of intertextuality and modification on the basis of comparative literature for children and adolescents, are shown in this paper. Intertextuality came into comparative literature, from the cultures of different ethnic groups. The author has explained the components introduced in comparative literature for children and adolescents with an aim to show the methodology of mixing it with intertextuality.IntroductionAppearance of intertextuality in the territory of children's and youth literature like its influence on adult literature is undeniable. Among literature which has been prepared for youth and children, there are written contents, illustrated ones and contents adapted from folklore in which the trace of the "old content" is so obvious on the "new content" that sometimes despite the author's effort in creating a new idea and bringing it into the new content, its old reference cannot be ignored.
Intertextuality in literary thinking has found an independent position so that one of the critics counted the text's authenticity and its staying on the first position as merely an "idea" (Barry, 2002:23). The subject of intertextuality in children's and youth literature as an inferred and conceivable subject is somehow simpler than theories defined regarding adult literature. In fact intertextuality in children's literature is only the existence of the "old content" in the "new content". Various subjects such as approaches to the theory of children's literature, content and transfer studies, comparative poetics, intertextuality studies, intermediality studies, image studies and comparative genres are cases that can be discussed in comparative children's literature.MethodThe author intends to introduce the factors of appearance and applicable structures of intertextuality in the comparative children's literature. The present research methodology has been according to the theoretical principles and its data has been collected by library research. The basics of intertextuality in comparative childrens literature are not quite similar to the adult literature's but they are close.Results And DiscussionIntertextualities in many of the children's literature cases at an international level appear with a frequency and in various forms. According to the observed works in children's literature which will be discussed later, there are documentations that connect the effect of the "old content" in the domain of children's literature and therefore the plan in the comparative literature to some factors. The following effective factors in the appearance of intertextuality in children's and adult's literature are similar in general, but quite different in details: Universal attention, cultural and social similarities, neighboring geographical borders, common language and translation.
Reviewing the intertextuality structures in comparative children's literature may reveal national and international relations. Intertextuality structures in comparative children's literature are two common elements for "text" and "reader" that occurred between "appearance" and "reappearance" depending on the historical, cultural and social structures. Understanding the development process of intertextuality depends on understanding its fundamental structures. The schema of this structure is as following: The author writes a text in a specific era with a specific culture and society, then the text is appeared with the same conditions; the audience reads it in a new era with a new culture and society; so the "new content" is reappeared based on the "old content" and the audience reads it and conceives the new concept of the work.ConclusionIn the domain of comparative children's literature, intertextuality has been considered as an important subject. Universal attention to some of children's books, cultural and social similarities, neighboring geographical borders, language commonalities and translation are factors of appearance and influence of intertextuality in comparative children's literature in the world. In addition, the existing elements such as "second writer", "text" and "second reader" have an essential role in intertextuality progress and development among international societies. Analysis patterns in the comparative children's literature can be provided based on intertextuality's elements. Therefore, performance of second writers who consciously or unconsciously use the "old content" is important. Second writers sometimes insist on introducing the reference, and sometimes try to hide it. The other analysis pattern refers to the text. In comparative children's literature, the text provided in the "new content" is a presentation of cliché signs or literary, social and cultural hypograms. Recovering the existing textual relations between the "old content" and the "new content" may reveal the international or universal connections among children's books. On the other hand, it is necessary to consider the relation between the text and the second reader. The desired intertextualities in comparative children's literature will reach the pinnacle of success when they attract the second reader's attention. Fundamental question have been proposed regarding how to analyze these elements which answering them may indicate the functional review of intertextuality in comparative children's literature.Keywords: Children, adolescents, Comparative literature, Intertextuality components, Methodology