فهرست مطالب

مطالعات جغرافیایی مناطق خشک - پیاپی 20 (تابستان 1394)
  • پیاپی 20 (تابستان 1394)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/06/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • زهره صابونجی، جعفر جوان*، حمید شایان، امیدعلی خوارزمی صفحات 1-17
    این پژوهش در پی رمزگشایی از فضامندی پدیده ی جهانی شدن و افشاء مکانیزم کنش های فضایی متاثر از آن تحت نظام سرمایه داری برمبنای فشردگی فضا و زمان می باشد. پرسش اساسی این است که چگونه و با چه ابزارهایی می توان فضا را مورد استفاده، سازماندهی، خلق و در سلطه درآورد که با الزامات گردش سرمایه در فضای جهانی شده متناسب باشد؟ کاربست شاکله ی مفهومی و نظری تریالکتیک فضایی لوفور به مثابه ی مولفه های بنیادین فضا، امکان پاسخ به پرسش مطرح شده را فراهم می آورد. در این پژوهش کنش های فضایی مادی، بازنمودهای فضایی و فضاهای بازنمود سازه های تشکیل دهنده ی محتوا یا کلیت پدیده ی جهانی شدن در نظر گرفته شده اند. رمزگشایی محتوای فضای جهانی شدن به واقع یافتن تاثیرات فرم های جغرافیایی فضای محسوس، ساختار سیاسی و ایدئولوژیک فضای معقول و کارکرد اجتماعی فضای زیسته است که در کلیتی سرمایه دارانه و در پویشی دیالکتیکی در لحظه ها یا دقایق جهانی شدن رخ می دهند. به واقع سازه های تشکیل دهنده ی دقایق جهانی شدن متاثر از نظام سرمایه داری در فرم خود را به صورت جریآن ها، مبادلات، فن آوری و تکنولوژی در ساختار به صورت عقلانیت حاکم بر فضا و در کارکرد در مقام تعریف و تعیین یک وضعیت غالب برای فضای زیسته، نمود می یابند.
    کلیدواژگان: پدیده ی جهانی شدن، فضامندی، تریالکتیک لوفور
  • سیاوش شایان*، فاطمه زهرا هاشمی، هدیه دهستانی صفحات 18-33
    ژئومورفوتوریسم از جمله رشته های وابسته جدیدی است که به طبیعت تکیه دارد و با حفظ هویت مکانی آن ها به معرفی پدیده های زمین شناسی و ژئومورفولوژی به گردشگران می پردازد. ژئوتوریسم امروزه در سراسر جهان مخاطبان وسیعی یافته است. شهرستان نیشابور به وسعت 8925 کیلومتر مربع در شمال غرب استان خراسان رضوی واقع و در امتداد رشته کوه های بینالود قرار گرفته است.. در این شهرستان به دلیل موقعیت جغرافیایی، شرایط توپوگرافی و ژئومورفولوژیکی خاص و آب وهوای مناسب، سایت های دارای قابلیت گردشگری بسیاری را در خود جای داده است. در این پژوهش سعی شده است تا با روش پرییرا و با تغییراتی دراین روش و اجرای آن، مناطق مستعد گردشگری زمینی شناسایی و با ارزیابی ژئومورفوسایت های انتخاب شده، در نهایت با اجرای مدل پریرا ژئومورفوسایت های برتر شناسایی و رتبه بندی شوند. در جمع آوری اطلاعات مورد نیاز برای اجرای این مدل هم از روش اسنادی و هم از مشاهدات میدانی و همچنین تهیه پرسش نامه استفاده شده است. نتایج نشان می دهد که با توجه به تعدیل مدل پرییرا، آبشار بوژان بالاترین امتیاز و آبشار خرو پایین ترین امتیاز را به خود اختصاص داده اند .نتایج این پژوهش می تواند راهنمایی مناسب برای مدیران و برنامه ریزان در جهت شناسایی و برنامه ریزی برای جذب گردشگر باشد و همچنین به آنها در محافظت و ایجاد زیر ساخت های مناسب برای ژئومورفوسایت های منطقه کمک نماید.
    کلیدواژگان: ژئومورفولوژی، ارزیابی ژئومورفوسایت ها، مدل پریرا، شهرستان نیشابور
  • بهلول علیجانی، محمد رضایی، فرزانه جعفری، فرشاد پژوه* صفحات 34-45
    هرگونه تغییر در عناصر اقلیمی را می توان در تغییر الگوهای فشار جست و جو کرد. در این پژوهش با نگرش گردشی به محیطی، اثر تغییرات الگوهای ارتفاع ژئوپتانسیل تراز 500 هکتوپاسکال بر دمای ماه ژانویه ی مطالعه شده است. به این منظور، داده های ماه ژانویه ی ارتفاع ژئوپتانسیل تراز 500 هکتوپاسکال و دمای سطح زمین در یک دوره آماری 50 ساله (1961-2010) از مرکز پیش بینی های محیطی گرفته شد. در گام بعد همبستگی مقادیر استاندار شده ی داده های مذکور نشان داد که بیش ترین ارتباط بین دمای سطح زمین و ارتفاع ژئوپتانسیل تراز 500 هکتوپاسکال در منطقه ی جنوب غرب کشور با ضریب 82/0 و کم ترین با 59/0 در شمال غرب کشور قرار دارد. سپس به منظور کاهش حجم داده ها و استخراج الگوهای اصلی با ایجاد ماتریسی به ابعاد 24(تعداد نقاط در گستره ایران) در 50 ( تعداد سال ها)، تحلیل مولفه های اصلی با آرایه S روی ماتریس مقادیر استاندارد شده ی ارتفاع ژئوپتانسیل تراز 500 هکتوپاسکال اعمال، و 4 مولفه حاصل گردید و به روش وریمکس (Varimax) چرخانده شد. در هر یک از 4 الگوی یاد شده انطباق بسیار خوبی بین ناهنجاری ارتفاع تراز 500 هکتوپاسکال با ناهنجاری دما ملاحظه گردید. به گونه ای که کاهش ارتفاع ژئوپتانسیل منجر به کاهش دما و پدیدآیی ژانویه ی های سردتر شده است؛ به عبارتی دیگر، شکل گیری پشته ی ضعیف و افزایش ارتفاع ژئوپتانسیل و عدم ریزش هوای سرد عرض های بالا، ژانویه ی های گرم تری را به وجود آورده است. از نتایج جالب توجه می توان به این نکته اشاره کرد که وجود جریانات مداری در تراز 500 هکتوپاسکال در الگوی دوم، نوعی ناهنجاری منفی برای جنوب شرق ایران به حساب می آید که منجر به بروز ژانویه ی های سردتر در این منطقه شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: نگرش گردشی به محیطی، ناهنجاری ارتفاع تراز 500 هکتوپاسکال، ناهنجاری دما، تحلیل مولفه های اصلی، ایران
  • مجید یاسوری*، ژیلا وطنخواه کلورزی صفحات 46-59
    امروزه گردشگری روستایی نقش مهمی در توسعه ی اجتماعی- اقتصادی روستاها دارد و می تواند در استقلال اقتصادی، توانمند کردن زنان روستا و خلق فرصتهای شغلی جدید نقش مهمی ایفا کند. هدف از انجام این پژوهش، شناسایی قابلیت ها، موانع و راهکارهای توسعه ی کارآفرینی زنان روستایی و تاثیر گردشگری در توانمندسازی و افزایش درآمد آنان در محدوده مورد مطالعه می باشد. جامعه آماری این تحقیق، 4475 نفر از زنان بالای 15 سال است، که بر اساس جدول مورگان برای 357 نفر پرسشنامه تکمیل شد، سپس از بین این تعداد، 37 نفر از زنان باقابلیت و کارآفرین، شناسایی و برای اجرای روش ارزیابی مشارکتی به عنوان نمونه انتخاب شدند. تجزیه و تحلیل های انجام شده نشان دهنده اینست که باوجود موانع کارآفرینی مانند عدم مشارکت گروهی، ناکافی بودن سرمایه، کمبود نمایشگاه و فروشگاه در این دهستان، زمینه های بالقوه و قابل توجهی مانند جاذبه های طبیعی، تاریخی و قابلیت های انسانی( تولید صنایع دستی، فراورده های خانگی و ارگانیک) برای توسعه کارآفرینی وجود دارد. نتایج تحقیق نیز نشان می دهد که از بین 37 نفر، فقط چهار نفر (11 درصد) با فروش صنایع دستی و اجاره دادن خانه های روستایی به گردشگران، کسب درآمد می کنند و بقیه با وجود تولید بیش از نیاز، بازاری برای فروش ندارند؛ بنابراین می توان نتیجه گیری کرد که با وجود زمینه های طبیعی و انسانی بالقوه در این دهستان، گردشگری هنوز نتوانسته است نقش قابل توجهی در اشتغال، بالفعل نمودن قابلیت های بالقوه، بهبود وضعیت اقتصادی- اجتماعی و توسعه ی کارآفرینی زنان در این دهستان داشته باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه اقتصادی، اجتماعی، توانمندسازی، قابلیت، گردشگری روستایی، موانع
  • عیسی جوکار سرهنگی، سمیه فخرالدین صفحات 60-70
    مقدمه مخروط افکنه ها به عنوان یکی از عوارض ژئومورفیکی مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک محسوب می شوند که نتیجه ی عملکرد جریانهای شدید آب در گذشته و حال می باشند و از این نظر می توان آن را در زمره مواریث اقلیمی کواترنر در نظر گرفت. دریو در سال 1873 میلادی واژه مخروط افکنه را برای نخستین بار مورد استفاده قرار داد. سپس بررسی ها در مورد مخروط افکنه ها، از سوی سازمان زمین شناسی امریکا در نیمه دوم قرن نوزدهم انجام گرفت. در ابتدای دهه 1960تحقیقات در زمینه مخروط افکنه و بررسی فرآیندهای کنترل کننده گسترش مخروط افکنه ها جنبه تحلیل های کمی به خود گرفت. بطور کلی مخروط افکنه ها در بسیاری از نقاط جهان بدلیل داشتن شرایط مناسب، موقعیت خوبی برای استقرار سکونتگاه ها و مراکز استقرار انسانی، از دوره های پیش از تاریخ تاکنون فراهم کرده اند. این مورد یعنی توسعه ی استقرار گاه ها بر روی مخروط افکنه ها، محدود به دوره ی پیش از تاریخ و تاریخی نیست، بلکه در حال حاضر نیز بسیاری از مراکز جمعیتی و کاربری های مختلف فعالیت های انسانی، برروی مخروط افکنه ها شکل گرفته اند. در کشور ایران که بسیاری از سکونتگاه های شهری وروستایی و فعالیت های مربوطه در سطوح مخروط افکنه استقرار یافتند، ضرورت مطالعه و شناخت مخروط افکنه ها بیشتر احساس می شود به ویژه در دامنه جنوبی البرز واقع دراستان سمنان که مخروط افکنه های گوناگون، متعدد و متفاوت وجود دارد اهمیت و ارزش این گونه بررسی ها آشکارتر است. از این رو، در این تحقیق سعی شده است با انتخاب تعداد زیادی از حوضه های آبی و مخروط افکنه های وابسته به آنها در دامنه ی جنوبی البرز در استان سمنان، ارتباط کمی بین 10 ویژگی هندسی حوضه های آبی با ابعاد مخروط افکنه های وابسته به آنها مورد بررسی قرار گیرد. مواد و روش ها قلمرو مکانی این تحقیق مخروط افکنه های دامنه ی جنوبی البرز واقع در استان سمنان می باشد. محدوده ی مورد مطالعه از 34 درجه و 13 دقیقه تا 37 درجه و 20 دقیقه عرض شمالی و از 51 درجه و 51 دقیقه تا 57 درجه و 3 دقیقه طول شرقی از نصف النهار گرینویچ قرار گرفته است. منطقه مورد مطالعه متشکل از تعداد زیادی مخروط افکنه مجاور هم می باشد که تعداد 44 مخروط افکنه ی قابل شناسایی در دامنه های جنوبی البرز به همراه 44 حوضه آبی آنها انتخاب شده است. در این تحقیق، از فرایند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی که جزو مدلهای چند معیاره تصمیم گیری است برای بررسی تاثیر ویژگی های هندسی آبخیز ها و اولویت بندی عوامل موثر استفاده گردید. جهت دستیابی به هدف مورد نظر محدوده مخروط افکنه ها با استفاده از عکس های هوایی 1:25000 همراه با بازدید های میدانی تعیین شد. فرآیند تحلیل سلسه مراتبی از پرکاربردترین مدل هایی تصمیم گیری چند شاخصه است که توسط فردی عراقی الاصل به نام توماس ال ساعتی در دهه 1980 پیشنهاد شد. در این روش ابتدا به منظور تعیین ارجحیت عوامل مختلف و تبدیل آنها به مقادیر کمی از قضاوت های شفاهی (نظر کارشناسی) استفاده می شود. در این تحقیق برای تعیین درستی وزن دهی به هر عامل و به منظور انجام مقایسه از روش همبستگی استفاده شده است. ضریب همبستگی ابزاری آماری، برای تعیین نوع و درجه رابطه ی یک متغیر کمی با متغیر کمی دیگر است. این روش، یکی از معیارهای مورد استفاده در تعیین همبستگی دو متغیر است. ضریب همبستگی شدت رابطه و همچنین نوع رابطه (مستقیم یا معکوس) را نشان می دهد. این ضریب بین 1 تا 1- است و در صورت عدم وجود رابطه بین دو متغیر، برابر صفر است. نتایج و بحث روابط بین مخروط افکنه ها و ویژگی هندسی آبخیز ها به لحاظ تاثیر آنها بر رفتار هیدرولوژیکی آن، در مطالعات مربوط به مخروط افکنه ها مورد توجه می باشد. علت اصلی توجه به موضوع این است که ویژگی های هندسی حوضه ها در تعیین ابعاد مخروط افکنه ها و تحول آنها نقش بسیار مهمی را ایفا می کند. نتایج حاصل از بررسی روابط بین مساحت مخروط-افکنه های دامنه جنوبی البرز در استان سمنان با ویژگی های هندسی حوضه های آبی آنها نشان می دهد که که وزن معیارهای 10 گانه مساحت، شیب، ضریب شکل، ارتفاع، محیط، طول حوضه، تراکم زه کشی، طول کل آبراهه،شیب آبراهه اصلی و طول حوضه به ترتیب 337/0، 190/0، 134/0، 091/0، 075/0، 055/0، 043/0، 032/0، 024/0، 018/0، است. بنابراین نتیجه گرفته می شودکه اثر مساحت حوضه در تشکیل مخروط افکنه بیش از سایر ویژگی های هندسی حوضه های آبی بوده است، و طول حوضه، دارای کمترین تاثیر در تشکیل و گسترش مخروط افکنه های این منطقه را داشته است. نتیجه گیری نتایج نشان می دهد همبستگی بین ویژگی های حوضه ها و مخروط افکنه ها در منطقه مورد مطالعه دارای تفاوت چشمگیری می باشند، به طوری که برخی از همبستگی ها بالا و برخی بسیار پایین هستند. عوامل موثر به ترتیب شامل مساحت، طول کل آبراهه، محیط حوضه، طول آبراهه اصلی، طول حوضه، ارتفاع حوضه، شیب آبراهه اصلی، شیب حوضه، ضریب شکل و در نهایت تراکم زه کشی با ضرایب 969/0، 935/0، 927/0، 913/0، 891/0، 465/0، 299/0، 197/0، 176/0 و 061/0 در تشکیل مخروط افکنه های منطقه مورد مطالعه دارای اهمیت می باشند. در این روش مساحت حوضه بیشترین تاثیر را در ابعاد مخروط افکنه های این منطقه داشت است.
    کلیدواژگان: مخروط افکنه، حوضه های آبی، البرز، تحلیل سلسله مراتبی، ضریب همبستگی
  • حمیده محمودی، مریم قاسمی*، حمید شایان صفحات 71-90
    امروزه گردشگری، با ویژگی های بارز و منحصر به فرد، به یکی از بزرگ ترین و پرمنفعت ترین صنایع در اقتصاد جهان تبدیل شده و بستری جهت ایجاد تغییرات در فضاهای جغرافیایی فراهم آورده است. گردشگری مذهبی یکی از گونه های گردشگری است که توسعه آن می تواند منجر به افزایش اشتغال و درآمد و رونق اقتصاد در فضاهای مختلف جغرافیایی خصوصا نواحی روستایی گردد. پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی اثرات گردشگری مذهبی بر توسعه اقتصادی سکونتگاه های روستایی انجام شده است. روش تحقیق، توصیفی-تحلیلی است. متغیر مستقل «گردشگری مذهبی» است که توسط 11 مولفه، کمی شده است و متغیرهای وابسته «درآمد» و «اشتغال» در نواحی روستایی است که به ترتیب با 21 و 10 مولفه مورد بررسی قرار گرفته اند. با توجه به الگوی راپرت در تعیین حوزه نفوذ گردشگاهی کلان شهرها، تعداد 10 روستای دارای بقعه متبرکه در دو شهرستان مشهد و بینالود به عنوان نمونه انتخاب شد. واحد تحلیل در این مطالعه روستا بوده و جامعه آماری از دو گروه : جامعه میزبان شامل 196 نفر روستایی و جامعه میهمان شامل 185 نفر گردشگر تشکیل شده است. جهت تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها در نرم افزار SPSS از آزمون همبستگی پیرسون و رگرسیون خطی ساده و همچنین به منظور نمایش توزیع فضایی روستاهای مورد بررسی از نرم افزار GIS استفاده شد. نتایج حاصل از رگرسیون نشان می دهد که گردشگری مذهبی به میزان 0.79 بر درآمد، 0.68 بر اشتغال و در مجموع 0.77 بر اقتصاد سکونتگاه های روستایی مورد بررسی موثر بوده است. در واقع توسعه گردشگری مذهبی در روستاهای دارای بقاع متبرکه در ایجاد اشتغال، افزایش درآمد و رونق اقتصادی تاثیر مثبتی داشته است. در مجموع گردشگری مذهبی با ویژگی های ساختاری و کارکردی اش، عاملی مهم جهت احیاء اقتصاد روستاهای دارای این امتیاز و سایر روستاهای مجاور محسوب می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: گردشگری مذهبی، سکونتگاه های روستایی، توسعه اقتصادی، اشتغال و درآمد روستایی، حوزه نفوذ
  • رضا اسماعیلی*، روناک شوکتی صفحات 91-104
    توزیع فضایی فرسایش آبکندی و تحلیل حساسیت پذیری آن نقش مهمی در برنامه ریزی محیطی ایفا می​کند. از این رو، در این مقاله، روش آماری رگرسیون لجستیک برای تحلیل حساسیت پذیری فرسایش آبکندی در منطقه صلوات آباد استان کردستان مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. متغیرهای لیتولوژی، کاربری و پوشش اراضی و توپوگرافی مشتمل بر شیب، جهت دامنه، شکل دامنه، فاکتور طول دامنه، شاخص قدرت رود و شاخص رطوبت توپوگرافی، جهت آنالیز مورد استفاده قرار گرفتند. لایه فرسایش آبکندی به صورت پلیگونی ترسیم و سپس به لایه نقطه​ای تبدیل گردید. از داده​های نقطه​ای به صورت تصادفی نمونه​گیری شد. 70 درصد نمونه​ها به صورت آموزشی بوده و برای تهیه مدل مورد استفاده قرار گرفتند. 30 درصد نمونه ها هم جهت اعتبارسنجی مدل به کاربرده شدند. ضرایب هریک از متغیرهای مستقل در نرم افزار SPSS تعیین گردیدند. با اعمال هر یک از ضرایب در لایه های اطلاعاتی، نقشه نهایی فرسایش آبکندی، در پنج طبقه حساسیت حاصل گردید. اعتبارسنجی داده​ها با استفاده از آمارهای مختلف کای اسکوئر و ترسیم منحنی ROC مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. مساحت زیرمنحنی AUC معادل 79/0 محاسبه گردید که نشان دهنده تطبیق خوب مدل، جهت پیش بینی نقاط حساس به فرسایش آبکندی در منطقه است.
    کلیدواژگان: فرسایش آبکندی، رگرسیون لجستیک، صلوات آباد، کردستان
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  • Zohreh Sabounchi, Jafar Javan *, Hamid Shayan, Omid Ali Kharazmi Pages 1-17
    Introduction
    This survey is based on deciphering the space of globalization phenomenon and revealing affected by spatial actions mechanism under investment discipline (according to compressed space and time). The basic question is how the space could be used, organized and created so that it could be in line with investment flow progress necessities. This can be unrevealed by applying conceptual and theatrical shape of spatial Trialectic Lefebvre. Material – spatial actions are supposed as spatial representations and represented spaces of content formed components. These "moments" or "minutes" could reflect the form, structure and usage of globalization phenomenon in current situation.
    Methodology
    Methodological usage of Dialectic by Hegel of scanning intellectual core of its mysterious conception, made the Dialectic as a clear method (According to Lefebvre). For analyzing Dialectic, it should be begun from content. Content is a real existence which ascertains Dialectic thought. Dialectic analysis is valid with all kinds of content, and this makes clear relation between elements or moments of becoming global. Appling the Dialectic Lefebvre logic provides a (possible) method for analyzing globalization space based on elements or moments. These three elements or minutes will changed in scanning Dialectic from "becoming"; it means they all will abolished, kept and changed simultaneously. The purpose of choosing Dialectic as a method to understand the studied case (globalization phenomenon) in its detail's shape, so different shapes of change and development of it could be analyzed and its complicated rules could be discovered.
    Discussion and
    Result
    The procedure of generating space in global space in this survey is imagined in a collection of spatial elements including material spatial actions, spatial reactions and reactional spaces in an investment generality. These spatial elements are those "moments" or "minutes" in conceptual shape of Trialectic Lefebvre, which play its own role on global space generality. In material- spatial actions of globalization, efforts are to understand fundamental procedures in forming spatial shapes and analyzing the modern investment role at generating and possession of space, and using and accessibility of space under global changes.
    Artificial environment, man-made spatial shapes in global cities, possessing the space, land market, organizing money, time and space, virtual environment, information technology and communication, all are counted as material spatial action elements which will be considered in current global space in this survey. It could be inferred that generating space, possession, sovereignty and accessibility beside flexible dynamic investment in global situation cause transforming modern cities to special spatial forms which will connect the generated space to consuming space and management. Land market and current usages of it should be a place for power sovereignty in order to stabilize possession on space.
    Perfect reorganization of global financial principles beside virtual environment, information technology and communication, change the space to an accessible element which could have ability to change the time and space destruction. Space reflection is a conceptual space and three basic factors effect on this conceptual space: economy, government and technical knowledge of planner. This could have global, national and local reflections. Space reflections in this survey considered global scale with globalization situation has elements such as: government domination, planning as ideology and generating investment space.
    Space as a discussion of argument, is a place for government interference. Government apply its chaos to space users by two
    Methods
    1- making bureaucratic space: the modern government make a bureaucratic space by applying different spatial projects and specifying different regions to different parts. 2- Making bureaucratic by space: the most important example for this case is those parts of information organization (global information organization) and providing a space for monitoring. Economy is also played its role as an element without any intermediaries, and make space for itself by merchandising space by putting it on geometric grades of profit and loss, land market and etc. and merchandising space like different cycles of investment, spatial transport networks and etc.
    According to these, investment sovereignty could be came true by space for generating, splitting and setting with interference and control structure and city space projects in global scale. It could be inferred that an unbalanced space abstract imaginations dominated and proceed on daily spaces. Spaces which will be enforced, set, framed and put under power of government authority, economy and planner's knowledge.
    Reflection space is living space which means daily space, versus regulated space; so the reflection space will be affected by rationalization, coding, measurement, interfering and argument. Organized factors of reflection spaces which considered in globalization space in this survey are: daily life in globalization space, cultural life in frame of investment logic, new disciplines of signs at postmodern situation and feeling the maturity in globalization space.
    Elements related to reflections spaces on current globalization situation depend on material elements. Flexible increase of consuming is accompanying with more focus on temporary tastes and using all artificial to indicate the need and cultural changes. Fixed relative aesthetics of modernism has changed to excited characteristics, moodiness of postmodern aesthetics which admire tastes, difference and view of cultural forms.
    Cognitive sovereignty, abstract of social space, (experiencing daily life) which money, wealth, consuming products and masculine symbols which are fundamental forces, will be controlled as consuming place and form and plan feasibly and interactively.
    Conclusion
    Deciphering content of globalization space is making effects of geographic forms of sensible space, political structure, and conceptual space real ideologically and social usage of space which happened in investment generality and dialectic dynamic in global moments or minutes.
    Globalization dialectic scan must accept differences among its minutes and it could be achieved after passing these differences of globalization phenomenon scan. Moreover, scanning of globalization space consist of certain dialectic which means difference among nature, classes, land possessions, investment disciplines, technical innovations, government, planning ideological and etc.
    In fact, the components of globalization minutes has affected by investment principles in its own form as exchanges, technology, reflects dominated conceptual on space in structure, and defining a dominated statues in usage.
    Keywords: Globalization Phenomenon, Spatiality, Trialectic Lefebvre
  • Siavosh Shayan *, Fatemeh Zahra Hashmi, Hedieh Dehestani Pages 18-33
    Introduction
    Geo-morphotourism is a new sub-discipline that relay on nature and try to maintain locality nature identity and introduce geologic phenomenon of a place to tourists. Geo-tourism has a wide audience nowadays all over the world. Geo-tourism is a kind of tourisms which try to maintain geographic, environmental, cultural characteristics of visited places or enhanced them; it may have economic development for visited place's citizens, too. It includes visiting places which have special landforms and geologic characters for spending leisure times and amazing feeling, improving their understandings of nature and educational & training purposes. Geo-tourism tries to relay on introducing natural phenomena and attractive geological landscapes to visitors in experimental aspect and in general attractive point of view. Several researches have been done on evaluation of geomorphic landscapes by researchers in Iran and all over the world, we can mention many of them such as Prolong (2005), Comanescu et al (2007), Reynard et al (2011), Mokhtari (2009), Maghsoudi et al (2011), Mani et al (2011).
    Research
    Methodology
    We used deductive reasoning in this research. By modification of Pereira model for evaluation of Geo-sites, we make a new model, and then we selected 11 main geomorphic features for implementation of our model. We used these stages to select geomorphic landforms:a).Preparing a questionnaire based of definite criteria mentioned in model in simple way that a major of questing people can replay its questions.
    b).Determining places which have a high potential for geo-tourism based on statistical analysis of replies to questionnaires, for completing the prepared list of sites we used researcher's experiments and field surveys in this stage, too. We find in this stage a mean value for rating every feature in the framework of the prepared model. This questionnaires filled by the regions mountaineers, expertise and local peoples.
    c). Preparing an identification card for each Geo-morphosites.
    In this model quantitative and qualitative values of every site have been done based on figurative evaluation. Quantitative evaluation includes geo-morphosites selection and its characteristics which done by preparing questionnaires and an identification card. The second evaluation is quantitative in Pereira's model which will be done after final sum of geomorphic touristic capabilities and potentials. We consider personal point of views for completing our data to achieve real evaluation of landscapes.
    Discussion and
    Results
    Bojan waterfall get the highest rank (11.52), in our research and were outstanding site in the Nishabour county, we show this waterfall in fig. 7. Bojan Region Tafonys showed in fig. 8, it gets 3rd rank in our research out of 11 geo-morphosites. The least score (7.62) was for Bar waterfalls. Roudmian of Kharw and Dareh Hasar gets the highest rank inside scientific values by 2.83 score but the least score was for Haft Ghar (seven caves) in this study. Aerial view of Goring , Kharw have been shown in fig.9.
    The highest score for value added was for Kharw and Bojan and the least one for this value was for Baghroud valley and Haft Ghar. Geo-morphologic values were notable in this survey because of that it gets the highest scores by interviewers and all scores for all sites were above 4. Although we see these scores similar to in managing values, but there were statistical scewness in personal points of views. In managing values the highest score is for Baghroud valley (6.08). In values section of our questionnaire Darroud waterfall, and in conservation values, Bojan Tafonys get the highest scores.
    Conclusion
    Based on results of this research - which have a high validity- and by notice to resulted rankings, mangers and decision makers of this regions geo-morphosites could decide accurately by scientific reasoning. We found Pereira model as an appropriate model for evaluation the study regions geo-morphosites, but we modified it by considering local conditions and modifying it by preparing a new model and questionnaire. Findings of this research can help decision makers to act reasonably based on results of ranks and scores of this evaluation mode.
    Keywords: Geomorphology, Geo, morphosites evaluation, Pereira model, Nishabour County
  • Behloul Alijani, Mohammad Rezaey, Farzaneh Jafari, Farshad Pazhooh* Pages 34-45
    Introduction
    Iran country because of great spreading with a view to geographical longitude and latitude‚ existence the contortion of unevenness configuration and locating in exposed of air masses attacking has special circumstances in terms of temporal. The overall structure influenced by latitude‚ altitude and air masses. So that with changing each of these factors the temperature will change. In other words the general condition of temperature is a function of latitude and altitude and other factors such as aquatic area and land forms has a role in creating temperature structure that is referred as local factors. Although it seems that temperature changing follows a general pattern which depends on sun radiation angle and the quality of heating energy distribution in a term of hot months. But however the temperature is not steady but observed some subsidence and rising.
    Data and
    Methods
    With due attention to 2.5 degree interval of NCEP data‚ 24 points is located in an internal frontier of Iran. So first the Geopotential height of 500 HPA and sea level temperature extracted for January in 1961-2010. Then in order to calculate the correlation of these variables on each other and these data standardized with Z index. The dispersion map of value correlation and sea level temperature indicates the strong relation in all regions of country. The most value correlation is in the center and north east. The most value of correlation in the south west of the country reach to 0.82 and the least of that reach to 0.59. The method which used in this research is circulation to environment and the aim was that the anomalies of Geopotential height of 500 HPA on sea surface studied. So the standardized Geopotential value of 500 was ordered in a 24 dimension (points number) in 50 (years number). Then in order to reduce the years of studied and also classification the years with same pattern‚ these data reduced to 4 factors with using factor analysis and the kind of VARIMAX rotation which totally explained 97.7 percent of data variance. Then the map related to each pattern draw and for recognizing the core maximum anomalies of geopotintial height‚ the year which had the most correlation with each factor was chosen.
    Discussion
    The results which obtained from abnormal values in height of 500 HPA map‚ showed that the north west and south east had the most height abnormality and the synoptic result showed that in the first and the second patterns in an order‚ settlement the shallow trough‚ the orbital flows in east of Mediterranean and orbital lines of the height of 500 HPA and decreasing the Geopotential on Iran which was obstacle from transferring the hot weather of the lower latitudes‚ caused to occurrence a colder January in Iran. But in the patterns 3 and 4th create a hotter January because of formation the ridge and increasing Geopotential height on Iran and prevent from transferring the unstable systems and falling the cold weather of higher latitudes.
    Conclusion
    The results show the following outstanding specifications about these patterns and their relation with temperature of January in Iran. In the first pattern existing the shallow trough in east of Mediterranean with strong orbital blowing on Iran‚ transfer the cold weather of high latitudes to Iran. In this occasion the north west of Iran had the most amount of negative abnormal and south east of Iran the most positive abnormal. In the second pattern the curvature of lines was too little and the flows were orbital and barotropic. In this pattern the maximum of negative abnormal in the level of 500 HPA is seen in south east of Iran. The occurred maximum core of negative abnormal in this pattern is located on Oman Sea. So existing the orbital flows create such a temperature of negative abnormal for south of Iran. In the 3rd pattern a weak ridge create a weather subsidence from high latitude till North West of Iran. Also on the other hand a weak trough was seen at east of Aral lake. This occasion causes the positive geopotintial height in the half west of Iran and negative abnormal in the east border of Iran and finally in the 4th pattern with creating a weak ridge in the east of black sea cause to create a maximum positive abnormal core in this region. In this occasion all parts of the country specially the northwest had the more geopotintial height.
    It should be noted that which positive geopotintial height in all the patterns cause to emerge the high temperature and reverse. Analyzing that which patterns cause positive and negative temperature in January month in Iran was the main output of this research. The performance of these patterns when appeared which we know orbital flows on level of 500 HPA cause to occur colder Januaries in the south east of Iran.
    Keywords: Approach Circulation to the environment, 500 hpa height anomalies, anomalies temperature, principal components analysis, Iran
  • Majid Yasouri *, Zhila Vatankhah Kalurazi Pages 46-59
    Introduction
    Nowadays, rural tourism has an important contribution to the socio - economic development and play a significant role in providing independence and increasing of empowerment in rural women. Entrepreneurship development will be successful and sustainable when all sectors of society, participate in decision making and planning, particularly groups that have less influence. Women's participation is not only a step towards achieving the objectives of tourism development, but also makes them empowerment in society. The population in this study has potential in various aspects and good knowledge about their living environment. According to the tourism potential in studied area, the most important issue in this study, is that how can be used the capabilities of rural women towards self-sufficiency. Due to importance of tourism in rural women's income, according to the research findings of a case study entitled "The ability to prioritize, obstacles and strategies for the development of rural women entrepreneurship in rural tourism approach Gurab" the method "participatory rural appraisal" is written. The purpose of this study is to identify potentials, barriers and strategies to developing entrepreneurship of rural women and to know the impact of tourism in the studied area to increase their income and empowerment.
    Materials And Methods
    This research has been done quantitative and qualitative and the method of research is descriptive – analytical. For gathering data, library studies and method of “rural participatory evaluation” has been used. In this way, the various techniques of data collection include of: observation, recording audio and video interviews, interviews and color worksheet has been used. The population in this study is 37 capable and entrepreneur women living in the district of Gurab-pass. After completion of 357 questionnaires, identifying rural entrepreneurship and capable women in studied area were done.
    Research findings : In this study, after completion of 357 questionnaires and field studies and identification of the number of women with ability, Collaborative assessment with the participation of 37 women “who had ability to become entrepreneurs’’ was held on. To obtain more information, in addition of oral participation, three colors sheets, ‘’blue, orange and green’’, has been delivered among women to note down their capabilities on blue paper, barriers to entrepreneurship and empowerment on orange paper and their approach on the green paper. In this session by using the mentioned methods, potentials, barriers and strategies and finally rural women’s empowerment strategies of Gurab-Pass, and in order to increase their income, was evaluated and prioritized with attention to the tourism opportunities in this district.
    Based on field studies, the range of the study contains actual and potential ‘’natural and humanity’’ for tourism development and empowerment of women. Moderate climate, untouched forests, rice fields and beautiful tea gardens, springs and rivers, pilgrimage shrine, local games and festivals, Roodkhan-castle, Fooshe-cave, and etc are fitting for attraction of tourists and caused to many tourists and friends fo nature to visit this area every year.
    According to the results of this study, women living in this district are skilled in production of agricultural crops, livestock and poultry, honey, persimmon juice, handicrafts, mushroom, compost, and they are able to serve visitors well. But despite the considerable human and tourism abilities in the studied area, due to barriers, among 37 women, only four women, through the sale of handicrafts and renting of their house to tourists earn income and others do not had market to sell their product, however they can produce more than theirs need. Despite of good field of women entrepreneurship in studied area, we were examined barriers to entrepreneurship development in their villages.
    The main barriers to entrepreneurship and empowerment group for their lack of participation, lack of exhibition and shopping center, capital and processing industries, deficient in awareness of rural women’s from visitors, requirement, import of foreign goods more attractive with lower prices, deficient in knowledge of labor market from abilities of women’s’ in this district, deficient in access to good roads, deficient in investment through government and private sector in the fields of tourism, and limitation from husband side for women activity to sale theirs products as a last barrier.
    Finally, strategies for the development of entrepreneurship and empowerment of women in the study area was assessed, which include the following cases: formation of the women association in the rural, creating of exhibition and shopping center, Creating of industries, banking facilities with low interest and long repayment, increasing of awareness of women from the requirements of rural tourists; Learning of a new craft designs and models and computable in foreign markets, create a databases for capable women, widening and enhancing road safety, Increasing the residential facilities and services to attract more tourists, promote and encourage a culture of self-employed men and women for failing to prevent the economy was the most important strategies. Finally, after prioritize the strategies, introduced entrepreneur's women to attendance in the meeting. And the first step in the entrepreneurial women in the study area were reviewed and prioritized by them.
    Conclusions
    This study on the basis of rural participatory evaluation” showed that rural women have good information from their home environment capabilities. They can help to identify and prioritize the capability and the various barriers and for their solutions offered suggestions. The result indicates that even though there are some barriers in the study area, there are natural and human capabilities that can lead to business growth, job creation and increased the income of women in this district. Also, data showed that among 37 women, due to barriers, only 4 women (11%) can earn through the selling of handicrafts and renting their rural homes to the tourists or visitors.
    ◦we concluded that although, abilities and interests in women to participate in the development of rural tourism and entrepreneurship, on the one hand, and the requirement for employment, income, financial independence and empowerment on the other hand, rural tourism could not yet played a significant role in increasing employment, increasing income, improving social status and poverty reduction in the district. However, with attention to their potential and existing tourism development in this district, it can be achievable.
  • Easa Jokar Sarhangi, Somaye Fakhrodin Pages 60-70
    Introduction
    Alluvial fans are considered as one of the arid and semi-arid geomorphic effects, which are the result of intense flow water performance in the past and present. Therefore, alluvial fans can be considered as legacies of quaternary climate. Dryv (1873) used alluvial fan terminology for the first time. The US geographical organization conducted a study focusing on alluvial fans in the second half of the nineteenth century. In the early 1960s, some quantitative studies focused on research examining the process and control development of alluvial fans.
    Alluvial fans have generally provided suitable conditions and good situations for living settlements in many parts of the world since prehistoric time. The human settlement developments are related to neither prehistory nor ancient time, but many of populated districts with different application on human activities and developments formed on alluvial fans. In Iran where many of rural and urban settlements and its activities are placed in alluvial fans, more studies should be done on the recognition of alluvial fans, especially on southern slopes of Alborz in Semnan which existed many different alluvial. Thus, this study attempts to consider a large number of water basins associated with alluvial fans, which have little relationships with ten geometric features of water basins with the size of its alluvial fans on the southern slopes of Alborze in Semnan.
    Research
    Methodology
    This study is located on the southern slopes of Alborze in Semnan and is limited to a rage from 34 degrees 13 minutes to 37 degrees 20 minutes North latitude and 51 degrees 51 minutes to 57 degrees 3 minutes east longitude from Greenwich prime meridian. This study is comprised of a large number of adjacent alluvial fans with 44 identifiable alluvial fans along with 44 water basins are chosen on the southern slopes of the Alborz.
    This study has used (AHP) which is a part of multi-criteria of decision-making model and investigated the process and prioritizing effect of geometric features. To achieve the purpose of this study, the researcher has used alluvial fans range using 1:25000 aerial photographs combined with field visits. The process of AHP method from the most versatile multi-criteria decision-making models by Iraqi-born man named Thomas L Saati was proposed in 1980s. In this method, at first, the priority of various factors and turning them to small amounts of oral judgments (expert opinion) is used. .
    In this study, correlation was used to evaluate the correct weight and compare them with each factor. The correlation coefficient is a statistical tool to identify the type and degree of relationship between the quantitative variables. This method is one of the criteria to identify the correlation and coefficient of two variables. The correlation coefficient shows the intensity of relationship as well as the direct and inverse relationship of variables. This ratio is between to -1 and if there is no relationship between the two variables it equals zero.
    Results And Discussion
    Some studies focusing on alluvial fans show that the relations between alluvial fans and the geometric characteristics of watersheds are affected by the hydrological behavior. The main reason is that the basin geometry characteristics determine the size of the alluvial fans and their evolution play a very important role. The results from the relations between area of alluvial fans on the southern slopes of Alborz in Semnan with the basin water geometric features showed that criterion of Weight 10-Tions of area, slope, form factor, height, perimeter, basin length, drainage density, channel length, main channel slope and length of the basin were 0.337, 0.190, 0.134, 0.091, 0.075, 0.055, 0.043, 0.032, 0.024, 0.018, respectively. Therefore, the result shows that the effect of basin area in the formation of alluvial fan was more effective than other geometric features of the basin's water and the length of the basin had minimal impact on the formation and development of alluvial fans in this area.
    Conclusion
    The results showed that the correlation between the basin characteristics and alluvial fan in the region were significantly different. So that some of the correlations are high and some are too low.
    Effective factors, such as area, the total length of waterways, basin perimeter, main channel length, basin length, basin height, main channel slope, basin slope, drainage density with coefficient of 0.969, 0.935, 0.927, 0.913, 0.891, 0.465, 0.299, 0.197, 0.176 and 0.061, respectively contribute to form alluvial fan of region which are significantly important in area. The basin area has the most influence on the size of alluvial fans in this region.
    Keywords: Alluvial fans, Watershed, Alborz, Analytical hierarchical analysis, the correlation coefficient
  • Hamidah Mahmoudi, Maryam Ghasemi *, Hamid Shayan Pages 71-90
    Introduction
    Religious tourism with all of its components and varieties, due to its prominent structural and functional properties has found an outstanding place in the global tourism, so that its influence field, according to the World Travel and Tourism Organization, comprises 26% of the world tourism currents. Khorasan Razavi province, thanks to the Holy Shrine of Imam Reza (AS) is the most important religious tourist attraction of Iran that hosts a large number of national and international tourists. Currently, there are 403 holy shrines in the province, 47 of which equivalent to 11.7% of them are located among urban settlements and 356 holy shrines, equivalent to 88.3% of them are located in rural areas of the province. Studies have shown that due to the constraints of the agricultural sector, the service sector (especially tourism) among different economic sectors is a viable option to enable the rural economy and support the agricultural sector and industry, as tourism is an activity that can create job opportunities for many people inducing the people with a variety of different skills and knowledge in various age groups. In addition to direct job opportunities, tourism activates other economic sectors such as transport, food, fuel, energy, crafts, construction, etc. Although tourism is not the solution to all problems of rural areas, it can have significant economic effects, and it can make ground for enabling the local people, human resource development, economic diversification and growth, and create more job opportunities, resolve the issue of unemployment, and reduce the rural migration (especially among the youth). With regard to above points, this study seeks to answer this question: To what extent does religious tourism have an impact on the development of the rural economy?
    Today, a major part of tourism literature focuses on economic outcomes and positive role of tourism in creating jobs and new opportunities. The jobs related to this industry are not very lucrative; however, they have many benefits for villagers. The sale of agricultural products, creation of equal opportunities in employment, formation and distribution of balanced public funds in rural communities and improved rural projects are also the other positive effects of tourism. Generally, in recent years tourism as a very effective economic factor has been the focus of attention and its development can increase economic activities and create a variety of jobs in rural areas, most of which are in service sector of the economy. Increased production and sale of handicrafts, development of hotel and transport services, opening new markets, etc., create new jobs which consequently, reduce unemployment and migration from rural area to urban ones, and the surplus labor from agriculture and livestock raising goes to the service sector, even the migration process is likely to be reversed due to the boom in these areas. Tourism development makes people turn to productive activities, it also brings about economic growth and poverty reduction which result in the expansion of social services and investment growth in those regions. Thanks to its characteristics and economic effects, the tourism industry can effectively play a major role in development of different economic sectors of local communities in rural areas, which would eventually result in economic dynamism in rural areas. In this study, tourism has been introduced as an instrument for sustainable development with emphasis on the economic dimension because these attitudes and approaches are adopted with regard to important goals such as satisfaction of tourists, benefit for the owners, protection of the resources and the integration of society in tourism planning.
    Methodology
    The study is an applied one conducted in descriptive-analytical method. In this study, religious tourism (independent variable) was studied with 11 components, and the rural economy (dependent variable) was examined with variables of employment including 10 components and 16 indices, and "income" with 21 components and 32 indices. In this study, the ‘village’ has been the unit of analysis. The data extracted from the questionnaires were analyzed using the methods of statistical data analysis in SPSS Software Package. To determine the influence field of the metropolises, two models were used: “maximum influence field of tourism in metropolises” and “Rupert model” and based on these models, the influence field of tourism in Mashhad County was 59 Kilometers. Ten villages having holy shrines were randomly selected from this influence field. According to Cochran formula, the number of tourists were 196. Test reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient which was 0.85 and confirms its good reliability.
    Research Findings : The study results show that there is a direct and significantly strong correlation between development of religious tourism and economic boom in employment and income increase. As development of religious tourism results in economic boom in rural economy, job creation, and generating more income. We used simple linear regression to examine the ‘effects of religious tourism on economic boom in job creation and income generation’.
    The adjusted determination coefficient in analyzing the effects of religious tourism on economy, employment, and rural income respectively were: 0.77, 0.68, 0.79 which show the essential role of ‘religious tourism’ in explaining the variance of dependent variable of ‘economy, employment, and rural income’. As the statistic F of the independent variable is able to well explain the changes of the dependent variable of the rural economy in employment, and rural income; the statistical hypothesis about the impact of religious tourism on the rural economy in both employment and rural income are confirmed. Furthermore, the regression equation with the standard Beta coefficient is as follows:Y (Rural economy) = (1.29) (0,892) (Religious tourism)
    Y (Rural employment) = (1.204) (0.846) (Religious tourism)
    Y (Revenue) = (1.37) (0.902) (Religious tourism)
    Conclusion
    Findings show that villages having better conditions in terms of religious tourism, enjoy a better situation than other similar villages. According to the results of regression test, religious tourism has significant effects on boom in rural economy in employment and income.
    Participation of all stakeholders including the local people, tourists, local authorities at all stages of decision-making and policy-making to manage the effects of tourism on regional economic development, to get Dehyaris and rural councils involved in this field could be effective; advertisement and marketing programs also play an essential role in well publicizing an area as a tourist destination for the tourists, in a way that there is a direct relationship between the qualitative and quantitative development of advertising coverage and the sales of major and minor components of tourism products.
  • Reza Esmaili *, Ronak Shokati Pages 91-104
    Introduction
    Gully is one of the forms of water erosion features in many regions of the world. Gully erosion could produce abundant sediment load, reducing the fertility of land and destruction of structures. In literature, for the preparation of landslide susceptibility mapping, several studies have been conducted using logistic regression. But, a few authors focused on gully erosion susceptibility. Susceptibility is defined as the probability of spatial occurrence of a phenomenon on the basis of the relationships between the distribution of the events in the past and a set of predisposing factors. Therefore, statistical methods for quantitative assessment of the place of happening phenomenon are appropriate in future. The studied area is located in Salvatabad of Kordestan province. The regional geology is formed by sedimentary rocks such as marl, limestone, conglomerate and alluvial deposits. The average annual rainfall is about 300 mm and the average annual temperature is 11.3 °C and the climate is cold and dry.
    Research
    Methodology
    Gully erosion susceptibility analysis is composed of four stages: (1) gathering data and create a spatial database from relevant factors, (2) assessment of the GES using the relationships between the gully and gully factors affecting their occurrence using logistic regression, (3) construction of GES map with GIS, and (4) validation of the results.
    Field surveys and satellite image interpretation allowed identifying gullies. Lithology, land use and land cover, slope, aspect, plan curvature, length-slope factor, stream power index and topographical wetness index were assumed as gully erosion independent variables. The gully areas were converted to points and were split into two groups: training and validation data using a random partition. The occurrence of gullies in relation to the terrain conditions was analyzed using the training data and the final model was applied to the entire region. The validation data was also used to evaluate the prediction of the model. 70% of gully points are selected as training set and the remnant 30% as validation data. From 98000 point, the number of 68600 (70%) for the implementation of model was chosen and the remaining points (29400) was then used as the validation data.
    Logistic regression (LR) is a statistical technique that involves one or more independent variables to predict the probability of a binary or categorical response. Logistic regression estimates the probability (P) of the occurrence of a particular event. In this paper, the dependent variable of LR was used as categorical variables and gully data as binary encoded (i.e., the presence or absence of gully). “Tolerance” (TOL) and the ‘‘variance inflation factor’’ (VIF) as two indexes were used to detect multicollinearity diagnosis. Then, GES map prepared using the LR method, and the accuracy of model was evaluated by calculating receiver operating characteristics (ROC).
    Discussion and
    Results
    The value of TOL and VIF indicated that there was no multicollinearity between independent factors. The model-building process started with 8 effective factors on 17th classes. Then the step regressive analysis in LR was done which showed that 15 classes were statistically significant. The classes of variables with estimated coefficients that have a significance value (Sig.) of less than 0.05 were found. So these variables were accepted as predictor variables. GES map were produced from LR model. The results for gully occurrence showed that marl lithology and poor vegetation cover had the highest gully occurrence. To validate the model, GIS-based map and ROC curves were overlapping. Performance of the ROC curves showed percentage of setting gullies places in the most susceptible areas. Overlay maps in GIS environment were reclassified. The susceptibility values were divided into five categories. Results of validation, based on ROC (receiving operating characteristic) curves, showed that there were satisfactory comparison between the susceptibility map and the location of the existing gullies; therefore, AUC =79% indicated that 79% of the gullies are correctly classified in high and very high susceptibility areas. The GES map obtained from the LR method comprised of the very low, low, moderate, high and very high zones which were 37.7%, 29.5%, 9.9%, 15.4% and 7.5% of the total area, respectively.
    Conclusion
    In this research, variable lithology, land use, topography (slope, aspect, slope shape, LSF, SPI and TWI) were analyzed with logistic regression and GES map are prepared. Results of validation, based on ROC (receiving operating characteristic) curves confirmed the good accuracy in this area. Also, researches of Luca et al (2011) and Conoscenti et al (2013, 2014) confirmed the usage of LR model in GES.
    Keywords: Gully erosion, logistic regression, Salavatabad, Kordestan