فهرست مطالب

طب و تزکیه - سال بیست و چهارم شماره 3 (پاییز 1394)
  • سال بیست و چهارم شماره 3 (پاییز 1394)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/10/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
|
|
  • Saeideh Esmaeili, Sara Sohrabvandi*, Seyed Amir Mohammad Mortazavin*, Amene Nematollahi, Mehdi Shadnoush, Mohammad Javad Eivani Pages 9-22
    According to International standards (e.g., International Dairy Federation), probiotic products should be contain a minimum of 107 viable probiotic bacteria per gram of product. However, many products failed to meet these standards when they are consumed. Microencapsulation is coating a layer of hydrocolloids around viable cells in microscopic scale and surrounding them from environment for releasing of targeted cells in the appropriate place and time. The results of studies have been shown that encapsulation of probiotics lead to increasing its viabilities, improving and maintaining sensory properties of the products especially during storage as well as achieving to new methods of production of dairy products. This article will briefly review the efficiency of probiotic microencapsulation, and the factors affecting microencapsulation effectiveness of probiotics.
    Keywords: Probiotics, Microencapsulation, Effectiveness
  • Y. Jamshidinaeini, S. Esmaeili, H. Davoodi* Pages 23-38
    Iron-overload is considered as a risk factor for cancer. This carcinogenic effect of iron-overload can be explained by increase in the production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Today, besides the treatment of iron deficiency which is highly prevalent among children and women of childbearing age, preventing excessive accumulation and storage of iron in the body which may be caused by some genetic disorders or inappropriate use of iron supplements, is of particular importance. Moreover, the source of iron intake should be considered while talking about carcinogenic effects of iron, because during meat processing heme molecule undergoes some alterations which may explain the difference in carcinogenicity of cured meat in comparison with fresh meat. Experimental and clinical studies suggest that excessive iron intake may be associated with an increased risk of colorectal, liver, breast and lung cancer. However, results of the studies investigating the relation between prostate cancer and iron are inconsistent. In conclusion, in order to prevent adverse consequences of iron-overload, meeting body’s iron needs by consuming plant-based sources and white meats, and avoiding processed meats seem to be logical.
    Keywords: Iron, Cancer, Processing, Meat
  • Haniye Sadat Sajadi, Naser Marouf, Farshad Halaji* Pages 39-48
    Background And Objectives
    Social capital refers to features of social organization that leads to quality improvement, teamworking, organizational commitment and labor productivity. Considering the importance and the role of social capital and limited studies in the field of health human resources social capital, this study aimed to determine the social capital of hospitals’ workforces.
    Methods
    A descriptive cross-sectional survey was employed to collect data from a sample of 555 teaching hospital staff of Isfahan city. Data was obtained by structured and valid self-administrated questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics using SPSS (version 16).
    Results
    The mean score of social capital in the studied centres was 3.09 . The highest and lowest mean score was 3.37 and 2.39, respectively. Among the aspects of social capital, the highest and lowest average belonged to the networks and mutual understanding.
    Conclusion
    According to the findings of this study and in order to maintain and improve social capital of workforces, measures like orienting the staff (especially the staff of the clinical sections) with the concepts of social capital, strengthening of common sense among employees by creating a friendly environment within the hospital, increasing the capacity of acceptance of individual differences, cultural enrichment, increasing job security and matching networks and organizational goals are recommended.
    Keywords: Social capital, Health workers, Hospital, Iran
  • Meysam Alipour, Kasra Cheraghpour, Saeid Shirali, Reza Homayounfar, Elham Ehrampoush, Roghayeh Shahbazi, Hossien Davoodi* Pages 49-60
    Epigenetics refers to the processes which lead to modification in phenotype or gene expression and function without altering the DNA structure. These Changes may be existing in several generations without any modification in DNA sequences. Epigenetic modifications are persistent changes in gene expression which are imposed to daughter cells due cell division. These Changes are not due to changes in bases sequences in DNA structure. Epigenetic modification is considered as protective or risk factors for some diseases such as cancers. Environmental and nutritional factors can leads to epigenetic modifications. Recently, the role of some foods and micronutrients in epigenetic modifications are noted. This article reviews new articles on association of nutrition, cancer and epigenetics.
    Keywords: Epigenetics, Nutrition, Methylation, Acetylation, Cancer
  • Shahram Yazdani, Masoomeh Imanipour* Pages 61-72
    Background And Objectives
    Professional ethics in higher education is an abstract and ambiguous concept for which different definitions have been proposed. Analyzing this concept is essential to reach a united perception, setting behavioral standards and preparation of scales for evaluation. The purpose of this study was to propose a comprehensive definition of professional ethics in higher education and to identify its dimensions and constructs.
    Methods
    Walker and Avant’s eight-step model was used to analyzing the concept of professional ethics in higher education. After extensive review of all literatures, 38 relevant articles were included in the study. Data saturation was done by analyzing 21 articles and characteristics, dimensions, constructs, antecedents and consequents of the concept were derived.
    Results
    The results of literature review and concept analysis showed professional ethics in higher education forms with regard to performing professional commitments of professors and has four essential characteristics which are professional etiquette, ethics in professional social behavior, ethics in professional technical functions and issues, intrapersonal professional values and beliefs, and needs ethical competencies in professors including ethical sensitivity, ethical knowledge, ethical reasoning and ethical self-regulation.
    Conclusion
    Identification of the elements and attributes of concept of professional ethics in higher education causes in common sense of this concept. As well, it contributes in planning the developmental strategies for optimization of professional ethics in professors as a necessity for high quality assurance of their professional performance and is a fundamental step in designing its evaluation measures.
    Keywords: Professional Ethics, Teaching, Higher Education, Concept Analysis
  • Taher Roushandel Arabtani*, Muna Katebi Pages 73-88
    This study explores the relationships between 137 nodes and 261 ties, with manual degree snowball sampling of the population of Public Relation experts of Iran, using social network analysis(SNA), metrics and formulas payment. In addition to determining the individuals and main effective ties in this field, draw their relation graph and it also measures of centrality, density and clustering coefficient, was calculated.
    Based on findings of researchers, in the social network of PR pexperts of Iran, specific nodes, had the highest measures of centrality, and in betweennes centrality measure, which represent high Bridging and the potential of Social Capital , had the highest Scores. Network analysis in this field , was executive in level of 1degree . It also degree centrality and density, in this network were measured.
    The research, conducted in the fall and winter of 93 and was written in the winter of 94, is the first study that’s using social network analysis to explores the relationship between PR experts of Iran and tried to analyze this relationship.
    Keywords: Social Network, Social Network Analysis, Public Relation, Public Relation Expert, Centrality Measures, Betweennes Centrality, Clustering Coefficient
  • Nargess Soltanizadeh, Naser Sanaei*, Reyhaneh Mohammadzadeh Pages 89-100
    Background And Aim
    Organizational culture of an organization is one of the fundamental staffs’ job satisfaction factors. This study aimed to compare the effects of organizational culture on faculty members and staffs’ job satisfaction using Hofstede’s model.
    Material and
    Methods
    In a descriptive applied study 156 subjects including: faculty members and staffs of Shahid Beheshti university of Medical Sciences were randomly selected and studies in 2015. Minnesota questionnaire were used to job satisfaction and measuring dimension of organizational culture (distribution of high power, ambiguity aversion, masculinity/femininity and individualism/collectivism) by modified Hofstede’s model in five spectrums of Likert scale.
    Results
    The study population consists of %39 faculty members and %60.9 staffs, %66.7 percent were women and %74.4 of them were married. Mean and standard deviation of age was 42.3±9.7 years old. Most of people were opposed to the distribution of high power and masculinity and demanding ambiguity aversion and collectivism. Significant and direct relationship was observed between job satisfaction and collectivism among staffs. The rate of individualism variable effect was little more than power distribution. There was significant difference in ambiguity aversion alone among faculty members and staffs’ opinion (p
    Conclusions
    Faculty members’ job satisfaction was more than staffs. Hence modifying of distribution high power and patriarchy in organizational culture and ambiguity aversion could increased staffs’ job satisfaction?
    Keywords: Organizational culture, job satisfaction, staff, faculty member
  • Amene Nematollahi, Sara Sohrabvandi*, Seyed Amir Mohammad Mortazavin Farsani, Rozita Komeyli, Sepide Asadzade Pages 101-112
    Background And Objective
    For producing foods that promote health through gut microbial reactions, different types of food ingredients such as probiotics, prebiotics and bioactive plant secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds can be used. The aim of this study is evaluating interaction effect between probiotics and phenolic content present in cornelian cherry juice during fermentation.
    Materials And Methods
    Cornelian cherry juice with natural and adjusted pH with sodium bicarbonate inoculated with three industrial and two native probiotic bacteria(L. rhamnosus, L. plantarom and L. casei) and two native probiotic bacteria (L. casei)(108cfu/ml). Then samples were placed at incubator (30°C) immediately after inoculation. Then changes in chemical characteristics such as pH, acidity, phenolic compounds content, anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity andviability of probiotic evaluated during 3days of fermentation with time intervals of 24 hours for samples with adjusted pH.Significant differences between the averages of obtained data were done by one way ANOVA test. Also differences between the averages of each treatment during time were done by repeated measure test by SPSS software at significant level of 0.05.
    Results
    It can be said from the changes of phenolic content; antioxidant activity and anthocyanin content that degrading of tannins with high molecular weight during 48 hours of fermentation cause of increasing phenolic content and antioxidant activity in cornelian cherry juice and with Continuation of fermentation decrease cause of producing decarboxylase enzymes by probiotics. Also it is considered that native strain l. casei spp. T4 compare to others have more resistance against obstacle conditions of cornelian cherry juice and maintained its viability during fermentation and remained at initial number (8log cfu/ml).
    Conclusion
    Dietary supplements probiotics may, at least theoretically, can increase degrading of polyphenols, increase antioxidant activity and easily absorbing of these compounds in human body.
    Keywords: probiotics, cornelian cherry, antioxidant activity, viability, phenolic compounds
  • Bita Bijari, Ali Abassi٭, Majid Askari Pages 113-120
    Introduction
    Burnout has been described as a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and decreased personal accomplishment, and may occur during medical school .The aim of this study was to determine the burnout level , general health status and related factors among Senior Medical Students of Birjand University of Medical Sciences.
    Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, All Senior Medical student were considered for participation in the study in 2011. Maslach Burnout Inventory and GHQ12 were used .data were analyzed using descriptive statistics,χ2,ANOVA tests in SPSS(15) software.
    Results
    The participants were 92 students with mean age of 25.74 ± 1.51 years . 38% of study subjects had moderate to severe level of Burnout.23.9%,28.3% and 20.7% of subjects had abnormal scores on Emotional exhaustion ,depersonalization and personal accomplishment subscales respectively. 31.5% of cases suspected to have mental disorder by GHQ . significant association was found between mental disorder and burnout level in students.(p=0.034) No significant association was found between age ,sex ,marital status, with Burnout level of the subjects.
    Conclusion
    Results show burnout is prevalent among medical students Therefore, medical students in order to get help from counseling centers are encouraged, including life skills and stress management workshops to help them be considered.
    Keywords: Burnout, general health, associated factors, Medical Sciences, Birjand