فهرست مطالب

  • سال یازدهم شماره 1 (بهار 1394)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/03/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • M.Mohamadi, Z.Khoramdel, E.Vahedi, M.Ghafari, A.Barkhordar, A.Akbari Moghadam Page 8
    The current research has been carried out to evaluate the effect of zinc and cadmium on the yield of white radish plant in a calcareous soil using factorial experiments based on completely randomized design with different zinc (0¡ 20 and 50 mg/kg) and cadmium (0¡ 10 and 20 mg/kg) levels and three replications. The results showed that there is no significant difference on shoot dry and wet weight¡ plant height¡ length and number of leaves by pollution increment¡ unlike root of plant. Moreover¡ it has been found that the amount of zinc and cadmium uptake by plant is directly dependent on their concentration in root environment. However¡ the negative interaction of zinc and cadmium was observed in the studied soil and plant. In addition¡ the amount of transfer and accumulation of the aforementioned elements was not the same in different parts of the plant which represents a reduction in transfer coefficient of the metals from root to shoot as one of defensive mechanisms of plant against high densities of heavy metals in soil. Therefore¡ white radish plantation either in polluted soil or its irrigation with polluted water by zinc and cadmium is not recommended due to more accumulation of these metals in the edible parts of plants than other parts examined.
    Keywords: Heavy metals, Zinc, Cadmium, Plant yield, White radish
  • Niloufar Alizadeh Khatouni, Hossein Hassanpour Darvishi Page 23
    In order to investigate the effect of irrigation by saline water in different growth stages on agronomical characteristics of rapeseed cultivars¡ this experiment was carried out by split plots design with 3 replications in 2010. The main factor was 3 levels of irrigation water ( ¡ 10 and 12 ds/m) and the sub factor was sparing rapeseed cultivars including (Option 500¡ Hayola 401 and Heros). The results showed that salt stress had significant effect on biological yield¡ kernel yield¡ oil yield¡ oil percentage¡ branches number¡ silique number¡ silique number of branches¡ silique length of branches¡ seed number of main silique¡ seed number of silique and seed number of branches silique (P=0/01)¡ harvest index¡ 1000 kernels weight and plant height (P=0/05) and highest upon characteristics were achieved under irrigation with 6 ds/m. Rapeseed varieties showed significant differences upon characteristics. Means comparison showed that highest kernel yield (2245 kg/ha) was achieved under Option 500 variety. Interaction of irrigation and variety wasn’t significant effect on all characteristics but means comparison showed that highest kernel yield (3108 kg/ha) was achieved under Option 500 variety under irrigation with 6 ds/m. The results of this experiment showed that irrigation by saline water decreased agronomical characteristics of rapeseed sorely and expedited flowering stage.
    Keywords: Irrigation by saline water, rapeseed cultivars, seed yield, oil yield
  • Omid Akrami Nejad, Mehri Saffari, Rohollah Abdolshahi, Roghayeh Amiri Page 33
    In order to determine the effect of acid humic and definition¡ of the best mass response on characteristic of germination and growth Milk thistle¡ research using 4 acid humic levels(0.0¡1.0¡5.5¡2%) in three ecotypes of Milk thistle (North¡ Majary¡ Molasany)was done with a method of pre-treatment. This experiment occure in a complete random blocks with 3 replications. Results showed that humic acid treatment on germination rate¡ shoot and root length has a significant difference and increases this traits compared to control. Also¡ the average time required for germination was significant reduced the time of germination compared to control. Between the masses the average time of germination and shoot length was significant. North mass showed the best response to humic acid¡ and it resulted the best respance in 1.5 percent concentrate among humic acid causes to improve generation witheffication on physiological and biochemical activity. Refer to humic acid¡s positive and significant effect on germination and establishment of Milk thistle¡ this priming recommended to improve germination and growth of this plant.
    Keywords: Priming treatments, milk thistle, Humic acid, Germination speed
  • Samaneh Raheb, Motreza Moballeghi, Behrouz Golein, Morteza Golmohammadi Page 43
    In order to investigate the effect of different summer cover crops and the amount of returned elements in soil of their residual¡ an experiment in randomized complete block design with 7 treetments and 3 replication in Iran Citrus Research Institute was carried out. Treatments included: planting 4 cover crops of legumes such as Trifolium alexandrinum L.¡ Phaseolous vulgaris L.¡ Glycine max L.¡ Vigna radiate L.¡ use of herbicide (Paraquat)¡ straw as mulch and control. This study was started from 1385. Evaluation of treatments using measurement of dry weight of grass leaf and broad leaf weeds in each plot¡ density and diversity of weeds as well as dry weight of cover crops were recorded. After combination of cover crops with soil¡ amount of Nitrogen¡ Phosphorus and Potassium measured. Results indicated that there are significant differences between treatments from dry weight¡ diversity and density point at 1% level. Also there were significant differences between treatments from percentage of K¡ N and P aspects at 1%¡ %5 and %1 levels respectively.
  • Saeed Chamanghasht, Mohammad Reza Ardakani, Kazem Khavazi, Saeed Vazan, Bohlol Abbaszadeh Page 62
    This experimant was conducted to investigation of phosphate solubizing and sulfur oxidizing bacteria effects on quality characters of wheat (var. Bahar). a factorial experiment was carreid out based on randomized complete block desigen (RCBD) with 3 replications at Research field of Karaj Branch¡ Islamic Azad University in 2010.Treatments were included Sulfate at two levels (0¡ 300 kg/ha)¡ biological fertilizers in three levels: sulfur oxidizing (Thiobacillus thioparus) phosphate solubizing (Pseudomonas fluorescens strain36 ¡ Pseudomonas fluorescens strain93 ¡ Pseudomonas fluorescens strain187) and Non using fertilizer (control) and phosphorus of source super phosphate triple at 3 levels (0¡ 105¡ 160 kg/ha). In this research¡ effect of treatments was evalute on some traits as number of seed per spike¡ plant height¡ spike length¡ biological yield¡ seed weight¡ number of seed/m2¡ stem diameter¡ seed yield and leaf area. The results showed that effect of biological fertilizer were signifcant defference on Number of seed per spike¡ plant height¡spike length¡ biological yield¡ Number of seed/m2¡ leaf Area (at %1 level) ¡ seed weight and seed yield (at %5 level). The interaction effect of Sulfate×bacteri×phosphorus was significant on spike length (at %1 level) and stem diameter (at %5 level). Result showed that the hieghest No. of seed per spike (52.76)¡ plant height 95.37)¡ spike length (10.55)¡ biological yield (1619.17)¡ 1000 seed yield¡ N.spike/m2 (503.44)¡ stem diameter (6.84)¡ seed yield (960.22) and Leaf Area (18.24) wes resulted from phosphate solubizing bacteria application.
    Keywords: phosphate solubizing, sulfur oxidizing, phosphorus, Sulfate, biological fertilizers
  • Saghar Sepahian, Mohammad Ali Chegini, Davood Habibi Page 78
    In this research studies the effects of duration of vernalization¡ size and halving of steckling on bolting¡flowering and seed setting of sugar beet were studied by conducting three experiments. First and second experiments were conducted in 28 Dec. and 1st Feb. 2014 in glasshouse. Treatments were stecklings of HM5514¡ two levels of whole and sliced stecklings and four levels of size of stecklings. Experiment was conducted in CRBD. The 3rd experiment was conducted in 28 Dec. and 21 Feb. 2014 in field in split split plot design with 10 replications. Treatments were combination of three paternal HM5514¡ S1-24 and SB26 two levels of whole and sliced stecklings and three levels of size of stecklings. Results of 1st experiment showed that no bolting occurred in even 100 days after stecklings replanting. Bolting occurred in 2ndand 3rd experiments 50 and 29 days after stecklings replanting¡ respectively. In 2nd experiment negative correlation was exist between stecklings size and time to bolting. Where¡ in stecklings with crown diameter 3.13 and 6.24 cm bolting occurred 60 and 50 days after stecklings replanting¡ respectively. In 3rd experiment¡ stecklings with crown diameter 3.4 and 6.3 cm bolting occurred 32 and 29 days after stecklings replanting¡ respectively. So¡ when verbalization requirement were fulfilled¡ there was no correlation between stecklings size and time to bolting. Bolting was postponed by slicing of steckling.
    Keywords: Sugar beet, Size, Stecklings, Crown diameter, Bolting, Flowering, Stecklings slicing
  • Siamak Azizkhani, Jahanfar Daneshian, Ghasem Tohidloo, Aidin Hamidi, Majid Esfini Farahani, Majid Bakhtiari Moghadam Page 90
    This experiment was carried out to study the effect of kinetin on seed germination characteristics of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Produced under different water deficit stress and planting dates. A factorial experiment was conducted within a completely randomized design in seed & plant certification and registration research institute¡ Karaj. M7 cv. Seeds were produced under three levels of water deficit stress after 50 (no stress)¡ 100 (middle stress) and 150 mm (severe stress) evaporation from pan class A¡ in two planting dates of 22 may and 22 June. Treatments including kinetin or without it were applied in 6 different concentrations (0.1¡ 0.2¡ 0.3¡ 0.4 mM kinetin¡ distilled water¡ no distilled water and no kinetin). Our results showed that by increasing water deficit on mother plants seed quality characteristics were significantly reduced in planting date of 22 may. Those results were supported by Accelerated Ageing Test as well as standard germination test recommended by ISTA. Where¡ in planting date of 22 June¡ by severe deficit the seed quality was not affected significantly.The results of experiment showed that using concentrations 0.2 and 0.1 mM kinetin improved the important seed quality characteristics like Mean time to germination¡ Coefficient of velocity of germination¡ Mean daily germination¡ seedling vigor length index and seedling vigor weight index.
    Keywords: Priming, water deficit stress, planting date, kinetin
  • T. Mohammadzadeh, A. Kashani, F. Aghayari Page 104
    This experiment was conducted to find the effect of different ratios of plant on the quantitative and qualitative yield - the mixture of alfalfa and millet in the condition of Alley cropping system in two crop seasons of years 1387-1388 and 1388-1389 in experimental field of Agriculture college¡ Karaj Branch¡ located in Mahdasht . In this experiment¡ millet and alfalfa were planted in the method of mixed cropping and with different ratios of seed in the form of mixed cropping and pure culture (solid planting) in between the trees¡ simultaneously. The treatment were: five rate of planting(m1Pure culture of alfalfa¡ m The mixed ratio 75% alfalfa and 25% of millet¡ m3 The ratio 50% : 50% of alfalfa and millet respectively¡ m4 The ratio 25% : 75% of alfalfa and millet¡ m5 Pure culture of millet) and two calculated densities (d1 30 kg alfalfa and 40 kg millet¡ d2 45 kg alfalfa and 60 kg millet).The rate of used seed was calculated for the mentioned ratios: 25%¡ 50% and 75%. The cropping was done in the Spring and in the form of mixed cropping of alfalfa and millet in between the trees. The measured characters included the percentage of: Fresh yield¡ Dry yield¡ Sugars soluble in water¡Ash¡ Cell wall and Protein yield. The results corresponding to the analysis of variance showed that : protein yield of alfalfawas54/17(kg/ha) more than protein yield in millet¡ The percentage of soluble sugar in water of alfalfa was more than millet about (1/84%). Also millet had the highest percentage of total Ash than alfalfa about 1/05%)¡The result obtained from comparing the different ratios of planting showed that the percentage of total Ash in pure culture of millet were highest percentage. The results showed the millet had the most fresh weight and also pure culture of alfalfa had the least fresh weight between the others ratio of planting.
    Keywords: Alley cropping, Millet, Alfalfa, Protein, Different ratios of planting
  • Z.Fatemi Rika, F.Paknejad, E.Amiri, M.N.Ilkaee, M.Sadeghishoa, V.Ardalan Page 129
    Nowadays using suitable barley cultivars under drought stress is important for increasing
    economical yield. In order to study of the terminal irrigation (at ear appearance) effect on
    yield and yield components of 10 barley cultivars in field condition¡ an experiment was
    conducted in field research stations of Islamic Azad Universities of Karaj during 2010-
    11. This experiment was carried out in form of split plot based on randomized complete
    block design with four replications. Main plots comprise of two different irrigation
    regimes: full irrigation (I1) and drought stress (terminal irrigation at ear appearance) (I2)
    also sub plot includes 10 barley cultivars (Valfajr¡ Rihan¡ Kavir¡ Zarjo¡ Goharjo¡ Karoon¡
    Dasht¡ Torkeman¡ Nosrat and Yusof). According to obtained results drought stress caused
    significant decreasing on grain yield¡ total dry weight¡ 1000 grain weight¡ ear number per
    unit area¡ grain weight per ear¡ plant height and peduncle length and harvest index was
    not affected by drought stress. Highest grain yield obtained in full irrigation condition
    relevant to Kavir (7781.5 kg/ha) and Nosrat (7414.8 kg/ha) cultivars also Goharjo cv. in
    both full irrigation and drought condition grain yield was 2685.2 and 1962.8 kg/ha¡
    respectively. Also Kavir cv. with reduction 46.36% and Dasht cv. with reduction 2.34%
    of grain yield¡ showed highest and lowest sensitivity to drought¡ respectively. Grain yield
    showed positive correlation to some traits such as 1000 grain weight¡ ear number per unit
    area¡ harvest index¡ plant height and peduncle length.
    Keywords: Drought stress, grain yield, yield components, barley cultivars