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پژوهشهای جغرافیای انسانی - پیاپی 95 (بهار 1395)
  • پیاپی 95 (بهار 1395)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/02/15
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • میرنجف موسوی*، مهدی عبدالله زاده، امید زینالپور، علی باقری کشکولی صفحات 1-18
    آگاهی از شرایط و اتفاقاتی که در محیط تصمیم گیری و برنامه ریزی توسعه گردشگری رخ می دهد، نقش بسزایی در ارتقای آگاهی و بینش ما از فرایند برنامه ریزی و اجرای سیاست های توسعه گردشگری دارد. هدف این پژوهش ارائه مدل تحلیل محیط با رویکرد سیستمی برای برنامه ریزی گردشگری در شهرستان ماکو است. با توجه به مولفه های مورد بررسی و ماهیت موضوع، رویکرد این پژوهش توصیفی- تحلیلی و هدف آن کاربردی است. در این پژوهش، ضمن شناسایی عامل های موثر بر برنامه ریزی توسعه گردشگری در شهرستان با استفاده از ماتریس SWOT، تاثیرهای متقابل آن ها نیز به روش کمی و با استفاده از روش دیماتل بررسی شد و درنهایت عملکرد نهایی این عامل ها، براساس تاثیرگذاری و تاثیرپذیری، تفکیک و رتبه بندی شد و شکاف موجود بین آن ها مشخص شد. درنهایت، با توجه به شرایط حاکم بر گردشگری منطقه، راهبردهایی نیز ارائه شده است. نتایج پژوهش بیانگر وجود قوت ها و ضعف ها و فرصت ها و تهدیدها در عرصه صنعت گردشگری ماکو است، اما ضعف های موجود در عرصه گردشگری شهرستان، بر قوت ها غالب است و مانع استفاده از فرصت ها و پتانسیل ها موجود شده است؛ بنابراین، گردشگری شهرستان ماکو، آنچنان که باید، نتوانسته است از پتانسیل ها و قوت های موجود در زمینه توسعه گردشگری بهره گیرد.
    کلیدواژگان: برنامه ریزی گردشگری، تحلیل محیط، رویکرد سیستمی، ماکو
  • مهدی پورطاهری*، عبدالرضا رکن الدین افتخاری، نسرین کاظمی صفحات 19-31
    خشکسالی، بر طیف گسترده ای از اقلیم ها و اکوسیستم ها تاثیر می گذارد. شعاع تاثیر این پدیده، در مناطق روستایی بیش از سایر نقاط است؛ زیرا اقتصاد روستایی، اتکای شایان توجهی به فعالیت های کشاورزی دارد. شرایط اقلیمی، تا حد زیادی بر تولید محصول اثر گذاشته است، اما همزمان کیفیت و کمیت آب، نهادها، شرایط اقتصادی و اجتماعی در ایجاد فرصت یا برعکس، استرس برای مردم محلی و امرارمعاش عمل می کنند. از نظر مردم محلی، خشکسالی هر فصل، بارش اندک نسبت به تقاضای آب است که سبب برداشت محصول ضعیف یا در کل، ناکامی کشت و ایجاد مشکل در دامداری به دلیل کمبود تغذیه و بارندگی اندک می شود. پژوهش حاضر با هدف پهنه بندی دهستان مورد مطالعه، برای نشان دادن سطح و درجه آسیب پذیری ناشی از خشکسالی از دیدگاه کشاورزان صورت گرفته است؛ بنابراین، ده روستا به عنوان نمونه انتخاب شدند و با تکمیل 300 پرسشنامه، سطح و درجه آسیب پذیری ناشی از خشکسالی، با استفاده از متغیرهای مربوط سنجیده شد. روستاهای نمونه، براساس داده های برداشت شده و با استفاده از تحلیل واریانس، در محیط نرم افزار SPSS رتبه بندی و درنهایت، با استفاده از روش میان یابی در نرم افزار GIS، دهستان مورد مطالعه از نظر سطح و درجه آسیب پذیری پهنه بندی شد. نتایج نشان می دهد روستاهای مورد مطالعه، از نظر سطح و درجه آسیب پذیری، تفاوت شایان ملاحظه ای با یکدیگر دارند. درنهایت، تمامی روستاهای این دهستان، در پنج طیف، از بسیار کم تا بسیار زیاد طبقه بندی شدند تا روستاهای دارای ریسک بالاتر، از نظر آسیب پذیری شناسایی شوند.
    کلیدواژگان: آسیب پذیری، پهنه بندی، خشکسالی، دهستان سولدوز، کشاورزان
  • صابر محمدپور*، نادر زالی، احمد پوراحمد صفحات 33-52
    آسیبپذیری شهر تهران دربرابر زلزله، به ویژه در بافت ها و فضاهای فرسوده بخش مرکزی آن، با عنایت به بستر طبیعی ناامن و با توجه به جایگاه بخش مرکزی این شهر، سنجش میزان
    آسیب پذیری بافت های قدیمی بخش مرکزی شهر تهران و ارائه راهکارهای کاهش آسیب پذیری آن ها دربرابر زلزله را در اولویت قرار داده است. در این پژوهش، با ارائه روشی
    برای تحلیل آسیب پذیری لرزه ای بافت های فرسوده، بر نقش موثر شاخص های برنامه ریزی شهری در کنار شاخص های سازه ای، در برنامه های مقابله با زلزله تاکید میشود. بدین منظور، به چندین موضوع خرد، شامل شناسایی و انتخاب شاخصهای ارزیابی آسیبپذیری لرزهای، تحلیل میزان تاثیر هریک از شاخصها و تعیین نواحی پرخطر و متراکم مسکونی فرسوده و
    امتیازبندی طیف های مختلف آسیب پذیری و تولید نقشه ریزپهنه بندی آسیب پذیری محله پرداخته شده است. پژوهش حاضر را می توان از حیث ماهیت و روش، تحلیلی اکتشافی -
    دانست. در این نوشتار، ابتدا به مطالعه وضعیت آسیب پذیری منطقه 12 تهران و سپس به شناخت محله سیروس پرداخته می شود. در مرحله تحلیل، ابتدا مقادیر و داده های همه
    شاخص ها استخراج می شوند و سپس بهروش تحلیل سلسلهمراتبی ) AHP ( و Expert choice ، شاخص های مربوطه وزن دهی می شوند. سپس با استفاده از نرم افزار GIS ، نقشه ریزپهنه بندی آسیب پذیری محله، با منطق FUZZY ارائه می شود. نتایج نشان می دهد وسعت و پوشش جمعیتی نقاط با آسیب پذیری بالا و بسیار بالا بیشتر است و در کل، محدوده با توجه به همه عوامل کالبدی مورد تحلیل، دربرابر زلزله بسیار آسیب پذیر است.
    کلیدواژگان: آسیب پذیری لرزه ای، بافت های فرسوده، شاخص های کالبدی و برنامه ریزی شهری، محله سیروس، مدیریت بحران
  • محمدباقر قالیباف، زهرا پیشگاهی فرد، رسول افضلی، سید محمد حسینی* صفحات 53-67
    کشاورزی و تولید مواد غذایی، در دهه های اخیر یکی از مسائل مهم جهانی است و همه کشورها اعم از صادرکننده و واردکننده را با چالش مواجه ساخته است. این پژوهش به منظور بررسی وضعیت تولید و مصرف محصول راهبردی گندم در ایران و نیز انتخاب راهبرد مناسب برای تامین آن تا سال 1400، به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی، مبتنی بر داده های FAO و با استفاده از نرم افزارهای Excel و GIS انجام شده است. آمار دوره های زمانی تولید و مصرف گندم، با استفاده از روش ARIMA مدل سازی و تولید و مصرف این محصول راهبردی طی سال های 1392 تا 1400 پیش بینی شده است. نتایج نشان می دهد با توجه به جایگاه ایران در تولید، مصرف، صادرات و همچنین میزان نیاز کشور به واردات گندم تا سال 1400، بحث خودکفایی کامل این محصول، حداقل تا سال 1400 منتفی است و ایران تا این سال، یک واردکننده جزء باقی خواهد ماند. با توجه به موقعیت ژئوپلیتیکی ایران و احتمال استفاده کشورهای صادرکننده گندم از این محصول راهبردی به عنوان یک حربه سیاسی علیه کشور، لازم است در انتخاب کشورها برای واردات این محصول دقت ویژه ای صورت پذیرد. از این رو، در قالب یک رویکرد ژئوپلیتیکی و با استفاده از روش تحلیل سلسله مراتبی (AHP) و نرم افزار Expert choice، بهترین کشورها برای واردات گندم و در سطحی بالاتر، انعقاد قراردادهای بلندمدت در زمینه خرید این محصول راهبردی، شناسایی و اولویت بندی شده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: امنیت غذایی، خودکفایی، ژئوپلیتیک غذا، گندم، محصول های راهبردی غذایی
  • مسعود اخوان کاظمی*، سارا ویسی صفحات 69-87
    این پژوهش با استفاده از روش توصیفی- تحلیلی، با استناد به آمارها و داده های عینی و در چارچوب نظریه واقع گرایی، به دنبال بررسی تاثیرات چالش ها و فرصت های ناشی از تغییرات آب وهوایی بر بحران های منطقه ای است. یافته ها بیان می کند در دهه های اخیر، افزایش انتشار گازهای گلخانه ای ناشی از رشد سریع جمعیت از یک سو و تشدید فعالیت های اقتصادی و صنعتی بشر از سوی دیگر، موجب ایجاد تغییرات آب وهوایی در مقیاسی جهانی شده است. افزایش دمای هوا، بالاآمدن سطح آب ها و نوسان های بارندگی، مهم ترین پیامدهای تغییرات آب وهوایی هستند که ادامه حیات بشر را با چالش ها و گاه فرصت های تازه ای مواجه کرده اند. امروزه کمبود ذخایر آب شیرین و منابع غذایی، شیوع بیماری های واگیردار و مهاجرت از جمله چالش هایی است که به ویژه مناطق حاره ای و کشورهای درحال توسعه واقع در اطراف خط استوا را درگیر کرده اند. در مقابل، پیش بینی می شود در دهه های آتی، ذوب یخچال های عظیم، یخبندان های دائمی و کاهش سرمای شدید در مناطق قطبی، به ویژه قطب شمال، فرصت های تازه و شرایط مساعدی را برای سکونت در این مناطق، استخراج ذخایر ارزشمند کانی، فسیلی و غذایی و نیز دستیابی به راه های ارتباطی تازه فراهم آورند و به کشورهای توسعه یافته واقع در اطراف قطب شمال بیش از دیگر دولت ها بهره برسانند. بدیهی است هریک از این چالش ها و فرصت ها، به نوعی زمینه را برای تشدید دشمنی ها و تضادهای دیرین هموار می کنند یا حتی موجب بروز تنش ها و درگیری های تازه میان کشورهای مختلف جهان می شوند و به این ترتیب تحول های جدیدی را در منطقه رقم می زنند.
    کلیدواژگان: امنیت بین المللی، بحران های منطقه ای، تغییرات آب وهوایی، گرم شدن زمین، واقع گرایی
  • مجید یاسوری، یاسر رمضان نژاد *، حمید شایان صفحات 89-104
    ایجاد نهادهای محلی و تشکل های مردمی، سازوکاری برای جلب مشارکت مردم در فرایند مدیریت سکونتگاهی است. با تشریح اهمیت مشارکت در مدیریت روستایی و تجلی آن از طریق نهادهای اجتماعی باید گفت به طورکلی، گردآمدن و برانگیخته شدن روستاییان به مشارکت در نهادهای محلی، با فرایندهای ساختاری، نهادی، اجتماعی و اقتصادی قابل تبیین است. ضمن اینکه، متغیرهای سطح خرد، نظیر ویژگی های فردی و ذهنی نیز در تبیین مشارکت های مردمی اثرگذارند.از این رو، ارتقا و کارایی مشارکت در مناطق روستایی، نیازمند تقویت زمینه های مشارکت و شناسایی عوامل موثر بر جلب مشارکت مردم است. این پژوهش، توصیفی- تحلیلی است. اطلاعات به صورت میدانی و از طریق پرسشنامه جمع آوری شده است. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها، از نرم افزار SPSS و به منظور سنجش میزان مشارکت، از آزمون t تک نمونه ای استفاده شد که نشان می دهد میانگین مشارکت در جامعه نمونه متوسط است. میانگین مشارکت در زنان 926/2 و در مردان 493/3 است. براین اساس، می توان گفت تفاوت معناداری میان میانگین مشارکت بین زنان و مردان وجود دارد. از بین شاخص های فردی، شاخص های مکانی و اقتصادی، جنسیت، سن و درآمد با مشارکت همبستگی دارند. نتایج رگرسیون نشان می دهد که بیشترین تاثیر بر شکل گیری مشارکت را اعتماد اجتماعی با میزان بتای 6/34 دارد. به عبارت دیگر، اعتماد اجتماعی بر 6/34 درصد از تغییرهای مشارکت اثر می گذارد.
    کلیدواژگان: اسالم، انسجام، شورای اسلامی، مدیریت روستایی، مشارکت
  • محمدحسین شریف زادگان، سحر ندایی طوسی* صفحات 105-123
    جهانی سازی و پیشرفت های اطلاعاتی و ارتباطی، سبب تغییر جهت رویکردهای سیاسی و طرح الگوواره های » مزیت های رقابتی « به » مزیت های نسبی « کشورها و مناطق، از تکیه بر شده است. رقابت پذیری، انگاشتی که پیش از آن تنها در سطح » رقابت پذیری قلمروئی «واحدهای فعالیتی معنادار بود، از اواسط دهه 1990 میلادی و هم زمان با افزایش تحرک نیروی انسانی و سرمایه و سپس اهمیت مکان، از ترجمان فضایی برخوردار شده و به گفتمان علوم منطقه ای و برنامه ریزی توسعه فضایی راه یافت. در این زمینه، هدف کلان پژوهش پیش رو، پرداختن به دو پرسش مطرح در زمینه رقابت پذیری توسعه منطقه ای است: نخست، چیستی رقابت پذیری منطقه ای و دیگری چرایی رقابت پذیری بیشتر بعضی مناطق در مقایسه با مناطق چارچوب های توسعه « دیگر که پاسخگویی به آن، چگونگی دستیابی منطقه به جایگاه رقابتی و را مشخص می سازد. کاستی رهیافت های رایج در پاسخگویی به این دو پرسش، » رقابت پذیر یکسان فرض کردن میزان اثرگذاری پیشران های شناسایی شده در دستیابی به رقابت پذیری، بی توجهی به نقش متغیرهای مداخله گر )میانجی( در تدوین روابط سببی، ناممکن بودن تعمیم مدل های مرسوم به همه بسترها، شناسایی پیشران های خاص مناطق کشور را به عنوان گام در ،» توسعه فضایی رقابت پذیری منطقه ای ایران « اساسی و نخستین در تدوین مدل نظری دستور کار این پژوهش قرار داده است. با این هدف، پس از بررسی تعاریف مختلف از رقابت پذیری منطقه ای )به عنوان متغیر مکنون وابسته( و شناسایی پیشران های معرفی شده از دیدگاه های نظری متفاوت )به عنوان متغیرهای مکنون مستقل( به روش مطالعه اسنادی، متغیرهای آشکار یا نمایه ها انتخاب می شوند و از طریق اندازه گیری روابط سببی به روش تحلیل مسیر، ضریب اهمیت اثرگذاری پیشران ها در بستر ایران تعیین می شود. ضرورت فراهم بودن داده های مورد نیاز، سطح پژوهش را مقید به مناطق استانی ساخته است.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه خوشه ای، رقابت پذیری منطقه ای، سرمایه های خلاقیت، فعالیت های شناختی، فرهنگی، منطقه مصرفی
  • رفعت شهماری اردجانی صفحات 125-140
    استقرار و پیدایش سکونتگاه ها، بیش از هر چیز تابع شرایط محیط طبیعی (زمین شناسی، توپوگرافی، خاک، ژئومورفولوژی، هیدرولوژی و آب وهوا)، به ویژه ژئومورفولوژی است؛ چراکه پدیده های ژئومورفولوژیک، بر مکان گزینی، پراکندگی، حوزه نفوذ، توسعه فیزیکی و مورفولوژی سکونتگاه ها تاثیر دارند؛ بنابراین، در بسیاری از کارهای مدیریت محیطی و آمایش سرزمینی، مهم ترین و مفیدترین کمک ژئومورفولوژیست، نمایش اشکال و عوارض سطح زمین در نقشه های ژئومورفولوژی است. بدین ترتیب، برنامه ریزان به راحتی می توانند عوارض مناسب و نامناسب را از یکدیگر تشخیص دهند. این مقاله، از طرحی پژوهشی با عنوان «تهیه نقشه ژئومورفولوژی غرب استان گیلان با مقیاس 1:25000» استخراج شده و به هدف ترسیم عوارض سطح زمین، تنگناها و موانع توسعه فیزیکی و همچنین پراکندگی تعداد سکونتگاه های محدوده پژوهش انجام گرفته است. روش پژوهش براساس تحلیل فرم و فرایند در نقشه های توپوگرافی 1:25000 و زمین شناسی 1:100000، تهیه عکس هوایی است. درنهایت، در چند مرحله بازدید صحرایی، تمام اطلاعات و داده ها روی زمین ارزیابی شدند. مطابق نتایج، پدیده های ژئومورفولوژی، در چهار واحد ساحل، جلگه، کوهپایه و کوهستان، از شرق به غرب قرار گرفته اند. همین امر کافی است تا سکونتگاهای شهری و روستایی محدوده پژوهش، از لحاظ پراکندگی و تراکم، حالت یکنواخت و متجانسی نداشته باشند؛ به طوری که از شرق (محدوده ساحل و جلگه) به غرب (محدوده کوهپایه و کوهستان)، هم بر تعداد سکونتگاه ها و هم بر پراکندگی آن ها افزوده شده است. 692 آبادی در چهار شهرستان غرب استان گیلان (آستارا، تالش، رضوانشهر و ماسال) وجود دارد که از این تعداد، 398 آبادی (42/55 درصد) در غرب (محدوده کوهپایه و کوهستان) و 294 آبادی (57/44 درصد) در شرق (محدوده جلگه و ساحل) قرار دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه فیزیکی، سکونتگاه، شهر و روستا، غرب گیلان، نقشه ژئومورفولوژی
  • محمد سعدی مسگری، فرشاد امیراصلانی، سید کاظم علوی پناه، مرضیه عسکری شهید* صفحات 141-157
    تصمیم گیری، یکی از مهم ترین و اساسی ترین وظایف مدیریت است و تحقق اهداف سازمانی، به کیفیت آن بستگی دارد. در مناطق کشاورزی، تغییرات کاربری اراضی، ناشی از تصمیم گیری کشاورزان است و تصمیم گیری در این زمینه، تاثیر بسیاری بر این سیستم می گذارد. به طور متقابل، رخدادهای مختلف زیست محیطی، بر تصمیم ها و رفتار آینده انسان تاثیر مستقیم می گذارند؛ بنابراین، مدل سازی تغییرات کاربری اراضی، متاثر از پیچیدگی های ناشی از تعامل انسان و محیط است. دراین صورت، شناسایی عوامل موثر محیطی و اجتماعی- اقتصادی در تصمیم گیری و درک چگونگی بازخورد تغییر کاربری اراضی در محیط (ناشی از تغییر آن در طولانی مدت)، چالشی کلیدی برای مدل سازی این تعاملات در مدیریت پایدار زمین محسوب می شود. در این پژوهش، مدل سازی تصمیم گیری کشاورز برای تعیین نوع کشت، با استفاده از مدل M-Logit در منطقه سگزی، با به کارگیری مدل مبتنی بر عامل ارائه می شود. بدین منظور ابتدا ساختار معیشتی منطقه برای نمایش ناهمگنی حاکم بر رفتار فردی مشخص می شود. سپس با استفاده از مدل M-Logit، عوامل موثر و میزان تاثیر آن ها بر تصمیم گیری، بسته به نوع معیشت فرد شناسایی می شود. درنهایت، با محاسبه بردار، انتخاب های انواع کشت برای هر کشاورز، شبیه سازی و در مدل عامل مبنا، با استفاده از قانون تناسب تصادفی نوع کشت انتخاب می شود. این پژوهش، با بررسی عوامل موثر مدل M-Logit در هر گروه معیشتی و هر نوع کشت نشان می دهد که با توجه به شرایط حساس منطقه و خطر بیابان زایی، عوامل محیطی از جمله عوامل شیمیایی خاک، به همراه عوامل درآمدی، نقش موثرتری در تعیین انواع کشت دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: تحلیل مولفه های اصلی، تصمیم گیری، تغییرات کاربری و پوشش اراضی، رگرسیون لجستیک چندمتغیره، مدل عامل مبنا
  • محسن کلانتری صفحات 159-175
    قاچاق یا ورود و خروج غیرقانونی و مخفیانه کالا، از پیچیده ترین و پرمسئله ترین رفتارهای مجرمانه در کشور است. هرساله از محل این رفتار ناهنجار، هزینه ها و خسارت های جبران ناپذیر مادی و معنوی به کشور وارد می شود. در استان بوشهر در مرز جنوبی کشور، به دلیل وجود مرزهای گسترده آبی و ویژگی های جغرافیایی و سوق الجیشی، آمار بالای قاچاق کالا یکی از مسائل مهم به شمار می آید. در پژوهش حاضر، الگوهای فضایی پدیده قاچاق کالا و دامنه کالاهای قاچاق در این استان مطالعه شده است. این پژوهش کاربردی و از نظر روش، توصیفی- تحلیلی است و گردآوری داده ها به دو روش اسنادی و میدانی، طی یک سال انجام شده است. جامعه آماری پژوهش نیز شامل قاچاق های وقوع یافته ارزاق عمومی در محدوده استان بوشهر است. به منظور تحلیل داده ها و تحلیل فضایی قاچاق در این استان، از آزمون های مرکز متوسط، بیضی انحراف معیار، روش تحلیل شبکه و تحلیل تراکم کرنل استفاده شده است. یافته ها نشان می دهد بیشترین میزان کشف قاچاق ارزاق عمومی در استان بوشهر، در شهرستان کنگان و کمترین میزان کشفیات در شهرستان دشتی رخ داده است. تحلیل زمانی ارزاق عمومی نشان می دهد این کالاها، در روزهای میانی هفته بیش از روزهای دیگر قاچاق می شود و الگوی توزیع شبانه روزی، بیانگر توزیع بیشتر جرایم در ساعت های میانی روز است. درپایان، ضمن تحلیل عوامل موثر بر پدیده قاچاق در استان بوشهر، چند پیشنهاد برای کنترل و مقابله با این پدیده ناهنجار ارائه می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: الگوی فضایی، بوشهر، قاچاق کالا
  • دره میرحیدر*، مرجان بدیعی ازنداهی، یاشار ذکی، فاطمه سادات میراحمدی صفحات 177-196
    طی بروز انقلاب فضایی کمی در علم جغرافیا، تحول هایی در اندیشه و روش شناسی این علم به وجود آمد. این دیدگاه بر شاخه های تخصصی جغرافیا به شکل های گوناگون تاثیر گذاشت. جغرافیای سیاسی در دهه های 1950 و 1960 همچنان جهت گیری سنتی یعنی دیدگاهی محیطی و ناحیه ای داشت، اما پس از وقفه ای طولانی، انقلابی در آن ایجاد شد. درواقع، زمانی دیدگاه فضایی کمی در پژوهش های جغرافیای سیاسی به کار گرفته شد که روند تکاملی خود را در دیگر شاخه های جغرافیا طی کرده بود و از درون آن، رویکردهای فضایی و سیستمی بیرون آمده و جغرافیای رفتاری متاثر از آن شکل گرفته بود. پژوهش حاضر با استفاده از روش توصیفی- تحلیلی بررسی می کند که چرا دیدگاه فضایی با تاخیر در مطالعه های جغرافیدانان سیاسی به کار گرفته شد و پس از آن نیز در دهه 1970 از محوریت مطالعه ها خارج شد. نتایج نشان می دهد عواملی مانند ناسازگاری پژوهش های بنیادی با روش پوزیتیویستی در جغرافیای سیاسی؛ تناسب نداشتن نظریه های محوری در دیدگاه فضایی- کمی با مسائل مطرح در جغرافیای سیاسی؛ نادیده گرفتن قدرت و سیاست در دیدگاه فضایی موجب شدند این دیدگاه با تاخیر به مطالعه های جغرافیدانان سیاسی وارد شود. همچنین تغییر الگو در علم جغرافیا در دهه 1970 و تغییر در نظام بین الملل، موجب شد دیدگاه فضایی در دهه 1970 از محور مطالعه های جغرافیدانان سیاسی خارج شود؛ هرچند امروزه جایگاه خود را به عنوان یکی از دیدگاه های مطرح حفظ کرده است.
    کلیدواژگان: جغرافیای سیاسی، دیدگاه فضایی، روش کمی، رویکرد سیستمی، رویکرد علم فضایی
  • سید حسن مطیعی لنگرودی*، فرشاد سوری، مهدی چراغی صفحات 197-209
    تحقق اهداف کشاورزی از جمله تامین امنیت غذایی جامعه و ایفای نقش موثر آن در تقویت استقلال ملی، نیازمند گذر سریع و صحیح از مرحله تولید معیشتی و سنتی به مرحله تولید صنعتی و تجاری است. از طرفی امروزه کشاورزی پایدار، به مثابه رویکردی است که نیل بخش کشاورزی به مرحله تولید صنعتی و تجاری و تامین امنیت غذایی خانوارهای روستایی را امکان پذیر می سازد. در پژوهش حاضر، به تحلیل رابطه پایداری نظام بهره برداری خانوادگی و امنیت غذایی در هشت روستای دهستان غنی بیگلو از توابع شهرستان زنجان پرداخته می شود. جامعه آماری این پژوهش، شامل کل بهره برداران خانوادگی در روستاهای مورد مطالعه است (1324N=) و براساس فرمول کوکران، 300 نفر برای تکمیل پرسشنامه محاسبه و به روش تصادفی ساده دردسترس انتخاب شدند. نوع پژوهش کاربردی و روش آن تحلیلی- همبستگی است و به صورت پیمایشی-میدانی انجام شده است. روش گردآوری اطلاعات به دو صورت کتابخانه ای (اسنادی) و میدانی (پرسشنامه، مصاحبه و مشاهده عمیق) است. تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات گردآوری شده با نرم افزار SPSS 21و آزمون های آماری T تک نمونه ای، ضریب همبستگی پیرسون، تحلیل خوشه ایو جدول توافقی کای دو انجام گرفته است. براساس یافته ها، روند کشاورزی در روستاهای مورد مطالعه ناپایدار است و امنیت غذایی خانوارهای بهره برداران این روستاها وضعیت مطلوبی ندارد (52 درصد). همچنین براساس نتایج، بین امنیت غذایی با میانگین درآمد، وسعت قطعات اراضی کشاورزی و تنوع شغلی بهره برداران، رابطه معنادار مستقیمی وجود دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: امنیت غذایی، توسعه روستایی، دهستان غنی بیگلو، کشاورزی پایدار
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  • Mirnajaf Mousavi*, Mahdi Abdollahzade, Omid Zeinalpoor, Ali Bagheri Kashkoli Pages 1-18
    Introduction
    Knowledge of circumstances and events that Occurs In decides environmental and Tourism Development Planning Plays an outstanding impact in our raise awareness and insights of planning process and politics implementation Tourism development, Therefore it is most important issues for planning successful this industry, identifying characteristics of different regions and environmental conditions it, Appropriate planning with capacity of each of them. Tourism industry includes range of sectors, has been Very different and different, services and features this part. So should be development and management tourism in a controlled manner, integrated and sustainable and based on rationally program. By adopting such approach, Tourists can do benefited Many Interests for Tourism destination without creating most serious problem environmental, social and cultural. Purpose of this study is Provide an Environmental Analysis Model With systems approach Order to Tourism Planning In Maku Township.
    Materials And Methods
    With respect to components studied and nature of subject, ruling approach for this research is Descriptive – analytical. In terms of Aim this study was applied and in section research literature for gathering information are used Method Library and field studies. Since are obtained quantitative techniques of logical relationships between phenomena, Can providing a reasonable and accurate evaluation of characteristics and relationships between phenomena. DEMATEL method is based on graph that separated two groups of cause and effect factors involved. Mentioned technique is a major step 5 included providing direct relationship matrix, Normalization direct relations matrix, Calculating total relationships matrix, providing Causal – effect diagram and Calculated for each of the factors that influence and influencing.
    Results And Discussion
    Results of the study Suggests the existence of Strengths and weaknesses and the opportunities and threats in sphere tourism industry Maku Township. That in case identifies and prioritizes accurate and principles and provision appropriate strategies In order to exploit the opportunities and strengths and faded out weaknesses and remove of threats can be achieved Tourism development with principles planning in Maku Township. Among analysis environment matrix factors, Weaknesses With numerical Points (R= 11/7), has been greatest impact on another area effective in tourism development. Among strengths, S1With numerical score (R= 6/663), among weaknesses, W2 factor with numerical score (R= 3/485), among opportunities considered, O5 factor with numerical score (R= 6/723) and among threats proposed, T4 factor with numerical score (R= 3/371) Have greatest impact on tourism development planning In Maku Township.
    Conclusion
    According to Factors affecting on tourism planning In Maku Township Strategies are presented such as Increase productivity, Potentials management improvements, And tourist attractions And convergence and integrity in activities Planning , Decisions And implemented; Build integration between public and private sectors in creating and provision tourist services and facilities with High Quality and policy reforms Tourism development; Design, Modification and Tourism capabilities optimization Order to competitiveness And planning structure reform To achieve tourism development; Adoption A development policy That can do Action As a filter For Planning, Investment And improve quantity and quality of services Order to .
  • Mahdi Pour Taheri*, Abdolreza Roknodin Eftekhari, Nasrin Kazemi Pages 19-31
    Introduction
    Drought is a deficiency in precipitation over an extended period, usually a season or more, resulting in a water shortage causing adverse impacts on vegetation, animals, and/or people. It is a normal, recurrent feature of climate that occurs in virtually all climate zones, from very wet to very dry. Drought is a temporary aberration from normal climatic conditions, thus it can vary significantly from one region to another. Drought is different than aridity, which is a permanent feature of climate in regions where low precipitation is the norm, as in a desert. Human factors, such as water demand and water management, can exacerbate the impact that drought has on a region. Because of the interplay between a natural drought event and various human factors, drought means different things to different people. In practice, drought is defined in a number of ways that reflect various perspectives and interests. Drought is difficult to define precisely, but operational definitions often help define the onset, severity, and end of droughts. No single operational definition of drought works in all circumstances, and this is a big part of why policy makers, resource planners and others have more trouble recognizing and planning for drought than for other natural disasters. In fact, most drought planners now rely on mathematic indices to decide when to start implementing water conservation or measures in response to drought. In this study, the drought can be defined such: Agricultural drought links various characteristics of meteorological (or hydrological) drought to agricultural impacts, focusing on precipitation shortages, soil water deficits, reduced ground water or reservoir levels needed for irrigation, and so forth. Drought is not a disaster for nature itself, the disaster occurs when we consider the demand people place on their water supply. Human beings often increase the impact of drought because of high use of water which cannot be supported when the natural supply decreases. Droughts occur in both developing and developed countries and can result in economic and environmental impacts and personal hardships. All societies are vulnerable to this natural hazard.
    Methodology
    Agricultural drought occurs when there isnt enough soil moisture to meet the needs of a particular crop at a particular time. Agricultural drought happens after meteorological drought but before hydrological drought. Agriculture is usually the first economic sector to be affected by drought. In this study, vulnerability of drought in rural communities was investigated as a problem for agriculture. In this regard, Socio-economic drought is what happens when physical water shortage starts to affect people, individually and collectively. Or, in more abstract terms, most socioeconomic definitions of drought associate it with the supply and demand of an economic good. For achieve the goals, literature review and field survey methods have been used. Sulduz rural district in west Azarbaijan was the statistical society of the study. Therefore ten villages were selected as samples. This selection was carried out considering the criteria such as information of township disasters, type of agriculture land and population. According to Cochran formula, 300 questionnaires were filled randomly. In order to, drought interpolation in rural areas, at the beginning the levels of vulnerability have been studied in the selected villages. Data were analyzed using different statistical methods such as comparison of averages and Analysis Of Variance in SPSS software. Interpolation of drought severity and vulnerability in rural areas has been done by Spline method in GIS.
    Results And Discussion
    There are many methods of interpolating randomly spaced point data. Some of these methods are global while others are local. Global methods utilize all the known values to evaluate an unknown value, while in local methods only a specified number of nearest neighbors are used to evaluate an unknown value. The Spline tool uses an interpolation method that estimates values using a mathematical function that minimizes overall surface curvature, resulting in a smooth surface that passes exactly through the input points. The Spline with Barriers tool uses a method similar to the technique used in the Spline tool, with the major difference being that this tool honors discontinuities encoded in both the input barriers and the input point data. This study investigated drought intensity and vulnerability in Sulduz rural district by drought evaluation of the farmers’ point of view and finally, villages of studied were classified based on the data obtained of the field survey. The results of present study showed that villages have difference in the levels of vulnerability. Therefore, drought impacts will reduce in vulnerable rural through awareness of drought vulnerability levels. In Sulduz rural district, villages were classified in the five ranges from very low to very high. In order to, higher risk villages are identified; finally Quick and Helbi were recognized as the most vulnerable villages.
    Conclusion
    Drought is different from tornadoes, hurricanes, and floods. It can be more difficult to detect and it can last much longer than other weather events. We don’t have watches or warnings for drought like we do for other natural hazards. But just because drought is different from the other natural disasters doesn’t mean we can’t plan for it and take steps to help protect ourselves from the effects of drought. The social and economic costs of drought require decision makers to improve planning, mitigation, and adaptation strategies to deal with this hazard. The spatial interpolation methods were developed either for specific disciplines or even for specific variables based on the data properties modeled. Each method has its specific assumptions and features. These features, such as global versus local, exact versus inexact, deterministic versus stochastic, and gradual versus abrupt, are discussed. As geographic information systems (GIS) and modeling techniques are becoming powerful tools in natural resource management and biological conservation, spatial continuous data of environmental variables are increasingly required.
    Keywords: drought, Vulnerability, Interpolation, Rural Farmers, Sulduz rual district
  • Saber Mohammadpour*, Nader Zali, Ahmad Pourahmad Pages 33-52
    Introduction
    During the twentieth century, more than 1100 devastating earthquakes occurred in different parts of the world that in effect those, more than 1.5 million people have lost their lives that 90% mainly caused by the collapse of the building that is not secure (Lantada, 2008: 2) . An obvious example of this areas is Japan that annually several of the more than seven on the Richter scale earthquake occurs in various parts of that effects of earthquakes on structures and those who have become vulnerable, was very partial and limited and according to the urban infrastructure Are not cause the crisis and disruption in urban systems5 (Yamazaki 2005). This study intends to identify and develop relationships with urban planning and disaster management of earthquake in order to reduce seismic vulnerability of old texture Sirus neighborhood of Tehran Municipality, District 12, to take a step and trying with Seismic Vulnerability Analysis of urban old- texture emphasize on the role of urban planning indicators of the structural parameters of the programs to deal with the of earthquake.
    Methodology
    This research can be seen in form of the analysis - heuristic research in the nature of research methodology, and according to nature and inability to control behavior of the variables effective in the problem, study has been Non-experimental and data collection method has been documental and literature review in the first case and Review of literature on the subject of earthquake damage in urban areas, especially the old- textures.
    Results And Discussion
    Considering to the importance of assessing the seismic vulnerability of cities in geography and urban planning issues, In this study, was tried to using AHP method, provided appropriate predictions of the seismic vulnerability of cities using spatial data and a description of behavioral and structural components each of the criteria used to determine the effect of the vulnerability. Also by using analytical capabilities of GIS representation And earthquake scenarios presenting in different intensities, pay to the microzonation damage of buildings and human casualties in the neighborhood of cirrus. In this paper, a hierarchical model is used to evaluate the relative importance of the evaluation factors determining vulnerability. Then from relationships and various models of vulnerability and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is used to assess the seismic vulnerability of action to be taken Cirrus neighborhood.
    To evaluate the vulnerability total for this study, after the weights of criteria using AHP were calculated for each of the weights using GIS layers of the application and has been prepared map the vulnerability of the overall neighborhood Cyrus.(map 10). This study intends to identify and develop relationships with urban planning and disaster management of earthquake in order to reduce seismic vulnerability of old texture Sirus neighborhood of Tehran Municipality, District 12, to take a step and trying with Seismic Vulnerability Analysis of urban old- texture emphasize on the role of urban planning indicators of the structural parameters of the programs to deal with the of earthquake.
    Since the evaluation criteria measured with different scales are presented, which they can be converted to a common scale, the need to standardization. In addition, several methods such as fuzzy theory "scale linear transfer function", "function (value)" and "self-insuring possibilities", can be used to standardize the results of AHP modeling. According to the wide range of fuzzy logic membership functions are presented in comparison with other standard methods, this model can be a very strong argument for using a method similar human descriptions and tentative decisions on the use of data to provide approximate. (Rashed, 2003: 7; quoted Ahdnzhad, 1388: 76). Fuzzy sets, Regarding the nature of fuzzy sets and applied to a variety of functions such as linear threshold function, J-shaped and S-shaped. In this study according to the nature and criteria is used layers of linear threshold function.
    Conclusion
    This study intends to identify and develop relationships with urban planning and disaster management of earthquake in order to reduce seismic vulnerability of old texture Sirus neighborhood of Tehran Municipality, District 12, to take a step and trying with Seismic Vulnerability Analysis of urban old- texture emphasize on the role of urban planning indicators of the structural parameters of the programs to deal with the of earthquake.
    In this study, each of the criteria and sub criteria are examined separately and their individual relationship of the process was clearly explained. Increasing the value of the variables such as:, population density, age of building, number of floors. . ., Increase vulnerability and reduce the vulnerability is reduced. In contrast, increasing the amount of variables such as: distance of the fault surface components, based on the width of the access road, consistent user of the neighborhood, the quality of buildings, which reduces vulnerability and vice versa. each of The above mentioned variants have contributed to the vulnerability, but each has a level of importance compared to other factors that are individually significant , was calculated coefficients using the method of AHP and Expert Choice. Review and make decisions based on one factor and not always consistent and consideration of the importance of each of them is to make better decisions. So the analysis factors in the context of this matter, and this analysis an acceptable level shows vulnerability against earthquake hazards due to all the factors. Finally we can say that the scope and coverage of the population with high and very high vulnerability (in the central part and the core tissue), was severe, and indicating the high susceptibility of the total of all factors of earthquake.
    Keywords: Seismic Vulnerability Indicators, Physical, Urban Planning Indicators, Crisis Management, Old, Textures, Sirus Neighborhood
  • Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf, Zahra Pishgahifard, Rasol Afzali, Seyed Mohammad Hosseini* Pages 53-67
    Introduction
    Agriculture and food security have always been one of the main human concerns, even though Food policy should serve humanity by advancing the humane goals of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger. It is a fact that wheat is one of the most important strategic products in Iran. Therefore, this study investigates the most influential countries on wheat around the world as an exporter or importer. Furthermore, the production and consumption of this item in Iran until 2021 and the rank of Iran in the trade of wheat will be studied. In addition, what kind of geopolitical strategies could be more productive for Iranian government to steps forward its food security in wheat?
    Methodology
    The method of research in this scientific paper is definitely descriptive and analytical that our data have been collected from reliable sources such as: Food and Agriculture Organization. It should be mentioned as well that the collecting data have been analyzed deductively and qualitatively. The software of Excel and GIS are used for surveying data and ARIMA model is used to forecast the amount of production and consumption of wheat in Iran from 2012 to 2021. The Analytic hierarchy process method (AHP) is used for identifying the most suitable countries for importing wheat to Iran.
    Indeed, all of this data will be tabulated and diagramed respectively that can be generalized in scientific literature.
    Result and
    Discussion
    Based on the average data from 1992 to 2011 from FAO, Iran has had the ranks of fifteenth, thirteenth, fifteenth and forty-fifth respectively in production, consumption, import and export of wheat. Also, the rank of Iran in wheat producing with 1.8 (tons/hectares) is thirty-second among the all countries. The results of the ARIMA model shows that Iran would be a small importer of wheat till 2021 at least. Based on the results, the most important exporters of wheat from 1992 to 2011 have been: USA, Canada, France, Australia, Argentina, Russia, Germany, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, and England respectively. Hence, according to the results of Analytic hierarchy process and five factors including Political stability, Transportation advantages, Stability in the production and export, Economic relations with Iran and Political relations with Iran and their variables, the best countries for importing of wheat to Iran are respectively Russia, Kazakhstan, Germany, France, Ukraine, England, Argentina, USA, Australia, and Canada.
    Conclusion
    According to the findings and vast changes in the global food situation, instability between demand and supply Food patterns, we will be witnessing a new era of relations between food exporting and importing countries. Undoubtedly, food as one of the tools of power in the modern age is rapidly becoming one of the main geopolitical issues, and certainly geopolitics is able to provide a scientific framework for food studies and bring beneficial results.
    Keywords: Strategic goods, self, sufficiency, food security, wheat, geopolitics of food
  • Masoud Akhavan Kazemi*, Sara Veisi Pages 69-87
    Introduction
    Talking about controversy and conflict over scarce resources among individuals as well as states is an issue that has long been of interest to scholars and experts of economics, politics, psychology, biology, etc .This is clearly evident especially in view of the realism school and thinkers such as Thucydides, Hobbes, Machiavelli and Followers such as Morgenthau, Waltz, Kissinger, etc. Anarchic international System, state-centered, effort to obtain, maintain and increase the power, rationality and calculation of cost-benefit, struggle to survive and self-reliance are The most important characteristics and components of the realist school in international relations. In this school, states as like as individuals, are looking for their own interests and thus evaluate profits and damages at every actions. Then, if the benefits overtake theirs losses, they will go to war. Since international system is considered as competitive and anarchic, then, chaos, tension, crisis and insecurity will frequently occur around the world. This paper studies the impact of the challenges and opportunities resulting from climate change on the creation and spread of regional crisis between states around the world. It attempts to answer a basic question namely "What will be the future impact of climate change, particularly in the regional-scale crisis?" The hypothesis that has been proposed in response to the question is: "challenges and opportunities rising from climate change first allow the renewal and intensification of chronic conflicts and crisis in tropical areas around the equator, and on the other hand will create the formation of new tensions and crisis in areas near the north and south poles."
    Methodology
    With regard to the purpose of this research that is "analyzing the impact of climate change and its challenges and opportunities on regional crisis", method used in this paper, is descriptive and analytical, which is completed by tables, charts, maps, Statistics and numbers. Also it is done in the framework of realism theory.
    Results And Discussion
    Findings suggest the recent increase in greenhouse gas emissions resulting from both rapid population growths and the intensification of economic and industrial activities has caused climate change on a global scale. Temperature rise, sea level rise and change in precipitations, which are the main consequences of climate change, have been faced human with challenges and some new opportunities. Today, for example the shortage of fresh water and food resources, the outbreak of infectious diseases and migration are challenges which especially have been involved tropical and developing countries around the equator such as southern, northern and central Africa, southern sections of north America (Mexico and Central America), northern zone of south America and red sea into the Middle East and Mesopotamia, where it connects with Central Asia, including Turkey, Iran, Kazakhstan and western sector of South Asia, East Asia, north of the Tibetan highlands, in Xinjiang and the Gobi desert. In contrast, it is anticipated that in the coming decades, melting massive icebergs and permanent glaciers and also the reduction of extreme cold in the polar regions, particularly the Arctic will prepare new opportunities and favorable conditions (such as the extraction of valuable mineral sources, undiscovered energy reserves, animals, food, and also the provision of access to virgin lands and new communication ways) for living in these areas. Developed countries located around the North Pole, such as northern sector of North America and Nordic countries such as Denmark (Greenland), Iceland, Norway, Sweden and Finland, Canada and the United States (Alaska) will benefit more than other states in Central Asia such as Mongolia, Siberia, Xinjiang, Tibet and northern china and Russia and areas previously governed by the Soviet Union. Obviously these challenges and opportunities each will result to the intensification of existing hostilities, conflicts and tensions and will cause a new series of hostilities between states, with varying degrees of severity, amplitude and depth. Thus, regional changes will been gendered and international security will face the new challenges with serious threats.
    Conclusion
    Although it seems that the type and intensity of conflicts and wars caused by climate change in different regions is not the same and especially countries located in the Arctic regions benefit of the opportunities and benefits of global warming more than other regions, Yet, Whatever the temperature increaser, the threats and damages greater and the opportunities less. So these threats and damages will not remain an opportunity to take advantages of opportunities, and eventually most of the world will involve in crisis and then tensions will be universal, and some regions will be safe of its lethal effects and consequences.
    In fact, the occurrence of natural disasters such as the devastating earthquake in Bam in 2003, the Indian Ocean Tsunami in 2004, American Katrina Hurricane in 2005, the Myanmar Cyclone in 2008, Pakistan floods, record heat wave in Russia, Vesuvius activity in Iceland, Congo, Guatemala, Ecuador and Philippines, all in 2010 and the recent earthquake and then tsunami in Japan in 2011 proved that even developed countries cannot be resistant against the threats of climate change. These are just a few examples of natural disasters that have occurred as a result of global warming and have transformed concept of security in the 21st century into a new concept. Because today, unlike the past, the concept of security in the international system is not defined with boundaries, ranges and borders, and it is not only supported by military also the threat against it comes from our own not others. So fight against this enemy and eliminate this threat, will require broad cooperation between states. It is especially necessary that superpower and developing states cancel many theirs large industrial and commercial projects. Otherwise, you should look forward crises and conflicts resulting from climate change in most regions of the world by and by.
    Keywords: Climate change, global warming, Regional Crises, International Security, realism
  • Majeed Yasoori, Yaser Ramezannezhad*, Hamid Shayan Pages 89-104
    Introduction and Problem Statement: Today, creating local institutions is the representation of the levels of participation and the criterion to measure it in rural areas. Local institutions and community organizations are a mechanism to attract the public participation and collaboration and a context to emerge the people collaboration in the management process of their settlement environment. Participation in rural development management process is not done in a vacuum and must be representative of the institution's decision-making bodies come true. The institutionalization of participation is possible only through institutions and these institutions are considered as a mechanism for integrating public participation in local communities and local people's participation in social life by the organization, is a identity . In fact, these organizations have a role to mediate between the people and the government, the effects of public participation in public life has been defined communities ( Abdullahi et al, 2010: 29). Rural management is multilateral process, which consists of three pillars, people, government and public institutions. In the process with public participation and through of rural organizations, has formulated and implemented the rural development programs and plans and under taken the monitoring and evaluations (Rezvani, 2005: 211). In other words, rural management indeed is process of organizing and conducting the rural society through shaping of organization’s and institutions involved in the management of rural areas. These organizations and institutions is tools to providing goals of rural society and plays an important role in progress of development goals(Roknodin Eftekhari et al, 2008: 8). "Participation in the first step as a means of collecting environmental information to make decisions that will form the core of the concept of sustainable development" is defined (Primmer, 2006,841).By explanation of the participation importance in the rural management and its emergence by the social institutions, Should it be noted that generally rural settlers integrated in participatory institutions and encouragement of their participation in local agencies is explained by influence of structural , institutional , social and economical processes. . Furthermore, the micro-level variables such as personal characteristics and mental account of his part in public participation are effective. (Said i, 2004 : 171 ) and the people in the forms of rural organization explains. In general, the participation is the result of a social interaction. Such a feature, we take it that the social space of the action (participation), we studied and analyzed. Conditions and social space that is unique to the social system and the conditions and space that is unique to the individual. In other words, for a complete and correct understanding of social action must first: identification the factors of the economic- social and cultural external witch impact on the individual action. Second, the factors that is unique to the individual and are important to the individual, examined (external factors and internal factors) (Moghadasi, 2010: 4).Internal factors: One of factor that plays an important role in facilitating and limiting people's participation in local institutions is individual Characteristics. External factors: Other factors, to attracting of the public participation in local institutions in rural areas are structural factors. Empirical evidence from the study area showed a low level of public participation in the field of rural management institutions and people's participation in management institutions in not acceptable. Generally, the purpose of the preparation of this article is to answer these fundamental questions: people's participation in rural management institutions (village council ) What is ? What indicators are related to the Participation ? Which dimension has the greatest impact on people's participation?
    Methodology
    This study is a type of applied studies in which descriptive - analytical methods and statistical methods for data analysis have been used. The data collected in this study by using the method of questionnaire and survey. The research population is in 15 villages in Asalem District. Based on measurements of Cochran sampling method , 209 of the peoples were selected as the sample . In this article, data analysis and hypothesis testing methods - descriptive and inferential statistics such as frequency distribution, correlation coefficient and regression t- test using SPSS software was used.
    Conclusions
    The results show a correlation between gender and participation is a meaningful relationship. Generally participation is a result of individual social action. Such a feature compel us that social space this action (participation) studied and surveyed. The results of correlation shows that between individual indicators just there is correlation between the gender and participation. According to the Independent Samples Test, Average of participation in women’s is 2.926 and in the men’s is 3.493. The Base on this we can express that there are significant different between average of participation in women’s and men’s. This point can be this reason that in rural communities’ women’s littler toward to men’s involving into rural affair. There is no relationship between the place indicators and participation. Unlike previous studies that there is relation between the economic conditions with participation, this is not true in Asalen and there has not any relationship between economic indicators and the participation. In order to measurement of the participation rate is used to one- sample T- test that indicate average of participation is equal to 3.33 and average measure )test value( is equal with 3, based on this we can say that participation in community sample is located in the avrage level. average participation of each of the villages studied, indicating that klasara and chakharamahale villages to order have highest level of participation with 3.84 and 3.69 and ershadmahale and gharibmahale to order with 2.71 and 2.96 have lowest level of participation. The between individual, place and economic indicators there is correlation only between the gender and participation. the results of regression shows that the greatest impact on forming of the social participation between of the components has the social trust with Beta rate 0.418 and the social gender with -0.219 has the lowest rate. In other hand the social trust has effect on 41.8 % of the variation of the participation.
    Keywords: Participation, Cohesion, Rural Management, islamic council, Asalem
  • Mohammad Hossein Sharifzadegan, Sahar Nedae Tousi* Pages 105-123
    Introduction
    Globalization and advances in information and communication technologies and also emerging knowledge based economies fundamentally alter the policy approaches of countries relying on "comparative advantage" to the "competitive advantage"; This trend have raised the concept of "Territorial Competitiveness". Competitiveness, a concept that previously was meaningful only at the level of activities and firms, in the mid-1990s, coinciding with the increasing importance of place, caused by the movement of human resources and capital, enjoyed spatial manifest and came into the discourse of regional science and spatial development planning.
    In this regard, the aim of the research ahead dedicated to address two questions in the context of regional development competitiveness: First, the nature of competitiveness in the region and the other one, the reason of being more competitive in some regions relative to others; Responding these two questions would reveal how to achieve a competitive position in the region in relative to the others, and develop the "spatial development competitiveness frameworks".
    Current approaches are imperfect in answering mentioned questions above; addressing the issue from the perspective of just one point of view or discipline, assume the same importance quotient for all of the known drivers in achieving regional competitiveness, and ignoring or regarding the role of mediator variables as the least importance in formulation of the causal relationship are all factors that make the available approaches imperfect. On the other hand, the impossibility of generalizing available regional development competitiveness models, which is being used in developed countries, to the context of other countries, has put recognizing the specific and most suitable drivers for yielding regional competitiveness in Iran on agenda of the ahead research, as the main step in formulating theoretical model of regional development competitiveness in territory.
    Methodology
    Seeking a comprehensive spatial development framework for making regions more competitive in Iran, with least shortcomings in available approaches mentioned above, and best fit to the Iran’s context, would be met by a procedure that is scheduled in some steps in this research: At first, by considering the main differences in territorial competitiveness definition between different scales, from firms’ level to local (city or regions) and national level, we would review different definitions of regional competitiveness, as dependent latent variable, by means of archival studies and try to propose a typology to get rid of the ambiguities in the literatures. By this review and typology, according to the purpose of the study, the most suitable definition would be selected and accordingly appropriate index would be defined. In next step, we try to extract all of the drivers mentioned in different disciplines literature. These drivers or success determinants for regional development could be traced in seven main theoretical visions: new economic geography theories, strategist’s point of view, Evolutionary theories or Neo-Schumpeterian point of view, new growth theory, endogenous growth theories, creative capital theory, consumer city theoretical view and last one cognitive-cultural industries theory. In this step, after definition, these success determinants would be indexed to enter into the casual relationship model as independent latent variables. In next step, importance quotient of the drivers in yielding RC would be measured by means of Path Analysis method. The strength of this model is its ability in eliminating linearity’s between drivers and considering the role of mediator variables. Accordingly Iran’s casual model of regional competitiveness would be formulated.
    Accessing formal required information and statistics limited the scope of this research to the province level of Iran. Besides, addressing the issue from the perspective of spatial development planning and considering the study scope and responsibilities of regional science disciplines, kept away this research from logging to the macroeconomics issues and just those drivers or success determinants would be analyzed that are within the scope of the place related areas.
    Results And Discussion
    As model shows, specializing based on relative advantages such as oil in Iran would not be a good driver in yielding competitiveness unlike its advantages in increasing wealth. Since it would not be leaded to innovation and does not have flexibility in meeting changing needs in global market. Even, creativity capital theories that is used in American context, is not applicable in Iran. C.C activities and clustering are most suitable drivers for Iran’s context. These activities must be placed in top of the RC agenda since they are able to occupy niche markets.
    Conclusion
    The proposed theoretical framework for yielding regional competitiveness in Iran, in this research, shows that most of the available models in the world are not directly applicable in the context of Iran. Each context needs innovative solutions in proposing the best fitted model. The proposed model in this research needs to be tested by means of structural equation modeling methods in future researches. This method would approve this theoretical model by empirical data. So, more researches are needed for formulating the best framework for Iran’s regional development. Up this way, we would be able to respond correctly to the emerging needs of regional policy takers and maker in finding best solutions for making their regions competitive.
    The proposed theoretical framework for yielding regional competitiveness in Iran, in this research, shows that most of the available models in the world are not directly applicable in the context of Iran. Each context needs innovative solutions in proposing the best fitted model. The proposed model in this research needs to be tested by means of structural equation modeling methods in future researches. This method would approve this theoretical model by empirical data. So, more researches are needed for formulating the best framework for Iran’s regional development. Up this way, we would be able to respond correctly to the emerging needs of regional policy takers and maker in finding best solutions for making their regions competitive.
    Keywords: Regional Development Competitiveness, Cluster Development, Creativity Capital, Consumption Region, Cognitive, Cultural Activities
  • Rafat Shahmari Ardejani Pages 125-140
    Introduction
    the establishment and emergence of a city, more than anything else, principally depends on the natural environment and geographical location because the natural effects and phenomena have strong effect in localization, distribution, influence, physical and morphological development of urban areas. Most natural phenomena are plateaus, mountains, craters, valleys, plains and beaches, alluvial fans, slopes, rivers, seas, lakes, etc. (Zomorrodian, 8: 1995). Therefore, one of the most important studies in basic planning of settlements is identifying geomorphological phenomena and displaying them on a map of the same title (geomorphology). In fact, geomorphic and topographic features of a geographic place are not only effective in the dispersion or concentration of human activities, but also, eventually, it is one the factors influencing the shape and physical appearance spatial structures. (Ramesht, 102: 2005)
    the purpose of preparing geomorphologic maps is recording information about the forms of surface, materials (soils and rocks), surface processes, and, in some cases, the age of land on these maps. The most successful approach to prepare such maps is the combination of field studies with the aerial photographs (Hosseinzadeh, 37: 2007). The first geomorphologic map of Iran, in a scale of 1:2500000, is among a set of maps of the near East in the University of Tubingen in Germany in 1990, which was produced and released by Servati, in collaboration with Bausch and Grounret; of course, some maps have been prepared by some colleagues of Tehran University, with the scale of 1:250000 and 1:50000. (JamshidJedariEivazi, FarajollahMahmoudi). The point which must be mentioned in this section is that this is the first large-scale geomorphologic map (1:25000) prepared in the vast eastern part of Guilan province (sarvar, 2002: 1-79). This article is part of a research project conducted by the author in the West of Gilan. (Shahmari, 2002: 1-45)
    Methodology
    this study is a descriptive-analytical study which, based on the purpose, can be functional. Overall, the research process is as follows: the readiness and interest, experience and knowledge about the area, collecting large-scale topographic maps (1:25000) as the base maps, field visits and the observation of objects and phenomena on earth, drawing and producing primary map of land forms, geology and slope maps, analyzing data, aerial and satellite image analysis, and, finally, the analysis of results and producing the final geomorphologic map.
    Results And Discussion
    The study area is in the West of Guilan province and starts from the zero point of the border between Iran and Azerbaijan (the town of Astara) and includes the southern parts of Astara city, Talesh, Rezvanshahr, and Masal. It is located between ˝00 ´15 °37 to ˝00 ´27 °38 north latitude of the equator and ˝00 ´35 °48 to ˝00 ´14 °49 east longitude (topographic map 1:25000) and has 6/3839 square kilometers. The area under study is composed of two distinct morphology sections including:Mountainous Areas: an average altitude of 1500 meters above sea level, steep slopes, deep valleys and different streams on the slopes, existence of fault cliffs across the highlands of Talesh and other issues can be some of the restrictive geomorphologic factors in the development of settlements in the area of the study. Geomorphologic map of the mountainous area shows that the distribution of settlements of Aq Masjid (White Mosque), BaskemChal, Chamlar, Haji Amir, Vonabin, Heiran, Degarmankshi, Damiroughlikesh, Giladeh, Mashand, Dash Dibi, Baharestan, Latoun is influenced by the geomorphology (shape of the land). The things which are clearly visible in most areas are lack of flat land for the development and expansion of settlements.
    Foothill Areas: have lower elevation than the surrounding mountainous areas, but, compared to the plain areas, have higher elevation and include from 100 to 500 meters, and, with a relatively gentle slope, extend a distance from mountains and connect to the plain. The main geomorphic elements of foothills region can be alluvial fan, concave and convex slopes, valleys and streams, cliffs, and the water path. Physical expansion of settlements usually encounters an obstacle while developing from one side. In the top of plains, the existence of mountain, high steep, rocks and boulder debris, and, overall, sediments are the major obstacles for spatial development.
    Conclusion
    The diversity of natural features and geographical positions has caused the heterogeneity and inconsistency in the creation, distribution, and density of urban and rural settlements in the study area so that, at the first glance, it is likely that the number of settlements in the East (toward the sea) region to the West (toward the mountains) is more; but studying the topographic maps of 1:25000, and analyzing the statistical data of the number of villages at different levels (Organization of Management and Planning, 2005, 37) suggests that, according to the increase in the height from the East to the West, the number of urban and rural settlements will increase in a way that, from among the total villages of 692 in the study area, 179 villages are on the shore (height of below zero meters), 115 villages in the plains (height of zero to 100 meters ); the total number of 294 villages which compose 48/42 per cent of the villages in the East of study area, and the rest of the 398 villages are in the West of study area from among which 109 villages are in the foothills (100-500), 294 villages in the mountain (above 500 maters), which, in sum, include 57.51 % of the whole villages in the west of Guilan province;in other words, the number of villages in the foothills and the mountains (toward the West) is more than the coast and the plains (toward the East) in a way that, from among the total number of 692 villages, 57.51 %, approximately 398 villages, are in areas of the foothills and mountains. Yet, despite a long record of residential issues in elevations (foothills and mountains), compared to the coastal areas and plains, due to the conditions of using this section, the number of population and density are high and the number and density of the population decreases from ....
    Keywords: physical development, Settlements, Geomorphology map, town, village, West of Guilan
  • Mohammad Saadi Mesgari, Farshad Amiraslani, Seyed Kazem Alavipanah, Marziye Askari Shahid* Pages 141-157
    Introduction
    Complex interactions between human decision-makers and their biophysical environment can be observed in land-use systems. These complexities are due to the differences between biophysical and socio-economic variables. For Modeling of human decision-making, we need to know interactions between landscape, community, or ecosystems. In reality, humans make decisions using variety of strategies. We need to simplify the complex interaction between all individual agents and their environment by formulating an agent typology. In this paper, given the complexity of the decision-making in agent based models, the agricultural land use changes are simulated by the multinomial logistic regression model to determine the socio-economic and environmental factors. Also the proportional random rules use to implement the bounded rationality law for unique individual decision making. Considering the particular environmental conditions of the region and the severity of the risk of desertification, the economic, social, physical factors and the chemical parameters of soil along with other environmental factors in the decision-making processes were investigated.
    Methodology
    Diverse data (including GIS and household data) were used for initializing the coupled human–landscape system and farmer household decision making simulations. GIS data consist of landscape agents (grid cell or patch): Land use/cover (based on Landsat 8), soil Physico-chemical properties (EC, SAR, PH (pH), texture, moisture), institutional variables (i.e. ownership, village territory), and topography. Household data consist of socioeconomic attributes: labour force, educational status, income structure, and land properties. They were derived from an intensive household survey conducted in Segzi plain in Isfahan province (central Iran) during the spring 2013. The agent-based decision-making method has been presented by Le (2005). For determining decision-making approach, a mechanism of livelihood groups dynamics were considered as follows. At first, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify key factors differentiating household characteristics. These factors were then employed to classify the population into certain household groups using K-Means Cluster Analyses. The identified agent groups were interpreted and their types specified. Regression logistic multinomial model (M-logit) was employed for land-use choices modeling in each typological household agent group. The dependent variable of the model is land-use choice by farming households (Puse). The independent variables of the M-logit model include two groups of spatial variable and socioeconomic characteristics of farming households. Environmental features of lands were defined including Pwet ( soil moisture), Pslope (derived from Digital Elevation Model), Pelev (elevation), PEC (Electrical conductivity as salt factor), Pgroundwater (measuring the reduction of ground water), PPH (PH), PSAR (Sodium Absorption Ratio). Socioeconomic characteristics of farming households that influence farmer's decisions, include Hage (the age of the household head), Hedu (educated farmers), Hincome/pers (annual gross income per capita), Hholding/pers (land holding per capita), Hcultivation/pers (land cultivating per capita), Hlabor (number of workers of the household), and Hdepend(family members of the workers).
    Results And Discussion
    We reduced the dimensionality of 14 potential criteria by using PCA. The six (6) principle components were extracted with total Eigenvalues greater than 1.0, explaining 77.4 % of the total variance of original independent variables. The PC1 was strongly correlated to land variables: Hholding=0. 911, Hcultivation=0. 925. The principle components 2 (PC2), 3 (PC3), 4 (PC4), 5(PC5) were most weighted by percentage income from other off-farm activity factors (Hinother=0.843), household size (Hsize=0.833), percentage income from grain (HinGrain=0.773), percentage income from wheat (HinWheat=0.898), respectively.
    The K-means run extracted three groups. The group I consists of households which are rich regarding both land resources and income. The group II includes households with average livelihood standard and the group III comprises the poorest households having the lowest amount of land and income. After determining the typological livelihood group, the variables affecting the decision-making was identified using the M-logit model. The effect coefficients were estimated with respect to the fallow land, i.e., the base case. The chi-square test shows that the empirical M-logit model is highly significant (p
    Keywords: Decision making, multinomial logistic regression model, principle component analysis, Agent based model, land use, cover changes
  • Mohsen Kalantari Pages 159-175
    Introduction
    Smuggling, in violation of the law, especially without payment of legal duty, is one of the complex and challenging criminal behavior in the country. This criminal behavior causes irreparable material and spiritual damages to the country each year. By avoiding regulatory controls, the criminals behind these activities typically peddle often-dangerous goods with a complete disregard for the health and safety of consumers. The phenomenon has grown to an unprecedented level, posing tremendous risks to society and the global economy. Much smuggling occurs when enterprising merchants attempt to supply demand for a good or service that is illegal or heavily taxed. As the smuggler faces significant risk of civil and criminal penalties if caught with contraband, smugglers are able to impose a significant price premium on smuggled goods. The profits involved in smuggling goods appear to be extensive. Profits also derive from avoiding taxes or levies on imported goods. Problems associated with smuggling include loss of revenue, distortion of market prices, the collapse of local industries and unemployment. In Bushehr, which is located in the southern border of Iran, due to the extensive water boundaries and geographical and strategic features, high rate of goods smuggling is one of the most important issues of the province.
    Methodology
    This paper aimed at analyzing the spatial pattern and the domain of general food smuggling in the Bushehr province. In order to identify and analyzing the spatial patterns of crime in this area, some statistical and graphic models and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) have been applied. This study is based on analytic-comparative method and the essential data and information have been collected through documentary and survey methods. All the good smuggling events, which have occurred in Bushehr province during the year of 2010, were studied in this article. The spatial patterns of crime distribution in Bushehr province have been identified by using some statistical methods, including: Mean Center, Standard Deviation Ellipse, Network Analysis and Quartic Kernel Density Estimation. The mean center point can be used as a relative measure to compare spatial distributions between different crime types or against the same crime type for different periods. Levels of dispersion can be presented using standard deviation ellipses. The size and shape of the ellipse help explain the degree of dispersion, and its alignment helps to explain the crime type’s orientation. The most suitable method for visualizing crime data as a continuous surface is quartic kernel density estimation. The quartic kernel density method creates a smooth surface of the variation in the density of point events across an area.
    Results And Discussion
    the Mean Center points for goods smuggling events indicate that this type of crime shows a greater tendency to occur in the central part of the study area. Levels of dispersion can be presented using Standard Deviation Ellipses. The north-west, southeast orientation of drug-related crimes helps to describe the general direction toward which these crimes have a tendency to be patterned. The most suitable method for visualizing crime data as a continuous surface is Quartic Kernel Density Estimation. Based on this method, the major drug hot spot has been identified in Bisim district. Crime maps produced by the network analysis are one of the common methods to identify crime hotspots. In these maps, crime density has been calculated according to the area or population within each grid cell, independent of defined political and administrative boundaries. The results of this study show that the highest discoveries of food smuggling in Bushehr were in Kangan parish and the lowest were in Dashty parish. However, based on the network analysis and Quartic Kernel Density Estimation, central part of the Deilam parish has the highest density of food smuggling crimes. Finding of the present article show that the most important origin of food smugglings were Bushehr and Hormozgan provinces and main destination were Bushehr and Fars provinces. Temporal analysis of crime occurrence shows that food smuggling occurs more in the middle of the week, and during the day, it was more in the middle of the day.
    Conclusion
    The phenomenon of smuggling in Bushehr province affected by geographical, social and economic factors and conditions. In fact, the most important factors in shaping spatial patterns of smuggling in Bushehr province include geographical location and spread in the form of a narrow strip along 475 kilometers, natural facilities including estuaries, tide, dark or stormy nights. In addition, some social and economic characteristics affected the high rate of smuggling such as unemployment and lack of appropriate employment opportunities, low quality of life of residents. There are some causes of smuggling in the national level includes the profits of smuggling activities, the existence of the market and the demand for foreign goods, instability in export and import regulations, monopolies and exemptions in the exports and imports field, the difference between the market price in the domestic market with neighboring countries. In order to decrease goods smuggling these suggestions should be considered as a priority for the authorities and people in charge: locating police station in the strategic entry and exit of cities, updating database of control centers, providing comprehensive and integrated databases of smuggling event, using new technologies in the field of crime analysis. The other important issue in controlling crime occurrence and preventing smuggling is considering the situational crime prevention strategies and analyzing crime events regarding crime hotspots. Criminal activity tends to be spatially localized in regions called crime ‘hot spots’: regions where high criminal activity is surrounded by low criminal activity. The use of hotspots to identify the problematic areas in urban environments and to determine policing and crime prevention strategies has grown in use over recent years. Crime hotspots have appealed to both crime prevention practitioners and police managers.
  • Dorreh Mirheydar*, Marjan Badiee Azandahi, Yashar Zaki, Fatemeh Sadat Mirahmadi Pages 177-196
    Introduction
    Following the emergence of spatial perspective and quantitative revolution in human geography, both the “idea” and “methodology” were transformed. In the 1950s and 1960s, other branches of human geography, except for historical and cultural geographies, focused on spatial school in their researches and published many scientific works. However, political geography did not manage to adapt itself to these transformations. The result was the separation of political geography from the main stream changes of geography in the 1950s and 1960s. The present study tries to find answer to the following question: why did spatial perspective entered political geography with delay, and afterward, in the 1970s, was removed from the center of political geographical studies?
    Methodology
    The present study is a basic research conducted through descriptive-analytical approach. The data were gathered using library and computer research, and then, were analyzed qualititaively.
    Results And Discussion
    The following reasons can be put forward for the question why political geographers applied this perspective late in their studies:1. Incongruity of basic researches with positivist method in political geography: Basic researches in the realm of politics cannot be adapted with positivist perspective. Hence, quantitative revolution led to a disturbance in political geography, as quantitative works were of limited use in political geography which, initially, had little to offer in research for “spatial laws” except for the case of election.
    2. Inappropriateness of basic theories of spatial – quantitative perspective with problems of political geography: Quantitative geography (and subsequently, Geographic Information Science, GIS) developed as a response to the challenges of the day, particularly economic stagnation of Western countries. One outcome of spatial-quantitative was focus on Location Theory. However, this theory was primarily applied in urban and economic geography and did not have much relevance in political geography.
    3. Ignoring the factors of power and politics in spatial perspective: The positivist political geography had cognitivist shortcomings. This perspective was apolitical and independent from politics. Location theory was largely spatialization of neoclassic economy of those days. In common economy and, hence, Location theory, the problem of power can be easily ignored. In other words, focusing on the neoclassic economies as a self-regulative system, the problems of conflict and unequal distribution are ignored. Thus, a real political geography could not flourish within such perspective; as political geographers had to ignore the agent in their studies and investigated the “processes” rather than “causes”.
    Although political geographers joined to spatial perspective too late but they did valuable contribution, especially in election geography, Study of urban politics and Changes in administrative areas during 1970s. But after 1970s, spatial perspective went out of the centrality of studies. Regarding the decline of spatial perspective in the studies of political geographers, two reasons can be put forward:1. Paradigm shift in the science of geography: Evidently, the existing ideas in political geography are always (of course, with some delay) a function of thoughts in other branches of geography. By the emergence of economic and political crises in many Western countries in the 1960s, most geographers inclined toward radicalism-Marxism and structural perspective since 1970s. Also, since 1970s, the humanist school of geography has been established and developed. The main criticism of humanists from positivist was that in the positivist methodology and spatial thought school, sufficient attention has not been paid to explanation of humanist problems. In the 80s and 90s, the thought framework of geographers shifted significantly, and the development of perspectives since 1970s entering into humanist geography led to the formation of trends such as critical geography, post-structuralist and post-modern geography.
    2. Changes in international system: Clearly, the ending years of the 1960s, due to changes in the international system, prepared the ground for recovering political geography. Some of these changes included emergence of new actors in the international stage due to decolonization, emergence of nationalism in the third world, Cuban revolution, and the growth of evolutionary movements in other regions of the world. By the changes in the national system, political geographers were no longer obliged to hide themselves behind the shield of positivism which claimed to be positive and impartial, and remove the problems of power and politics from their writings.
    Conclusion
    Spatial perspective affected sub-branches of geography in varying degrees. Meanwhile, political geography was one of the branches least affected, and during 1950s and 1960s, had the most traditional orientation. The main factors which, during 1950s and 1960s, prevented political geographers from adapting to the major thought school of spatial perspective included incongruity of basic researches with positivist methodology in political geography, inappropriateness of basic theories in spatial-quantitative perspective with the issues of political geography, ignoring power and politics in spatial perspective. But the reason for the decline of the importance of spatial perspective in the 1970s in political geographers’ studies is the paradigm shift in the science of geography and changes in the international system. At the end, it must be pointed out that despite all challenges and deficiencies of spatial-quantitative perspective, this perspective has had to useful reflections; i.e. the expansion of behavioral geography. Agnew believes that spatial perspective paved the way for recovering political geography, as the new political geography was developed in a critical context of spatial-quantitative revolution. According to Cox, spatial perspective is one of the three main traditions of studies in geographical science. Also, Agnew believes that spatial analysis is of the three main thought trends which entered political geography since the 1960s, and has been placed successfully in the though landscape of this discipline. In fact, nowadays, we witness pluralism in political geography in terms of both subject and methodology, and spatial-quantitative perspective is one of those numerous perspectives used by political geographers, since sometimes, it is the only approach to investigate a problem.
    Keywords: Political geography, spatial perspective, spatial science approach, Systemic approach
  • Seyed Hasan Motiee Langroodi*, Farshad Souri, Mehdi Cheraghi Pages 197-209
    Introduction
    Toachieve the objectives of food security andagriculture, including its effective roleinstreng the ningnational independence requiresfast and accuratetransition froms tagetostage in the production of traditional livelihoods andindustrial productionand trade. The other handpursuit of sustainable agriculture todayasan approachto agriculture that made it possible to begin commercial production and food security of rural households makesit possible. In family uses about 80 percent of total agricultural uses accounted for, and thereforethe relationship between thein terest collected and food security in rural areasis of utmost importance, In this regard, this study also analyzes there lationship between thefood security and sustainable agricultureis discussed.
    Research
    Methodology
    According to the studyin order to identify the relationship between food security and ther uralrich family uses bigelowis, therefore obeys the function al approach. This study is the descriptive research method-correlation analysis is carried out using the method. Research is a two section documentary and in section documentary through library research to gather background and theoretical Research, and a small section to analyse the data has been paid. Basic dataon the status of food security and sustainability of family farming systemin the coanty is ghani-bigelow questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: descriptive questionssuch as age, sex, education, food security status, a second batch of questions relating to the sustainability off amily farming systems in sustainable agriculture and household food security operation in the third part of the question concerning the form cartstandard commodity the Ministry of health requirements. according tomultiplestudies, the authors of 10 socialindicators, economic in dicatorsand 9 nineen vironmental in dicatorsto identify the factors affecting the economic, social, environmental and food security in the lives of beneficiaries were selected in the city of Zanjan. Since the total study population in cluded 1,324 family farmersin 8 rurals areselected, among them, using Cochran formula and table sample volume of 300 farmers were selected to complete the questionnaire and data necessary to navigate the desired 8 rurals were selected at random and were carefully collected. Spss software for data analysis and one-sample t-test for test for analyzing the stability of the family operation, Tukey's test, Pearson's chi-square tables to examine the relation  taking advantage of the family and the general index correlation test for the relationship between sustainability and social and economic characteristics of interest - family farmers and food security were used.
    Research findings :Descriptive findings indicate that individual characteristics of users, withan average age of 44.6 years for men and 94.8% among men and 5.2 percent of the mare women.Average family size of 4.3 persons perhousehold operation. In terms of education,19.6 percent were illiterate, 29.9% had primary school education, school education, 17.5 percent, 11.5 percent, education, high school diploma,12.8 percent, 8.7 percent havea bachelorsor higher graduateed ucation.The findings in relation to food security status of household sin the study rurals how among the items in the commodity basket standard provided by the ministry of health, there was only a poor person's consumption and the highest rate of poverty among food items, meat, fish and vegetables are.Thefindingsshow that 20.13 percent and 41.91 percent in the statistical community in absolute poverty, relative poverty live.
    Conclusions
    Analytic alresultsrelated to food security and sustainable family farming systems in ghani-biglwe rurals rich in zanjan township shows that, Stable operation of the systemis not in acceptable condition and the average family size in all three dimensions of sustainability in economic, environmental and social desirability of numeric negatively be assessed. In the second analysis, result sindicate statistically significant differences between the dependent variables tudied food security in rural households of farmers and sustainable agriculture is the independent variable. The following resultss how that based on sustainable agriculture, rural farmers were no significant differences in household food security is achieved and the positive direction of this relationshipis estimated that the association is indicated. So we can say that by increasing the sustainability of agricultural systems exploit a rich family in a county ghani-bigelow, food security at the household will increase proportionally.
    Keywords: Iran, rural development, Sustainable Agriculture, food security, rural rich Bigelow