- Volume:2 Issue: 4, 2015
- تاریخ انتشار: 1394/10/10
- تعداد عناوین: 6
Antibacterial Activity of the Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Juglans regia L. Stem Bark on Human Bacterial InfectionPages 139-143Aims: Bovine mastitis continues to be the most costly disease to the dairy farmers. It dominates in Iran as one of the most prevalent diseases in dairy cattle among the dairy farms. Mastitis treatment with antibiotics leads to the development of antibiotic resistant strains and consumer health problem. This study was performed for the first time to analyze in vitro effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Juglans regia L. stem bark on 6 mastitis pathogens.Materials and Methodsthe susceptibility of 6 strains of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus spp., Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica) were analyzed against hydro-alcoholic extract of Juglans regia L. stem bark with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) methods.
Findings: Hydro-alcoholic extract did not have antibacterial effects on E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Minimum inhibitory concentration for S. aureus, P. multocida, M. haemolytica and Streptococcus spp. was 62.5mg/ml of hydro-alcoholic extract. There was not any significant response with concentrations below 100mg/disc on S. aureus, Streptococcus species, P. multocida and M. haemolytica. Minimum bactericidal concentration of this extract was 100mg/ml in all isolates.ConclusionJuglans regia L. have some antibacterial effects on S. aureus, P. multocida, M. haemolytica and Streptococcus species.Keywords: Mastitis, Bovine, Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests, Juglans
Comparing the Efficacy Rates of Lime and Poly Aluminum Chloride Coagulants in Cadmium Removal from the Landfill Leachate by Chemical PrecipitationPages 145-150Aims: Chemical precipitation is a simple, efficient, and cost-effective method for eliminating heavy metals found in landfill leachate. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy rates of cadmium removal with the coagulants like poly aluminum chloride and lime using chemical precipitation method.Materials and MethodsIn this experimental study, the raw studied samples were collected from the landfill located in Kahrizak, Iran, in May 2014. The elimination rates of cadmium at 1000, 1500 and 2000mg/l concentrations of lime; at 100, 150 200mg/l concentrations of poly aluminum chloride; at 7, 9, 11 pH levels; and during 20, 40 and 60min of the reaction time were studied. Data were analyzed in SPSS 16 software using ANOVA, independent T and repeated measurement tests.
Findings: The maximum elimination rate of cadmium in both lime and poly aluminum chloride were seen at pH=11. The maximum rates of cadmium removal occurred at minute 40 in 2000mg/l concentration of lime (99.4%) and 200mg/l concentration of poly aluminum chloride (98%).ConclusionBoth lime and poly aluminum chloride have the best cadmium removal rate from leachate at pH=11 after 40 minutes of precipitation process. Being more inexpensive and easily available than poly aluminum chloride, lime is considered as an appropriate coagulant.Keywords: Cadmium, Calcium Hydroxide, Aluminum Compounds, Chemical Precipitation
Analysis the Existence of Heterotrophic Bacteria in Active Water Desalination Plant Output of Kashan City, IranPages 151-155Aims: One of the consequences of taking ground water into surface is changing its chemical quality, specially increasing the concentration of dissolved salts. This research was performed in order to analyze growth possibility of heterotrophic bacteria in the membrane of active desalination plants in Kashan City, Iran.
Instrument &MethodsThis descriptive cross-sectional study was done on water output of 20 active desalination plants in 2013 in Kashan City, Iran and 200 specimens of input and output water was randomly extracted from desalination plants. Awareness and education level of system operators, filter changing intervals, HPC of input and output water and chlorine concentration of input and output water were measured and recorded. Obtained data were analyzed statistically with SPSS 18 software using one-way ANOVA, Chi-square, McNemar and one-sample T tests.
Findings: There was a significant relation between the interval time and output HPC level of the plants (p0.05). The mean concentration of chlorine in samples of 20 desalination plants was 0.76±0.44mg/l in input water and 0.64±0.52mg/l in output water (p>0.05). Level of awareness had significant relation with the output water pollution with HPC (p0.05).ConclusionThe mean level of HPC pollution in output water of desalination plants of Kashan City, Iran, is much less than WHO standards.Keywords: Osmosis, Water Purification, Biofilms, Heterotrophic Growth
Pages 157-162Aims: Physical inactivity has been identified as the 4th leading risk factor for global mortality causing an estimated of 3.2million deaths per year. This study aimed to assess the physical activity of health volunteers with Pender's Health Promotion Model.
Instrument &MethodsThis cross-sectional analytical study was performed on 80 health volunteers in Torbat-e-Jam City, Iran, in 2015. A researcher-made questionnaire with the following sections was used to gather data; perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, interpersonal influences, positive emotion, commitment, modeling and competing preferences. SPSS 16 sofware was used to analyze data by independent T, Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear regression tests.
Findings: There was no significant difference between the scores according to educational levels, age groups, BMI score, marital status, habitat and experience as a health volunteer duration. Physical activity had positive correlation with perceived benefits, self-efficacy, commitment, positive emotion and situational influences and a negative correlation with perceived barriers. Situational influences, as the strongest predictor of the physical activity, predicted 35.1% of it and then positive emotions predicted 34.7% and self-efficacy predicted 23.4% of physical activity.ConclusionThe level of physical activity in health volunteers of Torbat-e-Jam City, Iran, is not appropriate and is less than moderate.Keywords: Physical Activity, Attitude of Health Personnel, Health Promotion
Pages 163-166Aims: It seems that there is a causal link between dietary fat and body weight. Overweight obesity is the biggest nutrition-related problem in developed countries and the rapid summation of obesity is taking place in their populations. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different diets on the obesity of Syrian hamsters.Materials and MethodsThis experimental study conducted on 48 N-Mary male Syrian hamsters with an average weight of 25-30g. Mice were randomly divided into 6 groups (each 8); control, corn oil, olive oil, cow ghee, sheep ghee and, cholesterol. All the samples were weighted before and after the 2 months period of treatment. Data was analyzed by SPSS 16 software using paired T and Kruskal-Wallis tests.
Findings: The mean weights of all groups were significantly increased after the treatment in compared to before. Only significant overweight compared to control group was seen in CG group (pConclusionHigh-fat diet can causes weight gain, especially cow ghee has more prominent role in the weight gaining.Keywords: Olive Oil, Corn Oil, Ghee, Cholesterol