فهرست مطالب

Anatomical Sciences Journal - Volume:12 Issue: 4, 2016
  • Volume:12 Issue: 4, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/01/03
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Mohammad Naser Nazem *, Sayed Mohsen Sajjadian, Dariush Vosough, Ali Mirzaesmaeili Pages 153-160
    Introduction
    Topographic anatomy of the tendons and ligaments in healthy cases provides a normal atlas to diagnose abnormalities. The aim of this study was to provide ultrasonography description of the palmar tendons and ligaments of the Anatoly donkey.
    Methods
    The metacarpal regions of 6 healthy Anatoly donkeys were prepared for ultrasonography and divided to 6 levels (1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b), each 3 cm long apart. For better description, 2 left and right forelimbs were anatomically studied too.
    Results
    All the structures started to appear with an acceptable contrast and visibility at 1b level. Echogenicity of deep digital flexor tendons (DDFT) from 2b level was hyperechoic to isoechoic compared to superficial digital flexor tendons (SDFT) and suspensory ligament (SL) from this level observed the branching area was hyperechoic in comparison to DDFT and SDFT; however MSL and LSL were hypoechoic compared to SDFT and DDFT. Also the inferior check ligament (ICL) and new discovered ligament (second superior check ligament) had been detected in both anatomical and ultrasonographic studies. There were not any echogenicity differences between right and left forelimbs.
    Conclusion
    Previous investigations have proved that there is no difference between the echogenicity of each ligament and tendon at different levels in the left and right limbs which was confirmed in the current study as well. The findings of our study are also highly compatible with the previous findings in horses regarding echogenicity and shape of the palmar tendons and ligaments. Generally it is assumed that transverse images provide a better image of tendons and ligaments.
    Keywords: Ultrasonography, Palmar Tendon, ligament, Anatoly donkey, Second superior check ligament
  • Mahboobeh Abdolalizadeh, Fatemeh Jahanimoghadam * Pages 161-166
    Introduction
    In different professions, including dentistry, work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the main reason of loss of working period, increasing labor costs, human injuries, and absence from work. Improper posture while working is the main cause of these disorders among dentists. In this regard, identifying the risk factors and its potential harms are absolutely necessary. However, dentists are not usually informed of the role of ergonomics in the health of their musculoskeletal system. The aim of this study was to evaluate body posture in dentists’ profession.
    Methods
    Through search in PubMed, Google, Scopus, and Medline, a total of 23 original research papers were found with the keywords such as musculoskeletal disorders, dentists and ergonomics. Then, the main factors responsible for MSDs among dentists and the ways to prevent them were identified and presented.
    Results
    Dentists working in an asymmetric and static position. Usually their head is forward and often rotates in one direction and hands are away from the body. Furthermore, dentists need eye-hand coordination to work. Maintaining this posture for a long period causes stress in the joints, muscles and tendons, especially in the neck, back, shoulder, and wrist body parts. Work equipment is not often designed ergonomically. These factors lead to musculoskeletal disorders like thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, rounded shoulders, forward head posture, supraspinatus tendinitis, and trigger points in muscles like trapezius.
    Conclusion
    The work conditions and postures of dentists need to be improved. Furthermore, the level of dental professional education regarding the risk factors of MSDs as well as correct working conditions and postures should be increased.
    Keywords: Musculoskeletal disease, Dentist, Ergonomics
  • Fatemeh Tahmasebi, Maryam Khanehzad, Soheila Madadi, Gholamreza Hassanzadeh * Pages 167-170
    Introduction
    Nose morphology depends on gender, ethnicity, and environmental conditions. It can be used in identification of the race and sex of persons whose identity is unknown. Nasal index is a useful tool in anthropometry.
    Methods
    In this study, nasal parameters of Iranian males and females students were measured (nasal height, nasal width, and nasal index). This study was conducted on 200 medical students of Tehran University, Tehran, Iran. Subjects were 100 males and 100 females, aged 18-30 years. The nasal height and width were measured by a sliding vernier calliper and the nasal index was accordingly calculated.
    Results
    Our data showed that the mean nasal index for males and females were 68.91±8.11 and 66.05±7.53, respectively. So, nose of Iranian people is leptorrhine type. The mean nasal index in males was significantly (P≤0.05) higher than that in females.
    Conclusion
    The result of this study could be employed in the detection of gender in forensic medicine and rhinoplasty surgery.
    Keywords: Nose, Anthropometry, Iran
  • Mohsen Mir, Mohammad Reza Arab *, Mohammad Reza Shahraki, Mohammad Ali Mashhadi, Masood Shahraki Salar, Fereydoon Sargolzai Aval, Mohammad Hassan Karimfar Pages 171-176
    Introduction
    Cisplatin is an antineoplastic drug, which is widely used for the treatment of solid tumors. However, its clinical usage is limited because of its side effects such as hepatotoxicity. This study aimed to identify toxic effects of cisplatin on hepatocytes of rats.
    Methods
    A total of 45 adult Sprague Dawley rats weighing 200±30 g were randomly divided into experimental (n=30) and control (n=15) groups. Rats of experimental groups were divided into 2 subgroups; subgroup 1 received 2 consecutive 2.5mg/kg dose of cisplatin, intraperitoneally in the beginning of first and fifth weeks of the study. Subgroup 2 also received 2 consecutive 5mg/kg dose of cisplatin in the same manner of subgroup 1. After 8 weeks, rats of both groups were anesthetized and killed. Then, their blood and tissue samples were taken. Prepared sections were stained by HE method. Collected data from microscopic slides and blood samples were analyzed by SPSS using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test.
    Results
    Statistical analysis showed significant differences in the activity of enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP) between control and experimental groups (P
    Conclusion
    Cisplatin disorganizes the architecture of hepatic lobules and increases sinusoidal diameter in rat liver.
    Keywords: Cisplatin, Liver, Enzymes, Sinusoidal diameter, Rat
  • Javad Sadeghinezhad *, Narges Zadsar, Soroush Bakhtiari Rad Pages 177-182
    Introduction
    The Persian Squirrel (Sciurus anomalus) is the only member of the Sciuridae family found in the Middle East. Some people maintain them as pets, thus their referrals to veterinary hospitals has been increased recently. Several morphological studies have been carried out mainly on the arch of aorta and its branches in common rodents, small mammals, and domestic animals but there are no reports on the details of the arcus aortae and its branches in the Persian squirrel despite the massive distribution of this species. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the anatomy of the arcus aortae in this species to promote future investigations in this field.
    Methods
    Four adult Persian squirrels were used for this research. The subjects were injected with red-colored latex into their left ventricles. Then, they were dissected and the pattern of arcus aortae branches was illustrated in the Persian squirrel.
    Results
    The arcus aortae branches off to the truncus brachiocephalicus and the arteria subclavia sinistra. At first the arteria carotis sinistra arises from the truncus brachiocephalicus and then continues to give off the arteria carotis dextra and arteria subclavia dextra. The subclavia dextra and sinistra branch into the same vessels, including arteria thoracica interna, arteria vertebralis, arteria cervicalis superficialis, arteria cervicalis profunda, and a common root which ramifies to the arteria scapularis dorsalis and the arteria intercostalis supreme.
    Conclusion
    The vessels originating from the arcus aortae showed significant differences, especially in the arteria subclavia branches compared to other rodents and small mammals.
    Keywords: Squirrel, Anatomy, Aortic, arch
  • Babak Pourmollaabbassi, Batool Hashemibeni *, Ebrahim Esfandiari Pages 183-190
    Hyaline cartilage is a vascular and neural tissue with scanty chondrocytes and limited regenerative ability. After some serious injuries of the cartilage, healing process will take place through the formation of fibrocartilage structures. Currently, tissue engineering and cell therapy are 2 interesting therapeutic fields dealing with regenerative medicine. In this regard, tissue regeneration has found mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with self-renewal and multipotential abilities as the best candidates for this process. Growth and differentiation of MSCs are induced by growth factors. The purpose of this review article is to evaluate the effect of growth factors and their signaling pathways involved in differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocytes in vitro conditions.
    Keywords: Mesenchymal stem cell, Growth factor, Chondro cartilage, Tissue engineering
  • Reza Samanipour *, Hossein Salehi Rozveh Pages 191-198
    Articular cartilage, the load-bearing tissue of the joint, has limited repair and regeneration ability. The scarcity of treatment modalities for large chondral defects has motivated researchers to engineer cartilage tissue constructs that can meet the functional demands of this tissue in vivo. Cartilage tissue engineering requires 3 components: cells, scaffold, and environment.
    Owning to their easy isolation, expansion, and multilineage differentiation, adult stem cells, specifically multipotential mesenchymal stem cells, are considered the proper candidate for tissue engineering. Successful outcome of cell-based cartilage tissue engineering ultimately depends on the proper differentiation of stem cells into chondrocytes and assembly of the appropriate cartilaginous matrix to achieve the load-bearing capabilities of the natural articular cartilage. Furthermore, multiple parameters such as growth factors, signaling molecules, and physical conditions must be considered. Adult mesenchymal stem-cell-based tissue engineering is a promising technology for creating a transplantable cartilage replacement to improve joint function.
    Keywords: Adult stem cell, Cartilage, Regeneration, Repair, Tissue engineering
  • Mohsen Noorozian, Mohammad Bayat, Reza Mastery Farahani, Mohammad, Amin Abdollahifar, Hadi Azimi, Ali Noori, Zadeh, Azam Asemi Rad, Somayeh Fallah Nejhad, Maryam Salimi, Hojjat, Allah Abbaszadeh * Pages 199-202
    During the past few years, researchers and practitioners have developed novel techniques, using ansa cervicalis to innervate muscles of the larynx paralyzed due to surgical procedures carried out in the chest and neck areas. During routine dissection of a middle-age male cadaver, an unusual course of the superior root of the ansa cervicalis was observed. In this case, the superior root of the ansa cervicalis fused with the vagus and ran within the carotid sheath, and then joined the inferior root forming the ansa cervicalis in the anterior wall of the carotid sheath. The study of this case will add to our current knowledge of ansa cervicalis and thus aid prevention of injury to the nerve during various surgical procedures.
    Keywords: Cervical plexus, Variation, Vagus nerve, Nerve loop
  • Mohammad Reza Darabi *, Alireza Shams, Parvindokht Bayat, Mohammad Bayat, Saeed Babaee, Bita Ghahremani Pages 203-205
    The knowledge of variations in the superficial veins is of clinical importance for the anatomist, radiologists, clinical practitioners and surgeons in order to plan about the operative procedures. Usually cephalic vein drains into the axillary vein. In this case report study the left cephalic vein communicates with the left external jugular vein and made a common trunk at the superior surface of the clavicle, and then opened into the subclavian vein posterosuperior to the clavicle. The aim of this report was to discuss about the presence of an abnormal communication between external jugular and cephalic vein.
    Keywords: Variation, Cephalic vein, External jugular vein