فهرست مطالب

ترویج علم - سال ششم شماره 8 (بهار و تابستان 1394)
  • سال ششم شماره 8 (بهار و تابستان 1394)
  • بهای روی جلد: 25,000ريال
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/08/23
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Babak Shamshiri, Soudabeh Shokrollahzadeh Page 7
    Today, much attention has been paid to museum education all over the worlddue to its unique features that afford for learning, but this issue is ignored in Iran’s educational system. Thus,the present paper aims at scrutinizing the principle reasons for ignorance of the role of museums in Iran’s educational system. Methodologically employing an analytic-inductive approach, this paper will answer to the following two questions:1- Why museum education is pivotal in formal and even non-formal education¿
    2- Why Iran’s educational system ignores it?
    Regarding the first question , it should be noted that because of significantcharacteristics of museum education such as implied/ experimental learning, not imposing learning to learner, simultaneous involvement of visitor’s cognitive and affective aspects in addition to employing 5 senses, museum education is an appropriate ground for learning and therefore plays a pivotal role in educational systems. Further, the functions of which illuminate its importance and necessity are as such: helping to shape cultural identity followed by national solidarity and coherence, helping to ecological education and thus havingcontribution to resolving ecological issues, helping to peace education and critical thinking by discussion about what are seen in museums, teaching various sciences, developing positive social behaviors, and finally developing the concept of self and individual identity. As far as the second question is concerned, two reasons should be noted: Iran’s educational system has ignored museum educational system because oflack ofproperunderstandingof theconcept of education and having a traditional perspective to aims, roles and functions of museum education. At the end,some suggestions havebeen proposed to take advantage ofthe capacities ofmuseumsandmuseumeducation.
    Keywords: Education, Museum education, Museum, Museum learning
  • Maliheh Saberi, Najafabadi Page 21
    Today, utilization of new motivating media in educational environment is more advantageous than the existing educational structures as the new audience does not tolerate propagandist messages anymore and prefers to discover it herself/himself .Therefore, cultural and religious topics could be transferred more efficiently to the audience, especially to children and teenagers through games in assistance with various interactive devices in diverse multimedia and in an exciting environment. In this case, the audience enters the area arranged with beautiful and moving games and interactive devices, touches them, plays with them and gets the result with no need of others’ help. Moreover, some various foods and customs could be prepared in that area based on Iranian cultural and religious taste and art. So, this culturewould be introduced to the audience. S/he could try them, experience them freely and might finally find them attractive. Perhaps, in this way, the audience could be driven to create a true image of Iranian culture and religion.The belief to mobility and freshness of Iranian culture, invites us to face with diversity, complicacy and change. In this article, besides studying active and discovery-basedtraining, some interactive tools for promoting Iranian-Islamic culture are introduced.
    Keywords: Iranian culture, Religious culture, Active learning, Interactive tool, Non, formal education
  • Mohammad, Reza Norouzi Page 37
    One of the most important earnings of an effective pedagogic schedule (at various levels) is showing attractiveness of science. This attractiveness is a tool for lifelong learning and keeping audiences tune to education provided. In formal education,the educators cannot provide these effective attractiveness because of some limitations (e. g. educational spaces) but in science centers and science museums, there are no such limitations and the educators or facilitators can use various techniques, tools and methods for making pedagogic attractiveness.In this paper, the activity of some famous science centers in Iran are monitored and the influence of their activities to their audiencesare evaluated. The data was collected from audiences after visiting museums/ science centers. In conclusion, I found that the audiences have better feelings about science after visiting a science museum. At last, I propose the quadruple rule for designing and making a better / more effective science center in Iran or in other developing countries.
    Keywords: Learning incentives, External motivation, Intrinsic motivation, Science center design
  • Mohammad Jafar Saed Page 43
    Bioethics is a new scientific field based on ethics and biology. It plays a significant role in monitoring and controlling the relevant sciences, and while examining them on the basis of its ethical values, tries to find answers to the problems and ambiguities stemming from medical researches and activities through using ethics on one hand and medical findings and teachings on the other hand. The new scientific area has the same status in Iranian scientific literature and is equally new in Iran. The article briefly speaks about the definition of bioethics, its extents and kinds as well as functions.
    Keywords: Bioethics, Ethics, Kinds, Functions
  • Mehdi Dadkhah, Mohammad Davarpanah, Jazi Page 57
    With increasing developmentof research and academic centers, the number of research and publishing the results of these studies in scientific journals havebeen also increased. In the meantime, researchers are trying to publish the findings of their research in journals which have been approved by one or more international indices, so that such findings can be seen. In order to enhance the academic standards of universities, researchers are interested to select proper journal especially those that are indexed in websites such as Thomson Reuters. However, fraudsters trick researchers by launching fake websites under the names of academic journals. In this paper, we introduce a method to identify this type of journals that will be applicable by researchers in various academic disciplines.
    Keywords: Hijacked journals, Research, Journal editing, Journal indexing
  • Alireza Ranjbar Page 65
    Since the beginning of history, scientific progresshas been effective on the state of peace through employing two major tools: the hardware tools and the software tools. Although in the period before the adoption of the United Nation Charter, military hardware tools ranging from sword, bows and arrows in ancient time to submarines and fighter jets at present, all have been serving as inseparable part as well as one of the main factors involved in the break of wars, but after the adoption of the United Nations Charter, the states procedures underwent changes particularly due to the impacts of the two World Wars on humanity’s destiny and parallel to maintaining peace. Governments have been also moving towards using non-military hardware tools including international and regional organizations, with the United Nations on top of all. Furthermore, after accepting the Charter, governments have been aware of the attention paid by the international community to software tools which serve as a collection of duties and liabilities in regional and international levels as the product of the activities rendered by the global political actors, particularly the international laws [activists]. This is an important issue especially knowing that software tools implementation relies on hardware tools and in some extent, it is the introductory procedure of using the recent tools in the post UN international community. Although one might easily highlight the positive application of software tools; particularly after the establishment of the United Nations, there exists the risk of negative use or misuse of those tools as well.
    Keywords: Advancement of sciences, Modern technologies, Humanities, War, Peace, UN Charter, United Nations
  • Akram Ghadimi, Azita Manouchehri Qashqaie Page 81
    The Science Journal is the most prestigious scientific journal that has been published in the field of general and specialized science since 1880. Science journalism workshop was held by Mr. Richard Stone, the editor of international section of Science Journal in August 2015 in Tehran, Iran. In addition to facilitating the workshop, he had scientific and cultural visits, public-scientific lectures, interviews with some Iranian scientists, visiting Urmia Lake, Gorgesh Observatory and Zayanehroud. The results of this visits and interviews were published in the form of six reports in the Science Journal. These reports reflect the positive view on Iran’s science status at international level.
    Keywords: Science, Media, Science Journalism, Science Journal
  • Kelley Wilder, Translated By: Setareh Soheili Page 93
    How do we know what an Amoeba looks like? How can doctors see the details of our skeletons and internal organs? What enables us to see an exploding star in another galaxy? All of these things are made possible through the innovations of photography. Kelley Wilder here provides a primer on the remarkably fruitful applications of photography to science as she explores the multiple facets of this complex relationship. "Photography and Science" describes how photography first established its legitimacy through close association with key scientific ideas and practices, such as objectivity, observation, archiving and experimentation. Wilder then charts how photography returned the favor by serving as a powerful influence in various scientific disciplines, such as biology and astronomy. The book digs into the controversial debates over photography's succes's in the sciences, its use in practical fields such as medical imaging and x-raying, and the complicated relationship between scientific theory and art practice. Augmenting this fascinating study are eighty photographs of scientific subjects and experiments, many of which are published here for the first time. A thought-provoking, broad-based examination, "Photography and Science" will be an essential addition to the bookshelves of scientists, photographers and art historians alike.
    Keywords: Photography, Science, Archiving, Art Practice, Scientific Theory