فهرست مطالب

Toxicology Scientific Quarterly Journal - Volume:10 Issue:3, 2016
  • Volume:10 Issue:3, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/02/16
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Persian Abstract Hager Barakizou *, Yosra Ben Rjeb, Souha Gannouni, Fethi Bayoudh Pages 1-5
    Background
    Acute drug poisoning remains an important public health problem and represents the second most frequent accidental disease in children. In this study, we identified epidemiological and clinical features of children admitted for acute drug poisoning and related factors associated with suicidal poisoning.
    Methods
    We conducted a retrospective study in the Department of Pediatrics, the Military Hospital, Tunis, over a period of 8 years (2008-2014). Children aged less than 16 yr and admitted for acute drug poisoning were included. Cases of drug addiction were excluded. Two groups were compared: accidental poisoning / suicidal poisoning.
    Results
    We collected 150 cases. The ratio male / female was 1:1.2. The mean age was 4.3 yr. Poisoning was due to one drug in 82% of cases. Children were asymptomatic in 39% of cases, had digestive and neurologic symptoms respectively in 30% and 20% of cases, respectively. Psychotropics came in the first place (20%) followed by paracetamol (16%). Two groups were identified: accidental poisoning (74 %) and suicidal poisoning (26%). Four factors were significantly associated with suicidal poisoning: age ≥ 8 yr (P
    Conclusion
    Two groups had to be distinguished: accidental and suicidal drug poisoning. The identification of their characteristics and their predisposing factors is necessary in order to take appropriate preventive actions.
    Keywords: Drug, Pediatric, Poisoning, Suicide
  • Persian Abstract Mehrnaz Ghoochian* Pages 7-12
    Background
    Synthetic dyes are serious pollutants and wide ranges of methods have been employed for their removal from aquatic systems. We studied the adsorption of "Nile blue A" (NBA), an anionic dye, from aqueous solution by oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs).
    Methods
    Scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize function groups produced at MWCNTs surface. Kinetics and adsorption isotherms of NBA, the effect of temperature, pH, contact time and initial dosage of nanotubes on the adsorption capacity were also assessed. The experimental data were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich models.
    Results
    Most of the dye was removed in the first 5 min and best adsorption percentage was at pH 7.0. The equilibrium reached at 45 min. The experimental data were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich models and the results fitted well with the Freundlich model. The adsorption kinetic data were analyzed using first-order and the pseudo-second order model and the adsorption kinetic data of NBA dye onto MWCNTs fitted the pseudo-second order model. The maximum adsorption capacity was obtained as 169.49 mg g-1.
    Conclusion
    Freundlich model suggested that the adsorption process followed heterogeneous distribution onto MWCNTs and pseudo-second model of adsorption implied that chemical processes controlled the rate-controlling step. Oxidized MWCNTs could be used as an effective adsorbent for the removal of "Nile Blue A" dye. Oxidization of MWCNTs by nitric acid, improves the efficiency of NBA removal due to increases in functional groups and total number of adsorption sites.
    Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, Chemical Water Pollution, Nile Blue, Waste Water
  • Persian Abstract Katayoon Karimzadeh* Pages 13-17
    Background
    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a predominant group of contaminants that have been shown to accumulate and persist in marine organisms. We evaluated the dose-dependent induction of the cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) system in the Sturgeon fish, Huso huso after after exposure to PAHs, beta-naphthoflavone (BNF) and 3- methylcholantheren.
    Methods
    The fish were treated by i.p. injections of beta–naphthoflavone and 3- methylcholantheren dissolved in corn oil at three doses 35, 70 and 105 mg/kg wet-body weight respectively for 72 h every day. Similarly, the control fish received injections of only corn oil. Microsomal fraction was prepared and ethoxy resorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) was measured in the fish liver. Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) content was estimated by ELISA based on monoclonal anti-cod P4501A1.
    Results
    Beta-naphthoflovone and 3-methylcholantheren treated-fish developed 15-32 fold increase in Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in liver microsomes. The results of ELISA showed higher levels of cytochrome P4501A content in treated fish as compared to controls.
    Conclusion
    A parallel increase of the CYP1A immunochemically assay and an increase in EROD activity could be recorded for beta –naphthoflavone and 3- methylcholantheren in injected fish. Dose-response relationships on the induction of EROD and CYP1A immunodetectable protein were recorded. Therefore, EROD activity and CYP1A content can be used as a biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
    Keywords: 3, Methylcolantheren, Beta–Naphthoflavon, Biomarker, Ethoxyresorufin Deethylase, Huso Huso
  • Persian Abstract Neeraj Kumar, Anita Yadav *, Sachin Gulati, Kanu Priya, Neeraj Aggarwal, Dr. Ranjan Gupta Pages 19-27
    Background
    Organophosphorus pesticides has been widely used in agriculture fields to control various crop insects and their extensive use pose human life at threat because of their adverse effects on human health. In this study, we checked the effects of GST polymorphism on ameliorative effect of curcumin and carvacrol against DNA damages.
    Methods
    Comet assay was used to assess the DNA damage and results were expressed as Tail moment. Heparinised fresh blood from healthy individuals was treated with combined concentration of malathion and parathion (i.e. 30 µg/ml of malathion and 2.5 µg/ml of parathion) in presence of combination of curcumin and carvacrol (25 µg/ml curcumin 2.5 µg/ml carvacrol and 50 µg/ml curcumin 5.0 µg/ml carvacrol) in order to observe the ameliorative role of curcumin and carvacrol. Multiplex PCR was performed for GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotyping.
    Results
    Curcumin in combination with carvacrol (i.e. 25 µg/ml curcumin 2.5 µg/ml carvacrol and 50 µg/ml curcumin 5.0 µg/ml carvacrol) significantly reduced the DNA damage caused by combined action of malathion and parathion which supports their antigenotoxic property. No significant relationship of GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphism with genotoxicity of both the pesticides and antigenotoxic potential of curcumin and carvacrol was observed.
    Conclusion
    Malathion and parathion were genotoxic in human PBL. Curcumin and carvacrol had an antigenotoxic effect against the malathion and parathion while there was not any significant effect of GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphism on genotoxicity of these pesticides and antigenotoxicity of curcumin and carvacrol.
    Keywords: Carvacrol, Comet Assay, Curcumin, Malathion, Parathion, Tail Moment Genotoxicity
  • Persian Abstract Dr. Mohamad Sakizadeh *, Rouhollah Mirzaei, Hadi Ghorbani Pages 29-33
    Background
    Heavy metals have detrimental effects on the health of human being. The values of manganese (Mn) and lead (Pb) in some plant species and soil samples in an arid area of Iran were evaluated in this study.
    Methods
    The values of Pb and Mn in 94 plant samples from 8 plant species and the related soil samples in 2010 were considered in Shahroud and Damghan, central Iran. Moreover, the soil-to-plant transfer factors of these two elements were investigated.
    Results
    Except for barley, the values of Pb in all of the considered plants were higher than the standard level of 0.3 mg/kg. The amounts of Mn in all of the plant species other than pistachio were higher than the standard level of 25 mg/kg. As a whole, the bio-concentration factor of Mn was higher than that of Pb in the study area.
    Conclusion
    None of the soil-to-plant transfer factors exceeded one. Grape recorded the highest amounts of Pb and Mn compared with that of other investigated plant species. However, since its respective bio concentration factor (BCF) was lower than one, it cannot be considered as a hyper accumulator of lead and manganese.
    Keywords: Bio Concentration Factor, Heavy Metals, Plant, Soil
  • Persian Abstract Soheil Sobhanardakani* Pages 35-40
    Background
    Due to the increasing pollution of water resources, this study was carried out for evaluation of water quality pollution indices for monitoring of heavy metals (As, Zn, Pb and Cu) contamination in Ghahavand Plain, Hamadan Province, Western Iran during spring and summer 2012.
    Methods
    Totally, 20 ground water wells were chosen randomly. The samples were filtered (0.45 μm) and maintained cool in polyethylene bottles. Samples were taken for the analysis of metals, the former was acidified with HNO3 to pH lower than 2. Metal concentrations were determined using ICP-OES.
    Results
    The mean values of Contamination index (Cd), Heavy metal pollution index (HPI) and Heavy metal evaluation index (HEI) in samples for spring season were -2.27, 9.01 and 1.73 respectively and in samples for summer season were -1.95, 8.69 and 2.04 respectively. It indicates low contamination levels. Comparing the mean concentrations of the evaluated metals with WHO permissible limits showed a significant difference (P
    Conclusion
    The mean concentrations of the metals were significantly lower than the permissible limits. Although the heavy metal pollution of the ground water in Ghahavand Plain is lower than WHO permissible limits, but severe precautions consideration such as manage the use of agricultural inputs, prevention of use of wastewater and sewage sludge in agriculture, control of overuse of organic fertilizers and establishment of pollutant industries are recommended in this area.
    Keywords: Health Effect, Iran, Toxic Metals, Water Quality
  • Persian Abstract Shoeiba Tasneem *, Syeda Hina Kauser, Rafath Yasmeen Pages 41-46
    Background
    To solve the problems caused by using synthetic pesticides in agricultural fields and aquaculture ponds studies are being carried out on the feasibility of using biopesticides or plant extracts, which are less toxic. Extensive research is being carried out by researchers globally to manufacture pesticides using plant extracts. The present study evaluated the effect of Datura metel plant's aqueous leaf extract on histological changes in gill and intestine of the common carp Cyprinus carpio.
    Methods
    Twenty-four hour LC50 value was determined by standard methods and was calculated as 100 ppm. The fishes were exposed to sublethal concentration (1/10th of 24 h LC 50 value i.e., 10 ppm) for a period of 14 d. After 7 and 14 d, the gill and intestine were dissected out from both the exposed and control groups and were processed and sectioned at 4 µm and stained with H & E stain. The slides were then observed under 40 x magnification.
    Results
    The exposed gills showed vacuolation, bending of secondary gill lamellae, and cell masses between the secondary gill lamellae thickened to such an extent that interlamellar spaces were completely occluded. Intestines demonstrated narrowing of lumen, vacuolation, inflammation and rupture of epithelium. The pathological changes were more severe after 14 days of exposure in both the tissues.
    Conclusion
    Aqueous leaf extract of D. metel can be used as an agrochemical. Because of its toxicity its usage should be monitored well.
    Keywords: Cyprinus Carpio, Datura Metel, Gills, Intestines, Pesticides
  • Persian Abstract Alireza Timcheh, Hariri, Mahdi Balali, Mood, Mahmood Sadeghi, Niloofar Lari, Bamdad Riahi, Zanjani* Pages 47-50
    Background
    The current study was conducted to compare ELISA with thin layer chromatography (TLC) methods for diagnosis of morphine in the urine.
    Methods
    Positive urine samples for morphine confirmed by immunochromatographic strips were collected from the Imam Reza Toxicology Laboratory, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran in 2012 for the current study. Then, the collated urine samples (70) were analyzed by both ELISA and TLC methods.
    Results
    On analyzing samples by TLC, 57 out of 70 (81.4%) revealed morphine spot, whereas by ELISA method all samples were positive. The difference was statisticaly significant (P=0.0001). Both immunoassays had the same 100% positive results. The possible 18.6% false positive results might be due to drug interactions. TLC is more specific but time-consuming and less sensitive than ELISA is. However, TLC is an old method but more reliable than ELISA.
    Conclusion
    Contrary to the claim that commercially available ELISA kits have a high specificity for detection of morphine derivatives; it seems that false positive results may occur. It is thus recommended that all positive results obtained from ELISA be checked by a cheap widely available confirmation test of TLC or ideally by a quantitative technique such as GC-Mass spectroscopy, particularly for legal purposes.
    Keywords: Confirmation Test, ELISA, Morphine, TLC, Urine