فهرست مطالب

پژوهش های علوم دامی - سال بیست و ششم شماره 1 (بهار 1395)
  • سال بیست و ششم شماره 1 (بهار 1395)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/03/22
  • تعداد عناوین: 15
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  • M. Bagheri*_M. A Talebi_A. Sadeghipanah Pages 1-14
    Background
    Flushing program can improve performance in sheep industry.
    OBGECTIVES:The aim of this study was evaluation the effects of using supplemental fat in Lori-Bakhtiari ewes flushing diet on their lamb's weaned weight.
    Methods
    Three hundred healthy and non-pregnant Lori-Bakhtiari ewes were selected and randomly allotted to threenutritional groups (n=100) as: basal diet (control or C treatment), basal diet with 250 grams barley grain(B treatment) and basal diet with 144.5 grams barley grain 50 grams supplemental fat(BF treatment). Ewes received dietary supplement from day 14 before up to day 21 after ram introduction. Ewe's weight and body condition score before mating, ewe's weight at lambing,the number, sex, weight and type of lambs born, lambing date of ewes, lambs weaning weight and number of lambs weaned were recorded.
    Results
    Mean of ewe's weight at lambing in the BF group was higher than other groups (P
    Conclusions
    The use of supplemental fat with barley grain in Lori-Bakhtiari ewes flushing diet can be improvedweight of weaned lambs.
    Keywords: Efficiency, Ewe, Fat supplement, Flushing, Lamb
  • S. Saedi, H. Daghigh Kia*, A. Hossein Khani, Gh Moghaddam Pages 15-25
    Background
    Studies indicate elements and vitamins play an important role in reproductive function activities.
    Objectives
    The present study was concluded to investigate the effect of organic and inorganic selenium supplements along with vitamin E to improve the properties of estrus in Ghezel ewes using CIDR.
    Methods
    Forty-four Ghezel ewes (Age: 2-3 years old, weight: 55±2 kg, body condition score 3) were used. Animals allocated in four groups including eleven ewes in each group. Treatments were divided into four groups: first group: As a control group (basal diet), the second group (basal diet Barley grain), the third group (basal diet Barley grain vitamin E selenium organic), and the forth group (basal diet Barley grain vitamin E inorganic selenium). Ewes received the experimental diets 2 weeks before mating and continued 3 weeks later. Oestrus was synchronized using CIDR.
    Results
    The highest and the lowest rate of return to estrus were observed in control group (45.5%) and in the fourth group (18.2%) respectively (P
    Conclusions
    It seems that the use of flushing diets containing organic and inorganic selenium along with vitamin E increased the estrus, the probability of fertilization and decreased the non-pregnant ewes.
    Keywords: Inorganic Selenium_Organic Selenium_Vitamin E Ghezel ewe_Estrus characteristics
  • S. Shabkhan, M. Bashtani*, H. Naemipour Yonesi Pages 27-41
    Background
    The molasses and whey are byproduct. These are very beneficial as silage additive while increased silage nutritional value.
    Objectives
    This study was carried out to determine the effects of adding molasses and whey on the chemical composition, quality characteristics and also degradability of sorghum silage by nylon bag technique.
    Methods
    Sorghum was harvested in flowering stage with an average %25 DM. Experiment was done with three treatments and four replications. Treatments were included: 1. sorghum silage without additives (control), 2 and 3. Sorghum silage with %10 molasses (molasses) and %10 whey (whey) respectively. The forage was ensiled in a plastic bucket and stored for 81 days.
    Results
    The results showed that, in silages treated with molasses, dry matter, calcium, phosphorus and sodium significantly (P
    Conclusions
    It is concluding that adding molasses to sorghum silage, increased some Chemical composition include DM, Ca, P and K and decreased NDF compared control and whey treatments. Using of additives improved quality of sorghum silage (decreasing of pH and N-NH3).
    Keywords: Molasses, Whey, Sorghum silage, Nutritional value
  • Z. Neisi *, M. Mamouei, H. Roshanfekr, S. Vakili Tabatabaei, M. Sari Pages 43-50
    Objectives
    This study was evaluated the pregnancy rates of fixed time artificial insemination after synchronization of follicular wave Ovsynch CIDR and Co-synch CIDR protocols compared with artificial insemination after estrus detection in select synch protocol.
    Methods
    In this study, 42 cyclic buffaloes, uncertain stage of the estrous cycle, were randomly assigned into 3 groups. 1) Ovsynch CIDR (n = 14), administration of GnRH at days 0 and 9, PGF2α at day 7 and insertion CIDR from days 0 to 7. Buffaloes of this group were inseminated 16 h after the second GnRH administration. 2) Co-synch CIDR (n = 14), insertion the CIDR and administration of GnRH at day 0, administration the PGF2a at day 7 with remove the CIDR, and day 9 with second administration of GnRH, artificial insemination was performed.3) Select synch CIDR (n = 14), hormone treatments of this group were similar to two other groups. But, there was not the second injection of GnRH and artificial insemination was performed after estrus detection during 3 days.
    Results
    The pregnancy rates of Ovsynch CIDR (28.57± 12.53%), Co-synch CIDR (50 ±13.87%) and Select synch CIDR (28.57 ±12.53%) had not significantly difference.
    Conclusions
    In summary, it can be concluded that Co-synch CIDR protocol due to non-significantly higher pregnancy rate is more effective method, when compared with other protocols. and non-necessary to estrus detection as well as low labor.
    Keywords: Artificial insemination (AI), Estrus synchronization, Khuzestan Buffalo, Pregnancy rates
  • F. Moslemipur*, Y. Mostafaloo, A. Khanahmadi Pages 51-62
    Background
    Study of management and hygienic factors involved in mastitis and also offering appropriate treatment is very effective in lactating animals production.
    Objectives
    This study was to investigate the conformity between organoleptic and microbial culture techniques to diagnose mastitis in industrial and traditional dairy herds in Daland city and to determine the kind of pathogens in milk samples and also antibiogram test for the common antibiotics.
    Methods
    Eight dairy cattle herds (four as industrial and four as traditional) were selected from the region. Three cows from each herd that seemed to be infected to clinical mastitis (according to visual, tactile and etc.) were selected and two morning milk samples were collected from each. Initially, samples incubated in general culture to observe colonies and then, differential tests were performed to identify Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Antiobiogram test was performed to determine the sensitivity to oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline and gentamycine.
    Results
    Results of microbal culture showed the incidence of mastitis in the most of suspected cow. Staphylococcus aureus infection was observed in all industrial herd's samples except one, and in 100% of traditional herd's samples, while Escherichia coli infection was only observed in one-fourth of industrial herd's samples and in 100% of traditional ones showing a significant difference between them (P
    Conclusions
    Results demonstrated the high conformity of organoleptic method with bacteriological method to diagnose clinical mastitis. Staphylococcus aureus in both industrial and traditional herds and also Escherichia coli mainly in traditional herds are mediated in dairy cows mastitis in this region. Udder pathogens in both kinds of herd in this region are relatively resistant to oxy- and chlortetracycline while gentamycine can be effective.
    Keywords: Mastitis, Microbial culture, Endemic pathogens, Antibiogram test, Dairy cattle
  • P. Baghban Kanani, M. Daneshyar*, R. Najafi Pages 63-75
    Background
    Cinamon and Turmeric have the active components that can be useful for the broiler chickens under heat stress condition.
    Objectives
    This study was designed to investigate the effect of supplementation of turmeric and cinnamon powders on performance, carcass characteristics and some blood parameters of broiler chickens under heat stress.
    Methods
    Two hundred one-day-old male chicks (Ross 308) were allotted to four treatments with five replicates each (10 birds per replicate) based a completely randomized design. The treatments were: the control (heat stress and without any supplements), and the heat stressed birds fed the 0.5% turmeric, 0.5% cinnamon, and a blend of cinnamon and turmeric (0.25% each). The experimental diets werefed during from day 25 to 42 of age and under the heat stress condition (32οC as cyclic).
    Results
    The results showed that the consumption of all experimental diets (turmeric, cinnamon and both together) increased the feed consumption and weight gain of broiler chickens as compared to the control during the finisher (25 to 42) and whole experimental period (1 to 42) (P
    Conclusions
    In conclusion, dietary consumption of 0.5% cinnamon and turmeric alone or together (0.25% of each one) improve the performance of broiler chickens under heat stress.
    Keywords: Cinnamon, Feed conversion ratio, Glucose, Triglyceride, Turmeric
  • A. Rajaee Rad, M. Sari*, Mj Zamiri, M. Chaji, S. Salari Pages 77-92
    Background
    Oxidative lime pretreatment can be an effective method for treatment of lignocellulosic biomass in ruminant nutrition.
    Objectives
    The aim of this experiment was to investigate effect of oxidative lime pretreatment on in vitro digestibility of dried date palm leaves.
    Methods
    A completely randomized experiment with a 3×3 factorial arrangement of treatments was conducted using 3 levels of temperature (40, 80, and 100 oC) and 3 time periods (80, 160, and 240 minutes). Pretreatment of leaves was performed in a 2-walled reactor containing 600 ml water and under an oxygen pressure of 6.9 Bars.
    Results
    Increasing the processing time and temperature caused a significant decreased in lignin content from 13.3% in the unprocessed leaves to 3.6% in date palm leaves pretreated at 100 oC for 240 min (P
    Conclusions
    The results showed that heating up during oxidative lime pretreatment increased the nutritive value of dried date palm leaves.
    Keywords: Date palm leaves, In vitro digestibility, Lime, Oxidative treatment
  • Gh Ghasemi, Mh Fathi Nasri*, J. Modaresi, L. Rashidi Pages 93-104
    Background
    Pomegranate seed pulp (PSP) as a valuable and low cost feed may be used as a cereal grain replacement in ruminant diet.
    Objectives
    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of replacing some of cereal grains of diet with ensiled PSP (with or without added urea) on dry matter intake and production performance of south Khorasan crossbred goats.
    Methods
    A total of 21 goats with average daily milk yield of 645.8 ± 0.15 kg and average body weight of 26 ± 2.5 kg were randomly assigned to one of three experimental diets based on collected records at pre-experiment period. Experimental diets were included: 1- control (without PSP), 2- containing 10% of ensiled PSP without urea, and 3- containing 10% of ensiled PSP with urea (DM basis), were fed individually as totally mixed ration to goats.
    Results
    Replacing some of cereal grains of diet with ensiled PSP without urea increased (P
    Conclusions
    Ensiled PSP with urea can be used as a cost effective by-product for replacing of some part of diet’s grain and thereby reducing the production costs.
    Keywords: Pomegranate seed pulp, Antioxidant capacity, South Khorasan crossbred goat, Milk yield
  • K. Sadeghi, A. Tagizadeh*, S. Alijani, F. Parnian Pages 105-117
    Background
    Vermicomposting can feed industry and its economy play crucial role.
    Objectives
    An in vitro gas production technique was performed to investigate fermentation response to vermicomposting produced with the epigeic earthworm, Eisenia foetida. In order to prepare vermicompost, the rumen content was mixed with the three substrates including several mixtures of oyster mushroom and vegetable waste; and cattle manure.
    Methods
    The treatments of T1) control: rumen content T2) rumen content vegetable waste oyster mushroom waste T3) rumen content vegetable waste cattle manure T4) rumen content oyster mushroom waste cattle manure; were adjusted using a completely random design.
    Results
    The results of present study showed that, unlike having lower amount of ash, NDF and ADF; T2 had higher (P
    Conclusions
    The present study revealed that the vermicomposting can be used to manage the organic wastes by biological processing to produce animal feedstuff. The results of this study indicate that the vermicomposting of the rumen content supplemented with the vegetable waste had valuable nutritive values as animal feed. The results of the present study were reported for the first time in which we investigated the application of vermicomposting of several organic waste as feed in animal nutrition. However, it is safe to say that our suggested method used in this study was the first research in which we used the several mixture of organic wastes in vermicomposting to produce animal feedstuff.
    Keywords: Oyster mushroom, Vegetable wastes, Gas production, Cattle manure, Rumen contents, Vermicomposting
  • A. Gh Ramin*, S. Asrirezaee, A. Arden, P. Yaghmaee Pages 119-129
    Background
    Macro-minerals in diet and water are the main sources of milk minerals in cows.
    Objectives
    1) Determination of macro-mineral concentrations and their local variations 2) Relationships among minerals in cow's milk and water consumption.
    Methods
    A 110 water and milk samples were prepared in north, south, west and east of Urmia, Iran. A 10 ml water and milk from each cow collected and analyzed for minerals. Data were assessed by case summaries, ANOVA and correlation methods.
    Results
    Milk calcium, magnesium and potassium were higher than in water and water sodium was higher than in milk. The lowest and highest mineral concentrations in water were phosphorus and sodium and in milk were potassium and calcium, respectively. The mean sodium and potassium in water and milk and chloride in water were different among locations (P
    Conclusions
    The concentrations of milk calcium and water sodium were the greatest elements. Milk and water sodium and potassium levels were different among Urmia distinct with the greatest in the east. Water minerals were not correlated with each other but milk calcium, phosphorus and magnesium did. Water and milk calcium and magnesium showed positive correlations with each other, thus, calcium and magnesium could provide the mineral necessities in milk yield.
    Keywords: Macro, minerals, Drinking water, Milk, Cows, Urmia
  • M. Ghasemi Darestani, Sr Ebrahimi Mahmoudabad*, R. Kianfar Pages 131-147
    Background
    Perspolis powder has compounds that is effective on performance and immune system of quails.
    Objectives
    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding different levels of propolis powder (0, 500, 1000 and 1500 mg / kg) on performance and immune system of quail chicks.
    Methods
    Three hundred and twenty day-old Japanese quails (hatche) were allocated in a completely randomly design with 4 treatments and 4 replications per treatment until 36 days olds.At the end of experiment, live weight, feed conversion ratio, feed intake, European production efficiency factor, performance index, protein efficiency ratio, immune response and carcass parameters were measured.
    Results
    At 36 days of age, results showed that using 1000 mg/kg propolis powder as compared to other treatments increased live weight and improved feed conversion ratio, European production efficiency factor and performance index (P
    Conclusions
    According to results of this experiment, growth performance and immune system of Japanese quail chicks fed diet containing 1000 mg/kg of propolis powder was better than other treatments.
    Keywords: Japanese quail, Propolis powder, Antibody titer, performance, White blood cells
  • Sh Hosseinzadeh*_S. A Rafat_Gh Moghaddam_A. Nematollahi_R. Hajializadeh Pages 149-156
    Background
    Parasites and intestinal worms are one of the main causes of the economic decline in the sheep industry.
    Objectives
    This research carried out for consideration of microsatellite polymorphism in the intron 5 of DRB2 gene and its association with the egg numbers of Nematodirus parasite in Ghezel sheep breed.
    Methods
    Blood and fecal samples were obtained from 80 male lambs at the age of 4-6 months. Fecal samples were collected from the lamb's rectum and the number of fecal eggs was calculated by the Clayton Lane technique. The DNA was extracted using Chloroform-Amyl Alcohol; and Microsatellite regions of intron 5 of the DRB2 gene were amplified. PCR products were electrophoresed on 3% Agarose gel. Allele sizes were determined by ladder 25 bp and Uvidoc software. The Proc Mixed was considered for evaluation of genotypes effects on the traits.
    Results
    Statistical analysis showed there was significant correlation between the numbers of Nematodirus parasite eggs and the polymorphism of DRB2 gene. Therefore, lambs that had the genotypes 300-300 in intron 5 of DRB2 gene had significantly (P
    Conclusions
    It was concluded that the polymorphism at this locus can be utilized as a useful tool in the selection programs based on markers.
    Keywords: Nematodirus parasites, Ghezel Breed, Microsatellite, DRB2
  • M. Almasi, A. Rashidi*, M. Razmkabir, Mm Gholambabaeian Pages 157-166
    Background
    Lamb survival is a complex trait that is influenced by the maternal ability, management practices, and environmental variables at the time of birth and during the rearing period.
    Objectives
    In this study genetic and non-genetic parameters affected on lamb survival from birth to weaning were estimated for Baluchi, Iranblack and Zandi lambs.
    Methods
    Numbers of observation were 10793, 4826 and 6140 record of lamb survival from birth to weaning for Baluchi, Iranblack and Zandi breeds. Genetic parameters were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) procedure under 16 different models, inclusive animal, and sire and threshold models by ASReml software. In addition to an animal, sire and threshold models, using a logit link function, were used for analyses of lamb survival. The most appropriate model was determined based on Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) method.
    Results
    Mean of survival was 89.11, 84.44 and 87.37% for Baluchi, Iranblack and Zandi lambs, respectively. The most appropriate model for survival in Baluchi sheep including direct additive genetic effects and common litter effects, for Iranblack sheep including direct additive genetic effects, maternal additive genetic effects, maternal permanent environmental effects, common litter effects and covariance between direct and maternal additive genetic effects. However, the most appropriate model for survival of Zandi sheep only including direct additive genetic effects. The most appropriate model under sire models for Baluchi sheep including direct additive genetic effects and common litter effects, for Iranblack sheep including direct additive genetic effects, maternal permanent environmental effects and common litter effects. Also for Zandi sheep including direct additive genetic effects and maternal permanent environmental effects. Estimated direct heritability for survival with animal model was 0.08±0.01, 0.07±0.02 and 0.09±0.02 which after correction were changed to 0.22, 0.20 and 0.20 for Baluchi, Iranblack and Zandi sheep, respectively. Estimated direct heritability for survival with sire model was 0.06±0.02, 0.06±0.03 and 0.05±0.02 which after correction were changed to 0.17, 0.16 and 0.13 for Baluchi, Iranblack and Zandi sheep, respectively. In addition, the estimation of heritability for lamb survival from threshold model was 0.16±0.04, 0.22±0.07 and 0.17±0.06 for Baluchi, Iranblack and Zandi sheep, respectively.
    Conclusions
    The results showed that the corrected heritability obtained from animal model and sire model did not differ from the estimated heritability from the threshold model.
    Keywords: Genetic parameters, heritability, Survival
  • E. Pishbahar*, Kh Abdolkarim, Saleh, Gh Dashti Pages 167-174
    Background
    The poultry meat and egg production, over the past years, has experienced upward trend in Iran. Production and distribution of products in the poultry industry needed to provide inputs. Corn is one of the most important inputs that can be pointed to it. Much of the corn required is provided by imports. Participation in the world futures markets or launch a futures market in Iran, as a tool of hedging, have significant role in reduce volatility of input and products prices as well as improving the welfare of consumers. The question that arises is that what amount of purchase is necessary as future purchase? This is the hedge ratio.
    Objectives
    The main objective of this study was to calculate the hedging rate
    Methods
    that is calculated with two models: “Minimum variance” and “Mean- variance”. For this purpose, the monthly data of spot and futures prices of corn and exchange rates in the period March 2010 to February 2014 is used. The data are collected from the Islamic Republic of Iran Customs, the Central Bank of Iran and the Chicago Board.
    Results
    The results show that if 79% of the corn as future purchase, 57% of price risk decreases. With the entry of exchange rate to the models, hedge ratio is greatly increased, and if hedging instruments does not increase, the efficiency decreased.
    Conclusions
    The results suggest that importers and politicians consider the participation in world futures markets and the creation of a futures market in Iran as a hedging instrument.
    Keywords: Corn, Futures market, Hedging ratio, Mean, variance, Minimum, variance
  • J. Hosseinzad*, P. Pakrooh Pages 175-186
    BACKGROUNG: Meat is one of the important commodities in households Bundle. In many cases, types of meat intended as substitute commodities and consumers depending on the price of meat, income and consumer preferences of made the right choice. Mostly, household preferences changing due to economic problems and expectation is that, increasing awareness, change structure for different types of meat.
    Objective
    In this study, will be investigate the structural changes in consumer preferences.
    Methods
    Parametric and non-parametric approaches used to analysis the meat demand in Iran. Required data between (1995)-(2013) years collected from the Central Bank of Iran, Statistical Center of Iran and livestock Support Corporation.
    Results
    The results of non-parametric approach indicated that there is an inconsistency in the WARP matrix in (2000) year. Also parametric approach proves that there is a stability structural changing in different types of meat consumption.
    Conclusions
    It seems an outbreak of BSE disease in Europe, was one of the important factors for this result. So import controlling and quarantine performance were recommended for reducing price fluctuation.
    Keywords: BSE disease, Preferences, Red meat, Chicken meat, Structural change, WARP matrix