فهرست مطالب

Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine - Volume:6 Issue:4, 2016
  • Volume:6 Issue:4, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/03/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 13
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  • Amit Sharma*, Mayank Gangwar, Dharmendra Kumar, Gopal Nath, Akhoury Sudhir Sinha, Yamini Tripathi Pages 366-375
    Objective
    This study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial activity, phytochemical studies and thin layer chromatography analysis of machine oil, hexane extract of seed oil and methanol extract of presscake& latex of Jatropha curcas Linn (family Euphorbiaceae).
    Materials And Methods
    J. curcas extracts were subjected to preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening to detect the major phytochemicals followed by its reducing power and content of phenol and flavonoids in different fractions. Thin layer chromatography was also performed using different solvent systems for the analysis of a number of constituents in the plant extracts. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the disc diffusion method, while the minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration were calculated by micro dilution method.
    Results
    The methanolic fraction of latex and cake exhibited marked antifungal and antibacterial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, steroids, glycosides, phenols and flavonoids. Reducing power showed dose dependent increase in concentration compared to standard Quercetin. Furthermore, this study recommended the isolation and separation of bioactive compounds responsible for the antibacterial activity which would be done by using different chromatographic methods such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), GC-MS etc.
    Conclusion
    The results of the above study suggest that all parts of the plants possess potent antibacterial activity. Hence, it is important to isolate the active principles for further testing of antimicrobial and other biological efficacy.
    Keywords: Reducing power, Antimicrobial, Phytochemical, Thin layer chromatography, Minimum bactericidal concentration
  • Mojtaba Shahnazi, Abbas Azadmehr*, Robabeh Latiffi, Reza Hajiaghaee, Mehrzad Saraei, Mahmood Alipour Pages 376-382
    Objective
    Hydatidosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases and surgery is still the main treatment for this problem. One of the side effects of hydatid cyst surgery is recurrence, thus, searching and assessment of some new agents such as medicinal plant extracts are very important. In the present study, the scolicidal effect of ethanolic extract of Ziziphora tenuior L. (Z. tenuior) was investigated.
    Materials And Methods
    Protoscolices were aseptically collected from sheep livers containing hydatid cyst and used in the experiments. Z. tenuior extract was used at concentration of 3-100 mg/ml for 10-60 min. Viability of protoscolices was determined by 0.1% eosin staining.
    Results
    Based on our results, Z. tenuior extract at concentration of 10 mg/ml killed all protoscolices after 20 min. However, this medicinal plant at concentration of 25 mg/ml destroyed all protoscolices in a shorter exposure time (10 min). Therefore, the scolicidal activity of the extract at 10 and 25 mg/ml concentrations was considerably effective in lower concentrations and shorter exposure times.
    Conclusion
    The findings of this study showed that the ethanolic extract of Z. tenuior produces high scolicidal activity; it may be used as an appropriate and effective scolicidal agent in hydatidosis surgery. This is the first report on the protoscolicidal activity of Z. tenuior.
    Keywords: Hydatidosis, Surgery, Medicinal plant, Scolicidal, Hydatid Cyst, Ziziphoratenuior L
  • Hamid Reza Rahimi, Reza Nedaeinia, Alireza Sepehri Shamloo, Shima Nikdoust, Reza Kazemi Oskuee* Pages 383-398
    Objective
    Curcumin is extracted from Curcuma longa and regulates the intracellular signal pathways which control the growth of cancerous cell, inflammation, invasion and apoptosis. Curcumin molecules have special intrinsic features that can target the intracellular enzymes, genome (DNA) and messengers (RNA). A wide range of studies have been conducted on the physicochemical traits and pharmacological effects of curcumin on different diseases like cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer’s, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and even it has wound healing. Oral bioavailability of curcumin is rather poor, which would certainly put some boundaries in the employment of this drug.
    Materials And Methods
    Bibliographical searches were performed using MEDLINE/ScienceDirect/OVID up to February 2015 using the following keywords (all fields): (“Curcumin” OR “Curcuma longa”) AND [(nanoparticles) OR (Nanomicelles) OR (micro emulsions) OR (liposome) OR (phospholipid).
    Results
    Consequently, for any developments of curcumin in the future, analogues of curcumin that have better bioavailability or substitute formulations are needed crucially.
    Conclusion
    These studies indicated that nanotechnology can formulate curcumin effectively, and this nano-formulated curcumin with a potent ability against various cancer cells, were represented to have better efficacy and bioavailability under in vivo conditions.
    Keywords: Curcumin, Curcumin Nano formulations, Nano micelle
  • Maryam Sarbishegi, Zahra Heidari*, Hamidreza Mahmoudzadeh, Sagheb, Mohharam Valizadeh, Mahboobeh Doostkami Pages 399-409
    Objective
    Oxygen free radicals may be implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemia reperfusion damage. The beneficial effects of antioxidant nutrients, as well as complex plant extracts, on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injuries are well known. This study was conducted to determine the effects of the hydro-alcoholic root extract of Withania coagulans on CA1 hippocampus oxidative damages following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rat.
    Materials And Methods
    Male Wistar rats were randomly divided in five groups: control, sham operated, Ischemia/ Reperfiusion (IR), and Withania Coagulans Extract (WCE) 500 and 1000mg/kg I/R groups. Ischemia was induced by ligation of bilateral common carotid arteries for 30 min after 30 days of WCE administration. Three days after, the animals were sacrificed, their brains were fixed for histological analysis (NISSL and TUNEL staining) and some samples were prepared for measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in hippocampus.
    Results
    WCE showed neuroprotective activity by significant decrease in MDA level and increase in the SOD, CAT and GPx activity in pretreated groups as compared to I/R groups (p
    Conclusion
    WCE showed potent neuroprotective activity against oxidative stress-induced injuries caused by global cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion in rats probably by radical scavenging and antioxidant activities.
    Keywords: Withania coagulans, Antioxidant enzymes, Hippocampus, Ischemia, Rat
  • Mohamad Ali Geryani, Davood Mahdian, Seyed Hadi Mousavi*, Azar Hosseini Pages 410-417
    Objective
    Perovskia abrotanoides Karel, belongs to the family Lamiaceae and grows wild alongside the mountainous roads inarid and cold climate of Northern Iran. The anti-tumor activity of P. abrotanoides root extract has been shown previously. This study was designed to examine in vitro anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of flower extract of P. abrotanoides on MCF-7 and Hela cell lines.
    Materials And Methods
    Cells were cultured in DMEM medium with 10% fetal bovine serum, 100 units/ml penicillin and 100 µg/ml streptomycin and incubated with different concentrations of plant extracts. Cell viability was quantified by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were determined using propidium iodide (PI) staining of DNA fragmentation by flow cytometry (sub-G1 peak).
    Results
    P. abrotanoides extract inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a time and dose-dependent manner and 1000 µg/ml of extract following 48h of incubation was the most cytotoxic dose against Hela cell in comparison with other doses; however, in MCF-7 cells,1000 and 500 µg/ml PA induced toxicity at all time points but with different features.. Analysis of flowcytometry histogram of treated cells compared with control cells indicated that the cytotoxic effect is partly due toapoptosis induction.
    Conclusion
    Hydro-alcoholic extract of P. abrotanoides flowers inhibits the growth of MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines, partly via inducing apoptosis. Their inhibitory effect was increased in a time and dose-dependent manner, especially in MCF7 cells. However, further studies are needed to reveal the mechanisms of P. abrotanoides extract-induced cell death.
    Keywords: Perovskia abrotanoides, Breast cancer, Cervical cancer, Apoptosis, MCF, 7, Hela
  • Vahideh Fatoorechi, Marjan Rismanchi, Javad Nasrollahzadeh* Pages 418-424
    Objective
    Persian leek is one of the most widely used herbal foods among Iranians. In this study, effects of oral administration of Persian leek on plasma and liver lipids were examined in hamster.
    Materials And Methods
    Male Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into three groups: control (standard diet), high fat control (high-fat/high-cholesterol diet), Persian leek (high-fat/high-cholesterol diet 1% per weight of diet from dried powdered Persian leek) for 14 weeks.
    Results
    High fat diet increased plasma and liver lipids as compared to standard diet. Adding Persian leek to the high-fat/high-cholesterol diet resulted in no significant changes in the concentration of the plasma lipids or liver cholesterol. However, liver triglycerides (TG), plasma Alanine aminotransferase and gene expression of tumor necrosis factor- α were decreased in hamsters fed high-fat diet containing Persian leek as compared to high-fat diet only.
    Conclusion
    Persian leek might be considered as a herbal food that can reduce liver TG accumulation induced by high fat diets.
    Keywords: Leek, High fat, Liver lipids, Hyperlipidemia
  • Mansureh Kamali, Susan Khosroyar, Hossein Kamali, Tooba Ahmadzadeh Sani, Ameneh Mohammadi* Pages 425-433
    Objective
    Dracocephalum kotschyi (Lamiaceae family) has been usedin traditional medicine for stomach and liver disorders, headache and congestion. In the present study, we have investigated phytochemical properties and antioxidant activities of dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of D.kotschyi.
    Material and
    Methods
    Antioxidant activities of extracts were evaluated using the integration of HPLC-DPPH and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. In addition, the luteolincontent was determined using HPLC method.
    Results
    The highest antioxidant activity was observed for the methanol extract (among the three tested extracts) showing 50% DPPH scavenging activity at 4.85µg/ml as compared to butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid (3.00 µg/ml, 0.97 µg/ml). Also, luteolin was detected in methanol extract; it was identified by comparing its retention time and DAD spectra with standard and it was one of antioxidant components of this plant. In addition, the antioxidant activity of methanol extract was higher than BHT, in FRAP assay. Total phenolic content was in the range of 11.62-22.29 mg Gallic acid /gram of dry extract and flavonoid content was in the range of 3.97-5.042 mg Quercetin/ gram of extract for dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts. The quantity of luteolin in D.kotschyiwas found to be 1061.005 µg/g of dried plant.
    Conclusion
    The results of this investigation indicated that luteolin plays major role in the antioxidant activity of the plant.
    Keywords: Antioxidant, Dracocephalum kotschyi, Luteolin, HPLC
  • Seyed Hadi Mousavi, Behnaz Naghizade, Solmaz Pourgonabadi, Ahmad Ghorbani* Pages 434-441
    Objective
    Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathophysiology of brain ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders.Previous studies indicated that Viola tricolor and Viola odorataare rich sources of antioxidants. This study aimed to determine whether these plants protect neurons against serum/glucose deprivation (SGD)-induced cell death in an in vitro model of ischemia and neurodegeneration.
    Methods and Material: The PC12 neuronal cells were pretreated for 4 hr with 1 to 50 µg/ml of V. odorata or V. tricolor hydroalcoholic extracts followed by 24 hr incubation under SGD condition. Cell viability was evaluated by 4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay. The level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was quantitated by flow cytometry using 2',7'- dichlorofluorescin diacetate as a probe.
    Results
    SGD condition led to significant decrease in cell viability (p
    Conclusion
    Results of the present study showed that V. tricolor and V. odorata protect neuronal cells against SGD-induced cell death, at least in part, by their antioxidant activities. Further studies on the possible application of these plants in prevention or treatment of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative diseases seem to be warranted.
    Keywords: PC12, Reactive oxygen species, Viola tricolor, Viola odorata
  • Mina Taati*, Amir Erfanparast, Esmaeal Tamaddonfard, Hamid Ghasemi Pages 442-448
    Objective
    Crocin and safranal, as the major constituents of saffron, have many biological activities. This study investigated the effects of crocin and safranal on yawning response induced by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of histamine in rats.
    Materials And Methods
    In ketamine/xylazine-anesthetized rats, a guide cannula was implanted in the right ventricle of the brain and yawning induced by i.c.v. injection of histamine. Crocin and safranal were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected alone and before i.c.v. injection of histamine.
    Results
    Histamine at the doses of 10 and 20 µg/rat produced yawning. Mepyramine (a histamine H1 receptor antagonist) 40 µg/rat significantly (p
    Conclusion
    The results of the present study showed a yawning-inducing effect for central histamine, which was inhibited by mepyramine. Crocin and safranal increased histamine-induced yawning, and also produced yawning when the histamine action is blocked.
    Keywords: Crocin, Histamine, Safranal, Yawning
  • Fatemeh Forouzanfar, Ahmad Ghorbani, Hasan Rakhshandeh*, Mahmoud Hosseini Pages 449-457
    Objective
    Insomnia is accompanied by several health complications and the currently used soporific drugs can induce several side effects such as psychomotor impairment, amnesia, and tolerance. The present study was planned to investigate the sleep prolonging effect of Pinus eldarica.
    Materials And Methods
    Hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) of P. eldarica, its water fraction (WF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and n-butanol fraction (NBF) were injected (intraperitoneally) to mice 30 min before administration of pentobarbital. Then, the latent period and continuous sleeping time were recorded. Also, LD50 of P. eldarica extract was determined and the possible neurotoxicity of the extract was tested on neural PC12 cells.
    Results
    The HAE and NBF decreased the latency of sleep (p
    Conclusion
    The present data indicate that P. eldarica potentiated pentobarbital hypnosis without major toxic effect. Most probably, the main components responsible for this effect are non-polar agents which are found in NBF of this plant.
    Keywords: insomnia, Diazepam, Pinuseldarica, Sleep, PC12
  • Tabassom Mohajer Shojaei, Arash Ghalyanchilangeroudi*, Vahid Karimi, Abbas Barin, Naser Sadri Pages 458-467
    Objective
    Garlic is a plant has been used as a flavor, and anti-microbial and anti-diarrheal agent. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a coronavirus. The available vaccines against IBV cannot cover new variants. This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of garlic extract on IBV.
    Materials And Methods
    The constituents of garlic extract were detected by gas chromatography. This study was done in four groups of embryonic SPF eggs; first group was used for virus titration; second group received the mixture of different virus titration and constant amount of garlic extract; third group received 10-3 titration of virus and after 8 hr received garlic extract and the last group received different dilutions of garlic extract.
    Results
    Based on our results, in the second group, IBV vaccine strain (4/91) at all titration and M41 in 10-2 and 10-3 titration and in the third group both variants of virus the embryonic Index (EI) was significantly increased.
    Conclusion
    The garlic extract had inhibitory effects on IBV in the chickens embryo.
    Keywords: Infectious Bronchitis Virus, Garlic extract, Embryonic Index, Herbal medicine, Antiviral
  • Siamak Beheshti*, Rezvan Aghaie Pages 468-475
    Objective
    Frankincense improves memory in different models of learning. However, its influence on models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has not been studied widely. In the present study, the therapeutic effect of frankincense was evaluated in a model of AD induced by i.c.v administration of streptozotocin.
    Materials And Methods
    Under stereotaxic surgery, two guide cannulas were implanted in the lateral ventricles of adult male Wistar rats weighing 230-270 g. One group received streptozotocin (1.5 mg/kg/2μl/side) bilaterally on the first and third day of surgery. Another group received artificial cerebro-spinal fluid. Fourteen days after surgery, learning was evaluated using the passive avoidance paradigm. Four other groups of animals received frankincense (50 mg/kg) or its solvent after establishment of AD for 21 or 42 consecutive days, and then, memory retrieval was assessed.
    Results
    Streptozotocin increased the number of stimulations required for induction of short-term memory and decreased step-through latency on the test day, significantly (p
    Conclusion
    The results indicate that chronic administration of frankincense has the potential to improve dementia type of AD induced by i.c.v injection of streptozotocin in a time-dependent manner.
    Keywords: Streptozotocin, Alzheimer's disease, Frankincense, Memory, Rat
  • AideÉ Itzel Arcos, Mart, Iacute, Nez, Omar David Mu, Ntilde, Oz, Mu, Ntilde, Iz, Miguel, Aacute, Ngel Dom, Iacute, Nguez, Ortiz, Margarita Virginia Saavedra, VÉlez, Maribel Maribel V., Aacute, Zquez, Hern, Aacute, Ndez, Maria Gabriela Alcantara, Lopez* Pages 476-488
    Objective
    Argemone mexicana is a Papaveracea plant; some reports have shown their antibacterial, anti-cancer, sedative and probably anti-anxiety properties. From their aerial parts, flavonoids and alkaloids have been isolated, which are intrinsically related to some actions on the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anxiolytic-like effects of the plant, using its ethanolic extract and alkaloid-enriched extract obtained from fresh leaves.
    Material and
    Methods
    Phytochemical screening was carried out together with evaluation of antioxidant capacity and the enrichment of alkaloids present in the extract. Subsequently, 100 and 200 mg/kg doses of ethanolic extract and alkaloid-enriched extract (200 µg/kg) were intraperitoneally administered to female Wistar rats, which were exposed to elevated plus maze (EPM) test. Picrotoxin (1 mg/kg), a non-competitive gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) chloride channel antagonist, was used in experimental procedures to evaluate if this receptor is involved in the anxiolytic-like effects of A. mexicana. To discard motor effects associated with the treatments, the rats were evaluated by the locomotor activity test.
    Results
    Only the ethanolic extract at 200 mg/kg and alkaloid-enriched extract (200 µg/kg) produced anxiolytic-like effects similarly to diazepam 2 mg/kg on EPM test, without affecting locomotor activity. Meanwhile, the administration of picrotoxin blocked anti-anxiety effect of alkaloid-enriched extract of the plant.
    Conclusion
    These results showed that A. mexicana is a potential anxiolytic agent and we suggest that this effect is mediated by the GABAA receptor. These effects are related to the presence of alkaloids.
    Keywords: Argemone mexicana, Alkaloids, GABAA receptor antagonist, Anxiolytic, like effect