فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:10 Issue:4, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/04/04
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Shokufeh Astereki, Bahram Kamarehie, Ali Jafari Pages 1-8
    Background
    Advanced oxidation processes are used to remove toxic aromatic compounds with low biodegradability, such as 2-chlorophenol. This study investigates the use of Sulfate (SO4-) and persulfate (S2O82-) radicals, as one of the advanced oxidation methods, to remove 2- chlorophenol from aquatic solutions.
    Materials And Methods
    This experimental and pilot-scale study was carried out using two chemical batch reactors one of the reactors equipped with UV lamps and the other was on the hot plate. In Iron/ Persulfate (Fe/S2O82- ) and Ultra violet/ Persulfate (UV/S2O82- ) processes different parameters were investigated.
    Results
    The results show that iron, UV, the initial pH of the solution, persulfate concentration have considerable effects on the elimination of 2-chlorophenol in both processes. In both processes, the maximum elimination occurred in acidic conditions. The elimination efficiency increased by increasing the concentration of 2-chlorophenol and UV intensity, and also by decreasing the concentration of persulfate and iron. Accordingly, in Iron/ persulfate and Ultra violet/ persulfate processes 2-chlorophenol was eliminated with 99.96% and 99.58% efficiencies, respectively.
    Conclusion
    Sulfate radicals which are produced from activated persulfate ions with hot-Fe ion and UV radiation have significant impact on the removal of 2-chlorophenol. Therefore, the processes of Fe/S2O82- and UV/S2O82- can be regarded as good choices for industrial wastewater treatment plants operators in the future.
    Keywords: 2, Chlorophenol, Iron, Persulfate, Radical Sulfate, UV Radiation
  • Hasan Baghshani *, Vahide Ghodsi Pages 9-12
    Background
    Besides acute lethal cyanide poisoning, its chronic intoxication may also produce some pathologic effects on different tissues that precedes alterations in biochemical parameters. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of sublethal cyanide exposure on some tissue enzyme activities in liver and kidney of rats.
    Methods
    Twelve male rats were divided into two groups as follows: Group 1 rats served as control. Rats in group 2 received water containing 200 ppm inorganic cyanide. At the end of the experiment (42 days), hepatic and renal activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and rhodanese were measured.
    Results
    Potassium cyanide administration caused elevation of all measured liver enzymes in group 2, although the increase was only significant for AST and ALT activities as compared to control values (P
    Conclusion
    The altered tissue activities of some enzymes in the present study might reflect the metabolic disturbances due to cyanide intoxication in studied organs. However, further research should be focused on this issue for better understanding of the fine mechanism of cyanide effects upon metabolic enzyme activities.
    Keywords: Cyanide Poisoning, Rat, Tissue Enzyme
  • Mehdi Hassanshahian* Pages 13-20
    Background
    Organic agricultural pesticides are so stable in ecosystems and biosphere. These compounds affect soil conditions and agricultural products. The aim of this study was isolation of diazinon-degrading bacteria from Kerman pistachio orchards, Southeastern Iran.
    Methods
    Diazinon-degrading bacteria were enriched in Bushnell-Hass medium. Identification and sequencing of prevalent degrading strains was performed using PCR based on amplifying of 16s rDNA.
    Results
    The soil of pistachio orchard has some degrading bacteria that are suitable for elimination of diazinon from soil and environment. Three diazinon-degrading bacteria strains belong to: Pseudomonas putida strain D3, P. fluorescens strain D1 and Achromobacter piechaudii strain D8. The best degrading strain (D1), up to 100 ppm, illustrated a good growth, whereas more than this concentration, the growth was reduced. The results of Gas-Chromatography (GC) confirmed the decomposition of organic pesticide by degrading-bacteria.
    Conclusion
    The results of Gas-Chromatography (GC) confirmed the decomposition of organic pesticide by degrading-bacteria.
    Using these strains and other biological reclamation methods we can eliminate bio-environmental problems.
    Keywords: Agricultural Pesticide, Degrading Bacteria, Diazinon
  • Mohammad Reza Keramati, Mohammad Hadi Sadeghian, Hossein Ayatollahi *, Mohammad Hosein Basharati, Mahshid Jalili, Mahdi Balali Mood Pages 21-24
    Background
    Sulfur mustard was the most widely applied chemical warfare agent by the Iraqi army in Iran–Iraq war (1983-1988). Considering the role of sulfur mustard toxicity in hematopoietic neoplasms and also new role of JAK2 mutation in these neoplasms, we assessed this mutation and delayed hematologic complications in veterans exposed to sulfur mustard.
    Methods
    This case control study was performed in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran in collaboration with Janbasan Foundation of Khorasan Razavi, Iran in 2012. The case group consists of 42 patients who exposed to sulfur mustard about 30 yr ago and the control group includes 30 healthy persons. For all subjects complete blood counts and ARMSpolymerase chain reaction for JAK2 (V617F) mutation was carried out. Data were analyzed by statistical software using independent sample t-testand Mann- Whitney U test.
    Results
    JAK2 (V617F) mutation was detected, neither in the sulfur mustardveterans nor in the control group. Moreover no significant difference was detected in hematologic parameters between the two groups.
    Conclusion
    Despite sulfur mustard can increase risk of tumor genesis especially hematologic neoplasms but this is probablyas result of other genetic mechanism apart from JAK2 mutation. Considering the health and importance of preventive measure for the sulfur mustard victims, we suggest other genetic aspects of tumor genesis to be assessed in these patients.
    Keywords: Hematologic, Iran, JAK2, Mutation, Sulfur Mustard
  • Mohammad Mohiseni *, Seiedehsara Asayesh, Saeedeh Shafiee Bazarnoie, Fatemeh Mohseni, Nahid Moradi, Mahbubeh Matouri, Nurieh Mirzaee Pages 25-32
    Background
    Evaluation on the toxicity of two mainly contaminant heavy metals, cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) through the food chain was the aim of this study.
    Methods
    A total number of 270 healthy common carp (4±1.14 g) in April, 2015 transported to the Khatam Alanbia University of Technology, Behbahan, Iran. Fishes were divided into three groups and transferred to the 20 L aquaria each containing 30 juveniles. The first group (control) fed by metal-free Artemia fransiscan anauplii throughout the experiment. The second and third groups were feeding by Cd and Pb (1.5 mg/L free ion) contaminated nauplia, respectively. The experimental study was carried out for three weeks and sampling was done in 4th, 7th, 14th and 21st days. Finally, the alterations in plasma biochemical responses were determined.
    Results
    Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities increased in response to feeding Pb-contaminated nauplia. Creatine phosphokinase activity showed significant increase in fourth day about both Cd and Pb and at the end of experiment only in Cd treatment (P
    Conclusion
    It seems Pb had a greater toxicity than Cd through the food chain and it may be due to its more trophic transfer than Cd.
    Keywords: Biochemical Alteration, Common Carp, Food Chain, Heavy Metal
  • Reza Shokoohi, Salah Azizi, Seyed Amir Ghiasian*, Ali Poormohammadi Pages 33-39
    Background
    This study aimed to investigate the biosorption of pentachlorophenol on Aspergillus niger biomass as a method for removal of pentachlorophenol from aqueous solutions.
    Methods
    Modified A. niger biomass with NaOH was used to absorb the pentachlorophenol. The impacts of various experimental parameters like primary pentachlorophenol concentration, pH of the solution, contact time, and biomass dosage on the biosorption of pentachlorophenol were investigated.
    Results
    The correlation of contact time, pH and initial concentration with the biosorption of pentachlorophenol by A. niger biomass was statistically significant (P
    Conclusion
    A. niger biomass can be used to reduce the toxicity of aqueous solutions containing pentachlorophenol in acidic pH conditions.
    Keywords: Absorption, Aspergillus niger, Carcinogenic, Pentachlorophenol
  • Soheil Sobhanardakani *, Mehrnaz Ghoochian Pages 41-46
    Background
    Soil and sediment serve as major reservoir for contaminants as they possess ability to bind various chemicals together. In this study the concentrations of heavy metals Cd, Cr and Cu were analyzed in surface sediments of Agh Gel Wetland in west of Iran.
    Methods
    The sediment samples were taken from 10 stations. The samples were subjected to bulk digestion and chemical partitioning and Cd, Cr and Cu concentrations of the sediments were determined by ICP-OES. Geo-accumulation index (I-geo), Contamination factor (CF) and Pollution load index (PLI) were used to evaluate the magnitude of contaminants in the sediment profile.
    Results
    The mean sediment concentrations (mg kg-1 dry weight) ranged within 0.20-0.29 (Cd), 58-71 (Cr) and 23-36 (Cu). According to the I-geo values, the sediment's qualities are classified as unpolluted to moderately polluted category. According to the CF values, the sediment's qualities are classified as low to moderate contamination. Furthermore, the PLI values indicated that there were no metal pollution exists for all sampling stations.
    Conclusion
    The Agh Gel Wetland is potential to be threatened by chemical pollutants such as agricultural effluent. So to preserve the environment of the Agh Gel Wetland from deterioration, periodically monitoring of the water and sediment qualities is recommended.
    Keywords: Agh Gel Wetland, Anthropogenic, Geochemical Indices, Heavy Metals, Sediment
  • Nasim Zamani, Leila Modir, Fallah Rad, Kambiz Soltaninejad, Shahin Shadnia* Pages 47-50
    Background
    Snakebite is a serious public health problem in the world. The annual incidence of snakebites ranges from 4.5-9.1 in 100,000 population in Iran. With regard to diversity of envenomation profiles in different geographical parts of Iran, the aim of this study was to determine the demographical data, clinical and laboratory findings, and the outcome of the snakebite victims referred to a tertiary referral hospital.
    Methods
    In this retrospective, cross-sectional study in Loghman Hakim Hospital Poisoning Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, during a four-year period from March 2007 to March 2011. The demographic data, clinical manifestations, paraclinical findings, treatments performed before hospital admission, time elapsed between the bite and hospital admission, total dose of antivenom and the patients’ outcomes were investigated.
    Results
    Seventy cases (58 males, 12 females) were evaluated. Most of the cases (79%) were older than 20 year old. The most common bite site was upper extremity (67%). Most of the patients were admitted within 5 h after the snakebite. The most common local and systemic manifestations were swelling (90%), pain (81.4%), nausea and vomiting (24.3%). Leukocytosis (35.7%) and thrombocytopenia (25.7%) were the most common laboratory abnormalities. Most of the patients (97.1%) were treated with antivenom. Fifty percent of the patients only received 3-5 vials of antivenom. The mortality rate was 1.4%. Necrosis of the toes and compartment syndrome were the only serious complications.
    Conclusion
    The findings emphasize the importance of early admission to the hospital and treatment with antivenom to avoid morbidity and mortality
    Keywords: Antivenins, Iran, Snake Bites, Snakes, Snake Venoms