فهرست مطالب

Health Sciences - Volume:4 Issue: 2, 2016
  • Volume:4 Issue: 2, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/02/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Babak Djahed, Mohammad Reza Narooie, Seyed Ali Kazeminejad, Esmaeel Shahsavani, Edris Bazrafshan* Pages 1-10
    Background and
    Purpose
    Today, by increasing different pollutants, the continuous monitoring of surface waters is essential. Dorudzan Dam is one of the main sources of surface water in Fars Province, Iran; hence, the current study investigated the quality of Dorudzan Reservoir for drinking and irrigation consumptions.
    Materials And Methods
    In this study, various physicochemical parameters [pH, total dissolved salt (TDS), Ca, Mg, electrical conductivity (EC), HCO3, CO3, Na, Cl, NO2, NO3, F, SO4, K, PO4, TH, sodium adsorption ratio, temperature, and turbidity] were measured. Besides, to determine the water quality in the studied water supply, 31 samples (18 samples in the cold seasons and 13 samples in the warm seasons) were taken from the reservoir outlet. For analyzing the gathered data, Canadian Water Quality Index was utilized.
    Results
    The irrigation water quality in the reservoir was determined between 73 and 78 (good) in cold, warm, and all seasons together, and for drinking consumption, the value was 89-90 (very good). The model showed that TDS (480.03 ± 59.14) and HCO3 (206.71 ± 23.75) in the irrigation consumption and EC (693.00 ± 94.11) and turbidity (1.10 ± 0.23) in the drinking consumption had the greatest contributions in reducing the quality of the water source.
    Conclusion
    The results revealed that generally the physicochemical quality of the reservoir’s water was more suitable for drinking consumption in compare to irrigation use. Nevertheless, based on the used model, its quality for irrigation is also desirable.
    Keywords: Water Quality, Canadian Water Quality Index, Dorudzan, Reservoir, Shiraz (Iran)
  • Narges Ghorbani, Jamshid Yazdani-Charati *, Kazem Anvari, Nasrin Ghorbani Pages 11-18
    Background and
    Purpose
    The goal of this study is application of the proportional hazards model (PH) and accelerated failure time model (AFT), with consideration Weibull distribution, to determine the level of effectiveness of the factors affecting on the level of disease-free survival (DFS) of the patients with breast cancer.
    Materials And Methods
    Based on the retrospective descriptive studies, 377 female patients with primary breast cancer that had been treated at oncology section (Omid Hospital) in Mashhad, Iran, were considered for participation in the study.
    Results
    The median was 2 years and 10 months (mean 2 years and 4 months, interquartile range 3 years and 7 months, range 1-2920 days or 8 years). The average age of patients was 49.2 ± 11.5 (range 25-80 years). The rate of DFS determined with 52.5%. Base on the result of PHs Weibull model, the risk of the metastasis after surgery in the patients with invasive tumors to the skin and chest and positive lymph node was more than 2 times [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.53; confidence interval (CI): 1.26, 5.06] and (HR = 2.37 CI: 1.42, 3.98), respectively. Hormone therapy after surgery decreases the risk of the metastasis to 0.63% (HR = 0.63; CI: 0.41, 0.95). In the AFT model, characteristic tumor decelerated (γ 1) the DFS time by factor of 1.8.
    Conclusion
    In this study, the PH and AFT assumption have been satisfied by data and characteristics tumor and the hormonal therapy decrease and increases time until recurrence, respectively.
    Keywords: Disease, free Survival, Breast Neoplasms, Proportional Hazard, Parametric Model, Accelerated
  • Maryam Asghari* Pages 19-30
    Background and
    Purpose
    More than a third of the world’s population lack access to essential medicines, despite the presence of several international agreements that proclaim health as a human right. Corruption, in its many forms, such as bribery and embezzlement, causes several detrimental effects on the health sector and access to medicines including economic, health, and government image and trust issues. Global health corruption remains a serious, ongoing, and under-recognized threat to global health progress. This paper aim is examination how global corruption and health-care expenditure (HE) affect health statue in the Persian Gulf countries over 1980-2014 and what can be done to combat corruption in the health sector.
    Materials And Methods
    This study is an experimental and applied research. To verify the consistency of the results of the model, this study used the appropriate panel data analysis methods such as feasible general least square method for the nine Persian Gulf countries over 1980-2014. I employ different panel data procedures to avoid estimation problems, namely, autocorrelation and heteroskedasticity. The used package id Stata version 14.
    Results
    The level of gross domestic product per capita, the level of corruption in the country, per capita HE, the quality of air and water, population density levels have negative effect on region people’s life expectancy, but the index of environmental policy and the education, measured as years of education obtained, have positive effect on region people’s life expectancy over 1980-2014.
    Conclusion
    The results indicate that corruption and HE have negative effect on the Persian Gulf region people‘s life expectancy.
    Keywords: Corruption, Expenditure, Health Systems, Panel Data, Persian Gulf Region
  • Hamideh Edalat, Seyed Hassan Nikookar, Seyed Hassan Moosa-Kazemi *, Fariba Sepahvand, Rasoul Zolfi Pages 31-42
    Background and
    Purpose
    Islamic Republic of Iran has greatly reduced its malaria burden and has a national goal to eliminate malaria by 2025. The aim of this study was to determine the population dynamics of Anopheles maculipennis sensu lato, in relation to probable malaria transmission. For this purpose, the study was conducted in three villages in Isfahan Province of Iran, from April to March 2014.
    Materials And Methods
    Two mosquitoes sampling methods were conducted, comprises human landing catch and human bed net collection. The results of this investigation were subjected to one-way ANOVA using SPSS.
    Results
    A. maculipennis s.l. was found as a dominant vector with exophagic and endophilic behavior. Two peaks of blood feeding were observed, 9.00-10.00 p.m and 1.00-2.00 a.m. The gonotrophic cycle, survival rate, and life expectancy of the species were 4, 0.82, and 5 days, respectively. Malaria vectorial capacity of A. maculipennis was measured 0.0128 and 0.059 for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium Falciparum, respectively.
    Conclusion
    The findings indicate that there is a negative correlation between the temperature and daily age of A. maculipennis s.l. The method described can be used as a standard method to determine the daily age of Anopheles, as well as of other mosquito species since it is fast and precise and needs small samples. Survey on the age structure of vectors is very important as it is useful in monitoring the success of large-scale vector control measures.
    Keywords: Malaria, Anopheles Maculipennis, Vectorial Capacity, Age Determination, Iran
  • Afshin Fayyaz-Movaghar *, Mohammad Taghi Kamel-Mirmostafaee, Tahura Sadat Borhani Pages 43-48
    Background and
    Purpose
    The identification of genetics risk factors of human diseases is very important. This study is conducted to model the allele frequencies (AFs) of Alzheimer’s disease.
    Materials And Methods
    In this study, several candidate probability distributions are fitted on a data set of Alzheimer’s disease genetic risk factor. Unknown parameters of the considered distributions are estimated, and some criterions of goodness-of-fit are calculated for the sake of comparison.
    Results
    Based on some statistical criterions, the beta distribution gives the best fit on AFs. However, the estimate values of the parameters of beta distribution lead us to the standard uniform distribution.
    Conclusion
    The AFs of Alzheimer’s disease follow the standard uniform distribution.
    Keywords: Allele Frequency, Alzheimer's Disease, Exponentiated Kumaraswamy Distribution, Single
  • Masoumeh Alidosti, Seyedeh Leila Dehghani, Akbar Babaei-Heydarabadi, Elahe Tavassoli* Pages 49-54
    Background and
    Purpose
    Family is the first and the most important structure in human civilization in which social lifestyles, mutual understanding, and compatibility is learned. Studies have shown that parenting style, is one the most important and fundamental factors in personality development. The purpose of this study was comparison of parenting style in single child and multiple children families.
    Materials And Methods
    This study, in total, 152 mothers from Andimeshk city, Iran, were selected by random sampling. Data were collected from a health-care center was chosen randomly, mothers who had 5-7 years old children were enrolled in this study. The data collecting tool was the questionnaire which investigates permissive, authoritative, and authoritarian parenting styles in parents. After data entry in SPSS software, the collected data were analyzed by ANOVA, independent t-test, and Pearson correlation test.
    Results
    The mean age of the participants was 32.71 ± 5.39 years old participated in this study. 69 mothers (45.4%) had one child, 53 (34.9%) had 2 children, and 30 mothers (19.7%) had 3 and more children. The mean score of permissive parenting style was 19.97 ± 5.13 in single child families; the mean score of authoritative (19.56 ± 4.70) and authoritarian parenting style (34.50 ± 2.81) that difference was significantly (P
    Conclusion
    According to the results of this study, it seems that having more children would make parents more logical and paves the way for upbringing children. Therefore, it is recommended to plan some educational programs about this issue for parents.
    Keywords: Child Rearing, Parenting Style, Children
  • Hamed Biglari, Nasibeh Javan, Rasoul Khosravi, Amin Zarei* Pages 55-70
    Background and
    Purpose
    Azo dyes including Direct Blue 71 (DB71) are toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic contaminants in effluents of industries. This study aimed to investigate the adsorption of DB71 from aqueous solution onto pistachio hull waste (PHW) as a low-cost adsorbent.
    Materials And Methods
    A series of experiments were performed via batch adsorption technique to examine the effect of the process variables such as contact time 0-210 minutes, initial dye concentration 10-100 mg/l, pH 2-12, adsorbent 0.05-1 g/l, and the processing temperature of 25, 40, and 50° C. The concentration changes of DB71 were measured using the colorimetric method by the spectrophotometer T80 ultraviolet/visible at the 587 nm wavelength. Moreover, The PHW was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm model, pHpzc and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area analysis.
    Results
    Maximum adsorption capacity was 90.48 mg DB71 per 1 g adsorbent at pH 2, DB71 100 mg/l, temperature 50° C, and time 210 minutes. In general, by increasing the adsorbent dosage, time, and processing temperature, the removal efficiency was increased; however, incrementing pH and dye concentration had a reverse effect. Maximum BET specific surface and total pore volume on the adsorbent were 1.04 m2/g and 0.0002 cm3/g, respectively. The Freundlich isotherm (R2 = 0.9912) model fits the equilibrium data better than the Langmuir isotherm (R2 = 0.9024) model. The adsorption kinetic was found to be well described by the pseudo-second-order model. Thermodynamic analysis indicated that the adsorption process is a spontaneous and endothermic process.
    Conclusion
    PHW can be used well as a low-cost surface adsorbent in the treatment of DB71 from aquatic environments.
    Keywords: Direct Blue 71, Adsorption, Pistachio Hull, Aqueous
  • Maryam Nabati *, Ehsan Vazirian, Ali Ghaemian, Jamshid Yazdani, Maryam Hosseinzadeh Pages 71-80
    Background and
    Purpose
    Regarding usefulness of revascularization versus optimal medical therapy in patients with stable angina pectoris, data are challenging. The aim of this 12-month follow-up study was to compare the survival benefit associated with revascularization versus optimal medical therapy on the patients with stable angina pectoris.
    Materials And Methods
    A prospective clinical study was conducted on 181 patients with stable angina pectoris or an evidence of myocardial ischemia that underwent coronary arteriography. Patients with left main or left main equivalent were excluded from our study. Of these patients, 57 received full medical therapy alone, 79 were assigned to the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and 45 to the coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) group. The patients were compared for primary outcomes including cardiac death and non-fatal myocardial infarction and secondary outcomes including disabling angina by chi-square and Fisher’s exact test.
    Results
    After 12 months, cardiac death occurred in 8.8% of patients in the medical group and 0.0% of patients in the PCI and CABG group. This was statistically significant (P = 0.004). Disabling angina occurred in 23.1% of patients in the medical group, 17.7% of patients in the PCI group, and 15.5% of patients in CABG group (P = 0.349). Cerebrovascular accident occurred in 1.9% of patients in the medical group, 1.3% of patients in the PCI group, and 6.7% of patients in CABG group (P = 0.167). These were not statistically significant.
    Conclusion
    Revascularization compared with the optimal medical therapy may be a better strategy in reducing cardiovascular mortality in patients with stable angina pectoris and suitable coronary anatomy.
    Keywords: Coronary Disease, Prognosis, Revascularization, Everolimus, Stent