فهرست مطالب

Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin - Volume:6 Issue: 2, 2016
  • Volume:6 Issue: 2, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/02/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 20
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  • Leila Azhar Shekoufeh Bahari, Hamed Hamishehkar* Pages 143-151
    During the past decade, pharmaceutical science has seen rapid growth in interest for nanoscale materials. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) are popular research topics recently introduced as nano-scale drug carriers; they have shown numerous merits in drug delivery. Size is the most important index in a nanocarrier affecting its drug delivery efficiency. The influence of preparation conditions and type of lipidic components on the size of SLN and NLC in comparable states seems to be interesting for researchers who investigate these types of carriers. This review highlights the results of SLN and NLC particle size and size distribution comparisons.
    Keywords: Solid lipid nanoparticles, SLN, Nanostructured lipid carriers, NLC, Nanoparticle, Drug delivery
  • Balal Brazvan, Raheleh Farahzadi, Seyede Momeneh Mohammadi, Soheila Montazer Saheb, Dariush Shanehbandi, Laurent Schmied, Jafar Soleimani Rad, Masoud Darabi, Hojjatollah Nozad Charoudeh* Pages 153-161
    Purpose
    Telomere is a nucleoprotein complex at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes and its length is regulated by telomerase. The number of DNA repeat sequence (TTAGGG)n is reduced with each cell division in differentiated cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of SCF (Stem Cell Factor), Flt3 (Fms- Like tyrosine kinase-3), Interleukin-2, 7 and 15 on telomere length and hTERT gene expression in mononuclear and umbilical cord blood stem cells (CD34 cells) during development to lymphoid cells.
    Methods
    The mononuclear cells were isolated from umbilical cord blood by Ficoll-Paque density gradient. Then cells were cultured for 21 days in the presence of different cytokines. Telomere length and hTERT gene expression were evaluated in freshly isolated cells, 7, 14 and 21 days of culture by real-time PCR. The same condition had been done for CD34 cells but telomere length and hTERT gene expression were measured at initial and day 21 of the experiment.
    Results
    Highest hTERT gene expression and maximum telomere length were measured at day14 of MNCs in the presence of IL-7 and IL-15. Also, there was a significant correlation between telomere length and telomerase gene expression in MNCs at 14 days in a combination of IL-7 and IL-15 (r = 0.998, p =0.04). In contrast, IL-2 showed no distinct effect on telomere length and hTERT gene expression in cells.
    Conclusion
    Taken together, IL-7 and IL-15 increased telomere length and hTERT gene expression at 14 day of the experiment. In conclusion, it seems likely that cells maintain naïve phenotype due to prolonged exposure of IL-7 and IL-15.
    Keywords: Telomere, Telomerase, Interleukin, Mononuclear cells, CD34+ cells
  • Mohammadali Torbati, Solmaz Asnaashari, Fariba Heshmati Afshar* Pages 163-169
    Purpose
    The aim of this work was to identify the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from the flowers and leaves of Elaeagnus angostifolia (Elaeagnaceae) along with evaluate the radical scavenging and general toxicity activities.
    Methods
    A combination of GC-MS and GC-FID were utilized for analyzing the chemical profile of the essential oils extracted by hydro-distillation from the leaves and flowers of E. angustifolia. The essential oils were subjected to general toxicity and radical scavenging assays using brine shrimp lethality test and DPPH method, respectively.
    Results
    In total, 53 and 25 components were identified and quantified in the essential oils of flowers and leaves, accounting for 96.59% and 98.97% of the oil, respectively. The both oils were observed to be rich in ester compounds. The most abundant components of the oil from flowers were E-ethyl cinnamate (60.00%), hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (9.99%), palmitic acid (5.20%) and phytol (3.29%). The major constituents of the oil from leaves were E-ethyl cinnamate (37.27%), phytol (12.08%), nonanal (10.74%) and Z-3-hexenyl benzoate (7.65%). Both oils showed moderate activity in DPPH assay; however, they exhibited potent tocixity in brine shrimp lethality test.
    Conclusion
    The remarkable toxicity effects of the oils are worthy to further investigation to find the probable mechanisms of action accountable for the noticeable toxic effect of these essential oils.
    Keywords: Elaeagnus angustifolia L., Essential oil, Radical scavenging activity, General toxicity, E, ethyl cinnamate
  • Behzad Mansoori, Ali Mohammadi, Samira Goldar, Dariush Shanehbandi, Leila Mohammadnejad, Elham Baghbani, Tohid Kazemi, Saeed Kachalaki, Behzad Baradaran* Pages 171-177
    Purpose
    HMGI-C (High Mobility Group protein Isoform I-C) protein is a member of the high-mobility group AT-hook (HMGA) family of small non-histone chromosomal protein that can modulate transcription of an ample number of genes. Genome-wide studies revealed up regulation of the HMGI-C gene in many human cancers. We suggested that HMGI-C might play a critical role in the progression and migration of various tumors. However, the exact role of HMGI-C in breast adenocarcinoma has not been cleared.
    Methods
    The cells were transfected with siRNAs using transfection reagent. Relative HMGI-C mRNA and protein levels were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The cytotoxic effects of HMGI-C siRNA, Paclitaxel alone and combination on breast adenocarcinoma cells were determined using MTT assay. The migration after treatment by HMGI-C siRNA, Paclitaxel alone and combination were detected by wound-healing respectively.
    Results
    HMGI-C siRNA significantly reduced both mRNA and protein expression levels in a 48 hours after transfection and dose dependent manner. We observed that the knockdown of HMGI-C led to the significant reduced cell viability and inhibited cells migration in MDA-MB-468 cells in vitro.
    Conclusion
    These results propose that HMGI-C silencing and Paclitaxel treatment alone can inhibit the proliferation and migration significantly, furthermore, synergic effect of HMGI-C siRNA and Paclitaxel showed higher inhibition compared to mono treatment. Taken together, HMGI-C could be used as a promising therapeutic agent in the treatment of human breast adenocarcinoma. Therefore HMGI-C siRNA may be an effective adjuvant in human breast adenocarcinoma.
    Keywords: HMGI, C (High mobility group protein isoform I, C), Small interference RNA (siRNA), Breast adenocarcinoma, Paclitaxel
  • Mohammad Hossein Karimi, Zahra Barzkar, Maryam Babaee, Majid Naghdi* Pages 179-186
    Purpose
    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells and recent findings suggest immunomodulatory effect of them on immune cells including T cells and dendritic cells (DCs). DCs are the most potent antigen presenting cells. It seems because of immunoregulatory properties of MSCs, they can affect the maturation and differentiation of DCs. DCs express a kind of surface receptors called toll-like receptors (TLRs) and play a key role in maturation process and activation of DCs. The aim of this study was to evaluate expression of TLR2 and TLR4 on DCs after exposure to mesenchymal stem cell’s supernatant in culture media containing LPS and devoid of it.
    Methods
    In this experimental study, MSCs and DCs were extracted from adult Balb/c mouse bone marrow and spleen, respectively. MSCs supernatant were collected 24 and 48 h after 5th passage, and in adjusted with DCs culture. Isolated DCs were co-cultured with MSCs supernatant, incubation time were 24 and 48 hours. mRNA levels of TLR2 and TLR4 were evaluated using real time PCR technique.
    Results
    The results demonstrated that although, expressions of these two receptors were up-regulated in culture media lacking LPS in comparison with the control group but the increase was not significant. There were no significant associations between LPS stimulated DCs with and without MSCs supernatants.
    Conclusion
    According to the results presented here, it appears that TLR2 and TLR4 gene expressions on the DCs are not affected by MSCs supernatant.
    Keywords: Mesenchymal stem cells, Dendritic cells, Toll like receptors, Immunomodulation
  • Abbas Mohajeri, Yones Pilehvar, Soltanahmadi, Mohammad Pourhassan, Moghaddam, Jalal Abdolalizadeh, Pouran Karimi, Nosratollah Zarghami* Pages 187-194
    Purpose
    Recombinant human endostatin (rhEs) is an angiogenesis inhibitor which is used as a specific drug in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer. In the current research, we developed an efficient method for expressing soluble form of the rhEs protein in the periplasmic space of Escherichia coli via fusing with pelB signal peptide.
    Methods
    The human endostatin (hEs) gene was amplified using synthetic (hEs) gene as a template; then, cloned and expressed under T7 lac promoter. IPTG was used as an inducer for rhEs expression. Next, the osmotic shock was used to extraction of protein from the periplasmic space. The presence of rhEs in the periplasmic space was approved by SDSPAGE and Western blotting.
    Results
    The results show the applicability of pelB fusion protein system usage for secreting rhEs in the periplasm of E. coli in the laboratory scale. The rhEs represents approximately 35 % (0.83mg/l) of the total cell protein.
    Conclusion
    The present study apparently is the first report of codon-optimized rhEs expression as a fusion with pelB signal peptide. The results presented the successful secretion of soluble rhEs to the periplasmic space.
    Keywords: Angiogenesis, Endostatin, Signal peptide, E. coli, Gene expression, Periplasm
  • Md. Lutful Amin *, Tajnin Ahmed Abdul Mannan Pages 195-200
    Purpose
    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate metronidazole loaded floating-mucoadhesive microsphere for sustained drug release at the gastric mucosa.
    Methods
    Alginate gastroretentive microspheres containing metronidazole were prepared by ionic gelation method using sodium bicarbonate as gas forming agent, guar gum as mucoadhesive polymer, and Eudragit L100 as drug release modifier. Carbopol was used for increasing the bead strength. The microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and evaluated by means of drug entrapment efficiency, in vitro buoyancy, and swelling studies. In vitro mucoadhesion and drug release studies were carried out in order to evaluate site specific sustained drug release.
    Results
    All formulations showed 100% buoyancy in vitro for a prolonged period of time. Amount of guar gum influenced the properties of different formulations. The formulation containing drug and guar gum at a ratio of 1:0.5 showed the best results with 76.3% drug entrapment efficiency, 61.21% mucoadhesion, and sustained drug release. Carbopol was found to increase surface smoothness of the microspheres.
    Conclusion
    Metronidazole mucoadhesive-floating microspheres can be effectively used for sustained drug release to the gastric mucosa in treatment of upper GIT infection.
    Keywords: Alginate, Guar gum, Floating microsphere, Metronidazole, Mucoadhesive microsphere, Eudragit
  • Hasan Bagherpour Shamloo, Saber Golkari, Zeinab Faghfoori, Aliakbar Movassaghpour, Hajie Lotfi, Abolfazl Barzegari, Ahmad Yari Khosroushahi* Pages 201-210
    Purpose
    Exposure to diazinon can trigger acute and chronic toxicity and significantly induces DNA damage and proapoptotic effects in different human cells. Due to the significance of probiotic bacteria antitoxin effect, this study aimed to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus casei on diazinon (DZN) cytotoxicity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro.
    Methods
    The cytotoxicity assessments were performed by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) test, DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining and flow cytometric methodologies.
    Results
    Cytotoxic assessments through flow cytometry/ DAPI staining demonstrated that apoptosis is the main cytotoxic mechanism of diazinon in HUVEC cells and L. casei could decrease the diazinon cytotoxic effects on toxicants.
    Conclusion
    the screen of total bacterial secreted metabolites can be considered as a wealthy source to find the new active compounds to introduce as reducing agricultural remained pesticide cytotoxicity effects on the human food chain.
    Keywords: Apoptosis, Cytotoxicity, Diazinon, Lactobacillus casei, Probioti
  • Elham Ghasemian, Parisa Motaghian, Alireza Vatanara* Pages 211-218
    Purpose
    Bosentan is a drug currently taken orally for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, the water solubility of bosentan is very low, resulting in low bioavailability. The aim of this study was preparation and optimization of bosentan nanosuspension to improve solubility and dissolution rate.
    Methods
    The different formulations designed by Design Expert® software. Nanosuspensions were prepared using precipitation method and the effects of stabilizer type and content and drug content on the particle size, polydispersity (PDI) and yield of nanosuspensions were investigated.
    Results
    Particle size, PDI and yield of the optimal nanosuspension formulation were 200.9 nm, 0.24 and 99.6%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed spherical morphology for bosentan nanoparticles. Thermal analysis indicated that there was a partial crystalline structure and change in the pholymorphism of bosentan in the nanoparticles. In addition, reduction of particle size, significantly increased in vitro dissolution rate of the drug.
    Conclusion
    Optimization by design expert software was shown to be a successful method for optimization and prediction of responses by less than 10% error and formulation with 15.8 mg span 85 as an internal stabilizer and 45 mg drug content were introduced as the optimum formulation. The solubility of bosentan in the optimal formulation was 6.9 times higher than coarse bosentan and could be suggested as promising drug delivery systems for improving the dissolution rate and possibly the pharmacokinetic of bosentan.
    Keywords: Bosentan, Nanosuspension, Optimization, D, optimal, Stabilizer
  • Abbas Akhgari *, Ali Tavakol Pages 219-225
    Purpose
    The physicochemical properties of free films made from different mixtures of sustained release polymers were investigated, and an optimum formulation coating on drug containing pellets, based on the study of free film was evaluated.
    Methods
    In order to determine the effect of different variables on the permeability and swelling of films and procedure optimization, the experimental design was fulfilled based on the statistical method of a 33 full factorial design, and according to this method 27 formulations were prepared. The films were prepared using casting-solvent evaporation method. Water vapor permeability, the swelling and permeability of free films in both acidic and buffer media, were carried out. Then, the pellets containing theophylline were coated with the optimum formulation.
    Results
    The results of this study demonstrated that an increase in the free film thickness and Eurdragit RS ratio in films lowered the water vapor transmission (WVT), the swelling and the permeability of all formulations, while an increase in the quantity of ethylcellulose, up to a specific ratio (approximately 40%), decreased the permeability and swelling. The most optimum free film formulation was made up of 60% Eudragit RS and 40% ethylcellulose.
    Conclusion
    Pellets coated with a 10% coating level of ethylcellulose and Eudragit RS (4:6) showed suitable release properties and could serve as a favorable sustained release system for theophylline.
    Keywords: Sustained release, Permeability, Swelling, Theophylline, Ethylcellulose, Eudragit
  • Arash Khodaei, Soheila Bolandnazar, Hadi Valizadeh, Leila Hasani, Parvin Zakeri, Milani* Pages 227-233
    Purpose
    The aim of the present study was investigating the effects of three antiinflammatory drugs, on Sirolimus protein biding. The binding site of Sirolimus on human serum albumin (HSA) was also determined.
    Methods
    Six different concentrations of Sirolimus were separately exposed to HSA at pH 7.4 and 37°C. Ultrafiltration method was used for separating free drug; then free drug concentrations were measured by HPLC. Finally, Sirolimus protein binding parameters was calculated using Scatchard plots. The same processes were conducted in the presence of NSAIDs at lower concentration of albumin and different pH conditions. To characterize the binding site of Sirolimus on albumin, the free concentration of warfarin sodium and Diazepam, site I and II specific probes, bound to albumin were measured upon the addition of increasing Sirolimus concentrations.
    Results
    Based on the obtained results presence of Diclofenac, Piroxicam and Naproxen, could significantly decrease the percentage of Sirolimus protein binding. The Binding reduction was the most in the presence of Piroxicam. Sirolimus-NSAIDs interactions were increased in higher pH values and also in lower albumin concentrations. Probe displacement study showed that Sirolimus may mainly bind to site I on albumin molecule.
    Conclusion
    More considerations in co-administration of NSAIDs and Sirolimus is recommended.
    Keywords: Sirolimus, NSAIDs, Protein binding, Site I, Site II, Ultrafiltration
  • Elham Nazemiyeh, Morteza Eskandani, Hossein Sheikhloie, Hossein Nazemiyeh* Pages 235-241
    Purpose
    Lycopene belongs to the carotenoids that shows good pharmacological properties including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer. However, as a result of very low aqueous solubility, it has a limited systemic absorption, following oral administration.
    Methods
    Here, we prepared a stable lycopene-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles using Precirol® ATO5, Compritol 888 ATO and myristic acid by hot homogenization method with some modification. The size and morphological characteristics of nanoparticles were evaluated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Moreover, zeta potential and dispersity index (DI) were measured using zeta sizer. In addition, encapsulation efficiency (EE%), drug loading (DL) and cumulative drug release were quantified.
    Results
    The results showed that the size and DI of particles was generally smaller in the case of SLNs prepared with precirol when compared to SLNs prepared with compritol. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and particle size analyses showed spherical SLNs (125 ± 3.89 nm), monodispersed distribution, and zeta potential of −10.06 ± 0.08 mV. High EE (98.4 ± 0.5 %) and DL (44.8 ± 0.46 mg/g) were achieved in the case of nanoparticles prepared by precirol. The stability study of the lycopene-SLNs in aqueous medium (4 °C) was showed that after 2 months there is no significant differences seen in size and DI compared with the fresh formulation.
    Conclusion
    Conclusively, in this investigation we prepared a stable lycopene-SLNs with good physicochemical characteristic which candidate it for the future in vivo trials in nutraceutical industries.
    Keywords: Lycopene, Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs), Myristic acid, Hot homogenization method, Physicochemical characterization
  • Evangelos Polymeropoulos *, Pantelis Bagos, Maria Papadimitriou, Ioannis Rizos, Efstratios Patsouris, Ioannis ?, Oumpoulis Pages 243-250
    Purpose
    Several studies have investigated the administration of vitamin C (vitC) for the prevention of postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) after cardiac surgery. However, their findings were inconsistent. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of vitC as prophylaxis for the prevention of postoperative AF in cardiac surgery.
    Methods
    A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, the Cochrane Library, and clinical trial registries, was performed. 9 studies, published from August 2001 to May 2015, were included, with a total of 1,037 patients. Patients were randomized to receive vitC, or placebo.
    Results
    Cardiac surgery patients who received vitC as prophylaxis, had a significantly lower incidence of postoperative AF (random effects OR=0.478, 95% CI 0.340 – 0.673, P
    Conclusion
    Our findings suggest that VitC is effective as prophylaxis for the prevention of postoperative AF. The administration of vitC may be considered in all patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
    Keywords: Post, operative atrial fibrillation, Vitamin C, CABG, Valvular surgery, Cardiac surgery
  • Sara Esmaeilzadeh, Hadi Valizadeh, Parvin Zakeri, Milani* Pages 251-256
    Purpose
    The main goal of this study was development of a reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for flutamide quantitation which is applicable to protein binding studies.
    Methods
    Ultrafilteration method was used for protein binding study of flutamide. For sample analysis, flutamide was extracted by a simple and low cost extraction method using diethyl ether and then was determined by HPLC/UV. Acetanilide was used as an internal standard. The chromatographic system consisted of a reversed-phase C8 column with C8 pre-column, and the mobile phase of a mixture of 29% (v/v) methanol, 38% (v/v) acetonitrile and 33% (v/v) potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (50 mM) with pH adjusted to 3.2.
    Results
    Acetanilide and flutamide were eluted at 1.8 and 2.9 min, respectively. The linearity of method was confirmed in the range of 62.5-16000 ng/ml (r2 > 0.99). The limit of quantification was shown to be 62.5 ng/ml. Precision and accuracy ranges found to be (0.21.4%, 90-105%) and (0.2-5.3 %, 86.7-98.5 %) respectively. Acetanilide and flutamide capacity factor values of 1.35 and 2.87, tailing factor values of 1.24 and 1.07 and resolution values of 1.8 and 3.22 were obtained in accordance with ICH guidelines.
    Conclusion
    Based on the obtained results a rapid, precise, accurate, sensitive and costeffective analysis procedure was proposed for quantitative determination of flutamide.
    Keywords: Acetanilide, Flutamide, High pressure liquid chromatography, ICH guidelines, Protein binding
  • Sepideh Momeni, Ali Nokhodchi, Saeed Ghanbarzadeh, Hamed Hamishehkar* Pages 257-260
    Purpose
    Respiratory drug delivery has been attracted great interest for the past decades, because of the high incidence of pulmonary diseases. However, despite its invaluable benefits, there are some major drawbacks in respiratory drug delivery, mainly due to the relatively high drug deposition in undesirable regions. One way to improve the efficiency of respiratory drug delivery through metered-dose inhalers (MDI) is placing a respiratory spacer between the inhaler exit and the mouth. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of type and shape of spacer on the aerosolization performance of MDIs.
    Methods
    A commercial Beclomethasone Dipropionate (BDP) MDI alone or equipped with two different spacer devices (roller and pear type) widely distributed in the world pharmaceutical market was used. The effect of spacers was evaluated by calculating aerosolization indexes such as fine particle fraction (FPF), mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) and geometric standard deviation (GSD) using the next generation impactor.
    Results
    Although one of the spacers resulted in superior outcomes than the other one, but it was not statistically significant.
    Conclusion
    The results confirmed that the type and shape of spacer did not substantially influence the aerosolization performance of MDIs.
    Keywords: Spacer, Metered dose inhaler, MDI, Pulmonary drug delivery, Beclomethasone
  • Farzaneh Jalalypour, Safar Farajnia*, Mohammad Hossein Somi, Zoya Hojabri, Rana Yousefzadeh, Nazli Saeedi Pages 261-266
    Purpose
    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most prevalent infectious agents in the world which causes a variety of gastrointestinal diseases including gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma. The objective of this study was to comparatively evaluate invasive (rapid urease test and polymerase chain reaction) and non-invasive (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) tests in diagnosis of infection with cytotoxigenic H. pylori.
    Methods
    Biopsy specimens and sera were collected from 105 patients with gastric disorders. The presence of H. pylori infection in gastric biopsies was evaluated by RUT and PCR methods using chemotaxis signal transduction protein gene (CSTP), Urea C and HP16srRNA primers. Serum samples were used for the ELISA test. Detection of infection with cag A-positive strains was performed by PCR and cag A-IgG ELISA kit.
    Results
    Patients with at least two out of three positive results were regarded as infected. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive value and accuracy of the three different methods were evaluated. Of the 105 gastric biopsies, H. pylori were positive in 51 patients (48.57%). The best sensitivity (92.16%) belonged to RUT. The sensitivities of other tests including PCR and ELISA test were 88.24% and 90.20%, respectively. PCR showed the best specificity (94.44%), and the specificities of the other tests including RUT and ELISA test, were 90.74 % and 61.11%, respectively. Furthermore, results of PCR and cag A-IgG ELISA showed high prevalence of cag A-positive strain in the study population.
    Conclusion
    Based on our findings, serum ELISA is a rapid noninvasive test for screening of H. pylori infection in the absence of endoscopy indication. In addition, considering the high prevalence of cytotoxigenic H. pylori strains, cag A is suggested as a promising target for PCR and non- invasive ELISA tests for detection of infection with toxigenic strains.
    Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Enzyme, Linked Immunosorbent Assay, CagA, Rapid Urease Test
  • Tingting Wang, Huajuan Lin, Qian Tu, Jingjing Liu, Xican Li* Pages 267-270
    Purpose
    The paper tries to assess the protective effect of fisetin against •OH-induced DNA damage, then to investigate the possible mechanism.
    Methods
    The protective effect was evaluated based on the content of malondialdehyde (MDA). The possible mechanism was analyzed using various antioxidant methods in vitro, including •OH scavenging (deoxyribose degradation), •O2- scavenging (pyrogallol autoxidation), DPPH• scavenging, ABTS• scavenging, and Cu2+reducing power assays.
    Results
    Fisetin increased dose-dependently its protective percentages against •OH-induced DNA damage (IC50 value =1535.00±29.60 µM). It also increased its radical-scavenging percentages in a dose-dependent manner in various antioxidants assays. Its IC50 values in •OH scavenging, •O2- scavenging, DPPH• scavenging, ABTS• scavenging, and Cu2귧湲⧠ power assays, were 47.41±4.50 µM, 34.05±0.87 µM, 9.69±0.53 µM, 2.43±0.14 µM, and 1.49±0.16 µM, respectively.
    Conclusion
    Fisetin can effectively protect DNA against •OH-induced oxidative damage possibly via reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging approach, which is assumed to be hydrogen atom (H•) and/or single electron (e) donation (HAT/SET) pathways. In the HAT pathway, the 3’,4’-dihydroxyl moiety in B ring of fisetin is thought to play an important role, because it can be ultimately oxidized to a stable ortho-benzoquinone form.
    Keywords: OH, induced DNA damage, Antioxidant mechanism, Hydrogen atom transfer, Single electron transfer mechanism, 3', 4', dihydroxyl
  • Emmanuel Ike Ugwuja*, Omotayo O. Erejuwa, Nicholas C. Ugwu Pages 271-274
    Purpose
    To determine the potential protective effect of spice mixture containing garlic, ginger and nutmeg on the liver and kidney of cadmium exposed rats.
    Methods
    Male albino rats (n=30) weighing 120 – 180 g, grouped into five (1-5) of 6 rats/group were studied. Group 1 (NC) rats were administered distilled water (1 ml) orally for 4 weeks and served as the negative control while group 2 (PC) rats were administered low dose (LD) cadmium (25 mg/kg body weight) orally for 4 weeks and served as positive control. Group 3 (TBE) rats were treated with spice mixture (SM); 300 mg/kg body weight orally for 2 weeks and then administered LD cadmium for 4 weeks. While group 4 (CET) rats were concurrently administered LD cadmium and SM for 4 weeks, group 5 (TAE) rats were administered LD cadmium for 4 weeks and then treated with SM for 2 weeks. The whole experiment lasted for 42 day after which the animals were sacrificed and blood collected for determination of biochemical parameters using standard procedures and techniques.
    Results
    Exposure to Cd produced greater increases in the liver function parameters. However treatment with SM significantly (p
    Conclusion
    It may be concluded that concurrent intake of garlic, ginger and nutmeg at culinary dose in the diet has both therapeutic and prophylactic effect at mitigating Cd toxicity and reaffirms the safely of spices combinations as being currently practiced.
    Keywords: Spices mixture, Cadmium toxicity, Hepatotoxicity, Oxidative stress
  • Md. Afjalus Siraj*, Jamil A. Shilpi Golam Hossain, Shaikh Jamal Uddin Khirul Islam, Ismet Ara Jahan, Hemayet Hossain Pages 275-283
    Purpose
    Inflammation and oxidative stress can lead to different chronic diseases including cancer and atherosclerosis. Many medicinal plants have the potential to show as antiinflammatory activity. Present investigation was performed to investigate antiinflammatory, antioxidant activity, and quantification of selected bioactive plant polyphenols of the ethanol (EAH) and aqueous (AAH) extracts of Acalypha hispida (Euphorbiaceae) leaves.
    Methods
    Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carragenan and histamine induced rat paw edema models while antioxidant capacity was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging, Fe chelating ability, reducing power, NO scavenging, total phenolic and total flavonoid content assay. Identification and quantification of bioactive polyphenols was done by HPLC.
    Results
    At the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, both EAH and AAH showed statistically significant inhibition of paw volume in the anti-inflammatory activity test. Both the extracts showed DPPH scavenging (IC50: 14 and 17 µg/ml, respectively), Fe ion chelating (IC50: 40 and 46 µg/ml, respectively), NO scavenging activity (65.49 and 60.66% inhibition at 100 µg/ml), and concentration dependent reducing power ability. For EAH and AAH, flavonoid content was 126.30 and 149.72 mg QE/g dry extract, while phenolic content was 130.51 and 173.80 mg GAE/g dry extract, respectively. HPLC analysis of EAH and AAH indicated the presence of high content of ellagic acid along with other phenolic constituents.
    Conclusion
    High content of ellagic acid along with other phenolic constituents might have played an important role in the observed anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity.
    Keywords: Carrageenan, Histamine, Anti, inflammatory, DPPH, Ellagic acid
  • Uliana Vladimirovna Karpiuk, Khaldun Mohammad Al Azzam*, Zead Helmi Mahmoud Abudayeh, Viktoria Kislichenko, Ahmad Naddaf, Irina Cholak, Oksana Yemelianova Pages 285-291
    Purpose
    To determine the elements in Bryonia alba L. roots, collected from the Crimean Peninsula region in Ukraine.
    Methods
    Dry ashing was used as a flexible method and all elements were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) equipped with flame and graphite furnace.
    Results
    The average concentrations of the determined elements, expressed as mg/100 g dry weight of the sample, were as follow: 13.000 for Fe, 78.000 for Si, 88.000 for P, 7.800 for Al, 0.130 for Mn, 105.000 for Mg, 0.030 for Pb, 0.052 for Ni, 0.030 for Mo, 210.000 for Ca, 0.130 for Cu, 5.200 for Zn, 13.000 for Na, 1170.000 for K, 0.780 for Sr, 0.030 for Co, 0.010 for Cd, 0.010 for As, and 0.010 for Hg. Toxic elements such as Cd and Pb were also found but at very low concentration. Among the analyzed elements, K was the most abundant followed by Ca, Mg, P, Si, Fe, Na, and Zn, whereas Hg, As, Cd, Co, Mo, and Pb were found in low concentration.
    Conclusion
    The results suggest that the roots of Bryonia alba L. plant has potential medicinal property through their high element contents present. Moreover, it showed that the AAS method is a simple, fast, and reliable for the determination of elements in plant materials. The obtained results of the current study provide justification for the usage of such fruit in daily diet for nutrition and for medicinal usage in the treatment of various diseases.
    Keywords: Bryonia alba L., Roots, Atomic absorption spectrometry, Elements, Dry ashing