فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:10 Issue:5, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/05/19
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
|
  • Saeed Ganjali *, Amin Ghasemi Pages 1-6
    Background
    The most important factors and problems threatening the Anzali Wetland are the contaminant load and sediments entering the wetland, as well as lack of an integrated management plan for this wetland. The main objectives of the current research were to explore whether there are significant differences in concentrations of Zn, Cd, and Pb in surface sediments among different sites (based on type region development) of the Anzali Wetland, Northern Iran.
    Methods
    Through a field study, samples were collected from 10 stations based on the type of regional development and contaminant source inputs of Anzali Wetland in 2015. Using a hot-block digester, the sediment samples were digested with a 4:1 combination of nitric acid (HNO3) and perchloric acid (HCLO4) for one hour at 40 °C, followed by 3 h at 140 °C. Afterwards, samples were filtered with Whatman 42, filter paper and the filtrate was kept in polyethylene containers at 4 °C, until analysis by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS).
    Results
    Mean ± SD levels of metals in the sediments of different stations were 26.7 ± 3.49 (lead), 4.36 ± 0.47 (cadmium), and 88.44 ± 10.06 (zinc) μg g-1 dw. There was a significant difference between the stations of the wetland (P
    Conclusions
    The areas, affected by urban and industrial developments, had the highest level of contamination while the agricultural and less-developed areas had the lowest level of contamination, and therefore, protective plans must be implemented in developed areas in order to lower the level of heavy metals.
    Keywords: Heavy Metal, Iran, Regional Developments, Sediments
  • Somayyeh Gharibi, Iraj Nabipour, Euikyung Kim, Seyede Maryam Ghafari, Seyed Mehdi Hoseiny, Mostafa Kamyab, Ramin Seyedian* Pages 7-10
    Background
    Cutaneous reactions like pruritus and erythema are common in warm months of the year in Bushehr Port, Persian Gulf, Iran due to jellyfish envenomation. This study reports isolation of the Chrysaora hysoscella nematocysts and evaluating its pharmacological activities during a bloom in 2013.
    Methods
    The venom of C. hysoscella captured in Jofre area in Bushehr port was analyzed. The electrophoretic profile was assessed by SDS-PAGE (12.5%) and the crude sample was analyzed using reverse phase HPLC. Caseinase activity was also determined.
    Results
    After separation of tentacles and isolation of their nematocysts, three different major protein components were revealed at 72-250 kDa with SDS-PAGE, signifying the presence of peptides in its venom. Two major peaks at 8.62 and 11.23 min were observed in reverse phase HPLC of the crude venom denoting protease peptide structural identities. Caseinase activity of C. hysoscella's venom was extremely low as compared with other jellyfish venoms.
    Conclusion
    This was the first report on the structural examination of jellyfish in Persian Gulf and may pave the way for determination and separation of destructive enzymes inducing cutaneous reactions in fishermen and swimmers.
    Keywords: Caseinase, Cnidarian Venoms, Nematocyst, Scyphozoa, Sea Nettle
  • Afrooz Jafarnia, Maliheh Soodi *, Maryam Shekarchi Pages 11-16
    Background
    Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is a common Maillard reaction product directly formed from dehydration of sugars under acidic conditions during heating and storage in carbohydrate rich foods. The aim of the present study was to detect and quantify the amount of HMF in date syrup by HPLC method. In addition, the amount of HMF in date syrup produced by traditional and industrial methods were compared.
    Methods
    A HPLC method for determination of HMF in date syrup was developed and validated. The amount of HMF in date syrup products produced by the traditional and industrial methods was compared. In addition, to determine whether HMF was produced during storage in date syrup, its amount was measured in fresh and old samples.
    Results
    The HMF content of fresh traditional products varied between 1000 to 2675 mg⁄kg and in the old products varied between 2580 to 6450 mg⁄kg. The HMF concentration of the fresh industrial products varied between 12 to 456 mg⁄kg and 611 to 943 mg⁄kg in the old ones. The HMF concentration of the traditionally produced products was significantly higher than industrial products (P
    Conclusion
    HMF was produced in date syrup during preparation and storage. Because HMF is recognized as an indicator of quality deterioration in a wide range of foods and is still under investigation for possible toxic effects, it is recommended that the amount of HMF is measured in date syrup and considered as an indicator of the quality control of this product.
    Keywords: 5, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), Date syrup, HPLC, Industrial product, Traditional product
  • Oluwafemi Adeleke Ojo *, Adebola Busola Ojo, Basiru Ajiboye, Israel Olayide, Adewale Fadaka Pages 17-22
    Background
    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease. Decreasing postprandial hyperglycemia by retarding glucose absorption through inhibiting carbohydrates digesting enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) is one of many approaches used for the management of this disease. This study was aimed at evaluating the normoglycaemic potential of Helianthus annuus leaf.
    Methods
    The effect of the in vitro inhibitory of different extracts (acetone, ethyl acetate and hexane) of the plant was assessed on the activities of diabetes-related enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase).
    Results
    The hexane extract of H. annuus leaf displayed the best inhibitory activity against α-amylase and α-glucosidase as indicated by the IC50 values (3.92 ± 0.02 mg mL-1) and (3.29 ± 0.12 mg mL-1), respectively. Lineweaver-Burk plot of inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase by this extract showed that it was competitive and non-competitive mode, respectively.
    Conclusion
    H. annuus leaf possesses hypoglycaemic potential which may be due to the inhibition of pancreatic α-amylase and intestinal α-glucosidase.
    Keywords: ? Amylase, ? Glucosidase, Helianthus Annuus, Postprandial Hyperglycaemia
  • Mohammad Rezaeian, Mahmoud Tohidi Moghadam* Pages 23-26
    Background
    Heavy metals (HMs) are one of the most important polluting substances emitted to the environment during cement production. Tehran Cement Factory located in the southeastern of Tehran, Iran, closer to agricultural lands cultivates alfalfa, barley, and maize as feed. The objective of the study was to determine the concentration of HMs in agricultural soils.
    Methods
    Thirty six soil samples were collected from two regions of Aminabad (close to the cement factory) and Varamin (far from cement factory) in 2015. The samples were taken from a depth of 0-15 cm and analyzed to determine their HM (zinc, lead, cadmium and chromium) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Other relevant parameters of soil were evaluated, such as; pH, EC, TOM.
    Results
    The concentration of HMs in both regions was as follows: Pb> Zn > Cr > Cd. Generally, the soil alfalfa, barley and maize, there was no significant difference.
    Conclusion
    These data provide information on HM accumulations in agricultural soils and allow us to identify sources of pollution. In the industrial area due to the proximity to cement factory, concentration of zinc, lead, chromium, pH and EC were more than non-contaminated areas.
    Keywords: Agricultural Soils, Cement Factory, Heavy Metal, Iran
  • Said Said Elshama *, Hosam, Eldin Hussein Osman, Ayman El, Meghawry El, Kenawy Pages 27-37
    Background
    Prolonged use of cyclosporine A for prevention of allograft rejection is associated with nephrotoxicity development. Naringenin and olive oil are beneficial dietary antioxidants with potential renoprotective properties. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of naringenin and olive oil in alleviating cyclosporine induced nephrotoxicity in rats by the assessment of renal function and lesions, and redox status parameters.
    Methods
    Eighty adult male rats were divided into four groups during a 45 days treatment period; control group received saline; the second group treated with 25 mg/kg/d of cyclosporine while the third and fourth groups received 100 mg/kg/d of naringenin and 1.25 ml/kg/d of virgin olive oil respectively, together with the same cyclosporine dose.
    Results
    Cyclosporine-treated rats presented renal dysfunction and damage, as viewed by the elevated serum markers of renal function and kidney histopathological lesions, when compared to the control animals with an increase in the blood cyclosporine level and impaired redox status parameters.
    Conclusion
    Co-administration of naringenin or virgin olive oil with cyclosporine alleviated nephrotoxicity by serum urea and creatinine levels reduction, renal lesions amelioration, as well as the improved antioxidant parameters. Naringenin and virgin olive oil have potential to act as natural renoprotective agents against cyclosporine -induced nephrotoxicity.
    Keywords: Cyclosporine, Naringenin, Nephrotoxicity, Olive Oil
  • Ajai Kumar Srivastav*, Shilpi Srivastav, Nobuo Suzuki Pages 39-43
    Background
    There has been increasing awareness throughout the world regarding the remarkable decrease in amphibian population. For such amphibian population decline several causes have been given. Cadmium, a heavy metal is released both from natural sources (leaching of cadmium rich soils) and anthropogenic activities to the aquatic and terrestrial environments. This study evaluated the toxicity of heavy metal cadmium to Indian skipper frog Rana cyanophlyctis.
    Methods
    For the determination of LC50 values for cadmium, four-day static renewal acute toxicity test was used. Five replicates each containing ten frogs were subjected to each concentration of cadmium chloride (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 mg/L). At different exposure periods (24, 48, 72 and 96 h), the mortality of the frog was subjected to Probit analysis with the POLO-PC software (LeOra Software) to calculate the LC50 and 95% confidence level.
    Results
    The LC50 values of cadmium chloride for the frog R. cyanophlyctis at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h are 32.586, 29.994, 27.219 and 23.048 mg/L, respectively. The results have been discussed with the toxicity reported for other aquatic vertebrate --fish.
    Conclusion
    Cadmium caused mortality to the frog and this could be one of the reasons for population decline of frogs which inhabit water contaminated with heavy metals.
    Keywords: Amphibia, Cadmium, Heavy Metal, LC50, Toxicity
  • Elham Zadeh Hashem *, Mohammad Kazem Koohi, Mohsen Eslami, Farzad Asadi, Reza Taleb Zadeh, Mina Khodadadi, Sepideh Hassani, Dizaj Pages 45-52
    Background
    Co-supplementation of unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) with saturated FAs may decrease the adverse effects of saturated FA-induced lipotoxicity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of palmitoleic acid (unsaturated fatty acid) on palmitic acid (saturated fatty acid) induced lipotoxicity criteria in the primary culture of adult rat cardiomyocytes.
    Methods
    Cells were treated with 0.5 mM palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, palmitic palmitoleic acids or remained untreated. The values of cellular triacylglycerol (TAG), diacylglycerol (DAG), DNA fragmentation and cellular viability were evaluated over 24 h, 48 h and 72 h time points.
    Results
    Co-administration of palmitic and palmitoleic acids increased TAG values over 48 h and 72 h time points compared to the palmitic acid (34.37% and 62.79%, respectively; P
    Conclusion
    Palmitoleic acid may be beneficial for diminishing adverse effects of palmitic acid in the rat cardiomyocytes through alterations in the molecule signaling levels.
    Keywords: Cardiomyocyte, Lipotoxicity, Palmitic Acid, Palmitoleic Acid, Rat