- Volume:8 Issue: 3, 2016
- تاریخ انتشار: 1395/06/02
- تعداد عناوین: 8
Page 1Context: Coagulation, chemical oxidation and disinfection are essential processes in water and waste treatment. A chemical that can be applied for all the above mentioned purposes is ferrate(VI). Although there are many studies about ferrate(VI), no comprehensive review paper can be found about ferrate(VI) from production to applications. The aim of this study was to review ferrate(VI) production, measurement, stability and utilization in water and wastewater treatment.
Evidence Acquisition: In acidic conditions, the oxidation and reduction capacity of ferrate(VI) is superior to all currently utilized oxidizers and disinfectants in water and wastewater treatment. New researches have provided the technology of using ferrate(VI) for coagulation, chemical oxidation and disinfection of water and wastewater in a reactor simultaneously, which can reduce the size of water and wastewater treatment plants and increase the treatment efficiency.ResultsDespite the existence of these technologies, there is no full-scale application of ferrate(VI) in the water and wastewater industry which it is due to difficulties associated with I, the lack of adequate researches that have demonstrated its capabilities and advantages over the existing water and wastewater treatment methods; ii, the instability of ferrate(VI) depending on its method of preparation, and iii, the relatively low yield of ferrate(VI).ConclusionsTo solve the above mentioned difficulties, fundamental study most be carried out to discover the novel methods of ferrate(VI) production, focusing on increasing the product stability and the production yield.Keywords: Ferrate(VI), Pollutant Oxidation, Coagulation
Page 2BackgroundHandicap is a critical factor with significant effects on family. Stress is the main result of such effects on parents. As a classical procedure, mothers have the major caregiving role to the child; therefore, they experience more stress than other members. Then, development program for stress management is essential.ObjectivesThe current study aimed to develop and assess a de-stress training program on decreasing the stress of mothers with mentally retarded children.Materials And MethodsThe current study was a semi-experimental research with Follow-up. Study subjects included 20 mothers with slow paced children connected to a non-governmental organization (NGO) of show paced children in Tehran, Iran. Mothers were randomly divided into experimental and control groups (10 cases in each group). All mothers responded to the parental stress scale used to measure mothers stress. Experimental group received de-stress training program for 13 sessions. Post-test was administered in session fourteenth and after one month the results were followed-up. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis of covariance (PResultsData presented a significant difference between the control and experiment groups. Also, results did not show a significant difference between the post-test and follow up. It means that the effect of training was persistent.ConclusionsDe-stress training program significantly decreased the stress of mothers with show paced children, and the training effect was persistent.Keywords: Paced Children, Parenting Stress, De, Stress Training Program
Page 4BackgroundOver the past decades, numerous well-established studies have reported the benefits of physical activity including physical health, obesity prevention and psychosocial health. Despite all these advantages, many people still engage to little leisure-time physical activity.ObjectivesThe present study focused on the status of physical activity among women referred to three health centers on the basis of the trans theoretical model.
Patients andMethodsThis was a cross-sectional study with 310 randomly selected females referred to health centers in Izeh, Iran, in 2014. To collect data, a valid and reliable (content validity index (CVI) = 0.87, content validity ratio (CVR) = 0.9 and Cronbachs alpha level = 0.87) physical activity questionnaire was used. It included items on self-efficacy, benefits, processes of change, and barriers. To analyze the data, statistical tests including t-test, analysis of variance, chi-squared and correlation were implemented using SPSS 16 software. Results with a PResultsMore than 50% of the sample population was at the pre-contemplation stage. The mean age of females in this study was 28.7 ± 6.61. The mean scores of constructs of the model among females in this study showed that there was a non-significant relationship in performing physical activities and females jobs (Housewife, practitioner) and their education level and also their husbands (P > 0.05). Except for the structure of the barriers, women who had employed husbands reported more barriers to do physical activity (PConclusionsGiven the importance of physical activity, and given that most women are at the pre-contemplation stage of the trans theoretical model, it seems necessary to devise educational interventional plans for the promotion of physical activities among women referred to health centers.Keywords: Physical Activity, Women, Trans Theoretical Model
Page 5BackgroundThe complexity of modern sociotechnical systems has created new challenges for safety, so that traditional approaches are not able to cope with them. Resilience engineering (RE) is a good alternative to traditional approaches for safety management, however resilience is still a difficult concept to measure, and indicators such as buffering capacity, flexibility, and so on, which are thought to contribute to it, are undeveloped.ObjectivesThis study aimed at expanding buffering capacity as one of the main indicators in order to facilitate measurement of resilience of a system.Materials And MethodsWe used the Delphi method in order to identify indicators, and data related to all the indicators were gathered by observation and interview. In this line, 32 of the experienced operators with at least 15 years of operational record were selected for semi-structured interviews. Gathered data was processed by the principal component analysis technique. The results were processed by the Minitab 15 software.ResultsIn this study, 29 factors affecting this indicator were determined using the Delphi method; the scores of all factors were less than the scores of the best practice. On the other hand, the state of this indicator was poor in plant included in the study.ConclusionsThis was the first study that focused on expanding resilience indicators, and presents a new framework to simplify assessment of resilience and safety of a complex system.Keywords: Buffering Capacity, Safety, PCA, Resilience Engineering
Page 6BackgroundThis paper developed a system dynamics model to stimulate nitrate and ammonia in reservoirs. Most algae and plants in surface water use ammonia and nitrate as nitrogen sources. The role of these nutrients is evident on algae and also cyanobacterial growth. Nowadays, computer tools, especially mathematical modeling, are often used to manage these chemicals in water bodies.ObjectivesThe current study aimed to introduce a suitable system dynamics model to analyze nitrate and ammonia in reservoirs.Materials And MethodsThe current paper developed a process model. First, a sketch of nitrate and ammonia storage, their specifications and parameters were set out and created on a page, and then, mathematical relations of each process were set up and entered into a VensimTM page. Finally, the model was calibrated and verified using data obtained from the Karkheh Reservoir.ResultsAfter making a model and performing its initial test, it was calibrated according to 1991 data of Long Lake Reservoir in the United States and calibration coefficients were obtained. Finally the model was validated using a total of 2000 pieces of data from the reservoir. The results indicated that the output of the model for the layer beneath had better accordance with the measured values, in comparison with the outer layer, which could be due to higher modification in outer layer.ConclusionsThe results indicated that the model, compared with other models, was user-friendly and the desired results were obtained by a minimal data.Keywords: Nitrate, Ammonia, System Dynamics, Modeling, Water Resources
Page 7BackgroundLack of correct diagnosis of delirium and considering it as an iatrogenic disease are the most important reasons for lack of correct detection of delirium by health care team. Appropriate training of the nurses on delirium can play an important role in its early diagnosis and prevention.ObjectivesThe current study aimed to compare the effects of two training methods on the level of delirium awareness in nurses in the intensive care units (ICUs).
Patients andMethodsThe present study was a pretest-posttest clinical trial on two groups conducted in the hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2014. The qualified subjects were divided into two groups (n = 35 for each) of workshop training and continuous electronic training by random number tabulation. The four-hour workshop training was applied in two days and training content was uploaded on Tehran University of Medical Sciences website for continuous electronic training. The data were collected by a questionnaire containing demographic characteristics and multiple-choice questions on delirium awareness including delirium definition, epidemiology, causes and risk factors, complications, diagnosis and diagnostic means, prevention and treatment with reliability coefficient of r = 0.85. The data were collected before and after the intervention as self-reporting. After collecting the data, the level of awareness of nurses was analyzed through descriptive and analytical statistics of paired and independent T-tests using SPSS ver. 16.ResultsThe results showed that 88.1% of the subjects were female. Comparison of mean ± SD showed a significant difference in the electronic training group before and after the intervention (PConclusionsGiven the results of the study, it can be concluded that electronic training had a more effective role in training the nurses regarding the awareness of delirium and can be recommended as a helpful training method in retraining courses targeting the nurses.Keywords: Delirium, Workshop Training, Electronic Training, Nurse
Page 8BackgroundAlthough health services are designed and implemented to improve human health, the errors in health services are a very common phenomenon and even sometimes fatal in this field. Medical errors and their cost are global issues with serious consequences for the patients community that are preventable and require serious attention.ObjectivesThe current study aimed to identify possible nursing errors applying human error identification in systems tool (HEIST) in the intensive care units (ICUs) of hospitals.
Patients andMethodsThis descriptive research was conducted in the intensive care unit of a hospital in Khuzestan province in 2013. Data were collected through observation and interview by nine nurses in this section in a period of four months. Human error classification was based on Rose and Rose and Swain and Guttmann models. According to HEIST work sheets the guide questions were answered and error causes were identified after the determination of the type of errors.ResultsIn total 527 errors were detected. The performing operation on the wrong path had the highest frequency which was 150, and the second rate with a frequency of 136 was doing the tasks later than the deadline. Management causes with a frequency of 451 were the first rank among identified errors. Errors mostly occurred in the system observation stage and among the performance shaping factors (PSFs), time was the most influencing factor in occurrence of human errors.ConclusionsFinally, in order to prevent the occurrence and reduce the consequences of identified errors the following suggestions were proposed : appropriate training courses, applying work guidelines and monitoring their implementation, increasing the number of work shifts, hiring professional workforce, equipping work space with appropriate facilities and equipment.Keywords: Intensive Care, Human Error, HEIST, Medical Errors
The Effects of Heat Stress on Job Satisfaction, Job Performance and Occupational Stress in Casting WorkersPage 9BackgroundJob satisfaction, job performance, job stress and heat stress affect the productivity of workers.ObjectivesThis research aimed to study the relationship between heat stress indices with job satisfaction, job performance and job stress in casting workers.
Patients andMethodsThis descriptive-analytical cross sectional survey was performed during summer 2013 on one hundred casting workers. Data were collected by questionnaires of occupational stress, job satisfaction and job performance. Heat stress was measured by the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) and Heat Strain Score Index (HSSI) questionnaire. The data were analyzed using correlation coefficient by the SPSS16 software.ResultsThe results showed that job satisfaction had a negative correlation with WBGT index (R = -0.42, PConclusionsThe present study showed that heat stress had a negative effect on job satisfaction; also there were no significant effects on job stress and job performance.Keywords: Heat Stress, Job Satisfaction, Job Performance, Job Stress, Heat Strain Score Index